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Structural Inequality & the Need for
Social Programs
HMNS 10100
1
Poverty in Ontario (Toronto Star, 2011)
• 13.3% in 2009
• 17% growth in poverty since 2007 (highest in
Canada)
• 1.7 milli...
Poverty in Canada
(Huffingtonpost, 2012)
 Almost 1 in 10 Canadians is considered poor
 9.6% (2009)
 About 3.2 million p...
International Comparisons
“Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s,
Canada was one of the few developed countries
that saw...
5
Measuring Poverty
(Statistics Canada, 2012)
• Canada has no official Poverty Line
• A generally accepted measure is known ...
Low Income Cut Off (LICO)
“a family is considered to have a low income
when it falls behind the LICO for its family size
a...
How much poverty?
• Poverty Headcount
– Numbers and proportions of persons in
poverty
• Poverty Gap
– How much additional ...
LICO After Tax (Statistics Canada , 2011)
2010 500,000 inhabitants or
more
1 Person 18,759
2 Persons 22,831
3 Persons 28,4...
4 Categories of Programs
(Hick, 2010, p.17)
Social Insurance
“shared risk assumed, only by those who contribute
can receiv...
Demogrants
“minimum, flat-rate income based on a demographic
(Hick, 2010, p.18)”
11
Minimum Income
“provide an income to meet basic needs
(Hick, 2010, p.17)”
12
Income Supplementation
“a top-up to a primary income (Hick, 2010,
p.18)”
13
Social Assistance Canada
 Belongs to the minimum income category of the public income security
programs
 Transfers incom...
Common Features
 13 welfare systems in Canada – one in each of 10
provinces and the 3 territories
Many common features:
...
Rules & Regulations
• Based on administrative rules that vary
throughout the country
• Applicants must be a certain age us...
Complicated & Cumbersome
 800 rules and regulations
 expensive to administer
 applied inconsistently
 rules impossible...
Ontario Works 1997
18
3 Types of Eligibility
for Social Assistance
Financial Eligibility
 a household must show financial need
 a needs test c...
Maximum asset levels OW
(OW Peel, 2013)
 A Single person $2500
 Couple $5000
 Sole parent 1 child $3000 *
 Couples Wit...
Administrative Eligibility
 Complete an application form
 Provide evidence that they meet the eligibility
criteria (bank...
Categorical Eligibility
 This refers to the different types of reasons
people apply for assistance
 (i.e.) resident of O...
Ontario Works Basic Needs amounts
(OW Peel, 2013)
Dep. OtherDep. Other
thanthan
spousespouse
Dep.Dep.
18 & 0lder18 & 0lder...
Ontario Works Shelter Amounts
(OW Peel, 2013)
Basic Shelter AllowanceBasic Shelter Allowance
Benefit unit sizeBenefit unit...
Mandatory & Discretionary Benefits
(OW Peel, 2013)
Mandatory benefits must be provided to those
recipients that meet the c...
Examples of Maximum Benefits
Ontario Works
HouseholdHousehold
ExamplesExamples
OWOW
BasicBasic
NeedsNeeds
OWOW
Max.Max.
Sh...
Adequacy of Welfare
Peak Welfare Rates & 2013 Rates for Ontario
PeaPea
kk
YearYear
PeakPeak
Amt.Amt.
20132013
Amt.Amt.
$ C...
Welfare Incomes by household type for Ontario
(NCW, 2011)
28
Adequacy of Welfare: Single person
(NCW, 2011)
29
Adequacy of Welfare: One Parent, one
child (NCW, 2011)
30
Adequacy of Welfare: person with a
disability (NCW, 2011)
31
Adequacy of Welfare: Couple Two
Children (NCW, 2011)
32
Federal Policy for Welfare
CAP – Canada Assistance Plan:
1966-1996
Paid 50% of the cost of welfare
1991 capped for the ...
Canada Health and Social Transfer
(CHST, 1996)
 National standards diminished
 CHST included education, health & social
...
References
Huffington Post (September 12, 201 2). Poor In Canada: Statistics Canada Reports One In 10 Canadians Are
Living...
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Week 3 poverty

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Week 3 poverty

  1. 1. Structural Inequality & the Need for Social Programs HMNS 10100 1
  2. 2. Poverty in Ontario (Toronto Star, 2011) • 13.3% in 2009 • 17% growth in poverty since 2007 (highest in Canada) • 1.7 million Ontarians living in poverty including almost 400,000 children 2
  3. 3. Poverty in Canada (Huffingtonpost, 2012)  Almost 1 in 10 Canadians is considered poor  9.6% (2009)  About 3.2 million people now live in low income, including 634,000 children 3
  4. 4. International Comparisons “Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, Canada was one of the few developed countries that saw the gap between the rich and the poor get smaller, as measured by income inequality (NCW, 2010)” “Between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s, however, Canada had the second largest increase in income inequality among similarly developed countries (NCW, 2010)” 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Measuring Poverty (Statistics Canada, 2012) • Canada has no official Poverty Line • A generally accepted measure is known as LICO or Low Income Cut Off (Stats Canada 2012) • Several different measures of poverty abound –Low Income Measure, Market Basket Measure, Absolute of Basic Needs Approach • Poverty lines are contested territory in Canada 6
  7. 7. Low Income Cut Off (LICO) “a family is considered to have a low income when it falls behind the LICO for its family size and community population. LICOs are set by taking what the average household spends of food, clothing, and shelter and adding 20%. The process is carried out for seven family sizes and five community sizes. In addition, Statistics Canada produces cut-offs for before –tax and after =-tax incomes. (Hick, 2010, p.25-26) 7
  8. 8. How much poverty? • Poverty Headcount – Numbers and proportions of persons in poverty • Poverty Gap – How much additional income to reach above the LICO • Poverty Duration – How long people experience poverty
  9. 9. LICO After Tax (Statistics Canada , 2011) 2010 500,000 inhabitants or more 1 Person 18,759 2 Persons 22,831 3 Persons 28,430 4 Persons 35,469 5 Persons 40,388 6 Persons 44,791 7 Persons 49,195 9
  10. 10. 4 Categories of Programs (Hick, 2010, p.17) Social Insurance “shared risk assumed, only by those who contribute can receive the benefit (Hick, 2010, p.17)” 10
  11. 11. Demogrants “minimum, flat-rate income based on a demographic (Hick, 2010, p.18)” 11
  12. 12. Minimum Income “provide an income to meet basic needs (Hick, 2010, p.17)” 12
  13. 13. Income Supplementation “a top-up to a primary income (Hick, 2010, p.18)” 13
  14. 14. Social Assistance Canada  Belongs to the minimum income category of the public income security programs  Transfers income to those who have little or no income from employment and provides a minimum for survival.  Conditional based on a - needs assessment (difference between what they have and what they need to survive – the test considers assets that can be sold to provide an income.)  Constitutionally social assistance is the jurisdiction of the provinces (Hick, 2007, p.258-260) 14
  15. 15. Common Features  13 welfare systems in Canada – one in each of 10 provinces and the 3 territories Many common features:  Complex regulations for eligibility, amounts of income recipients are allowed to keep, rates of assistance, and the appeals process  “Undeserving” poor (Hick, 2007, p.258-260) 15
  16. 16. Rules & Regulations • Based on administrative rules that vary throughout the country • Applicants must be a certain age usually between 18 and 65 • Full-time students in Post- sec. institutions may or may not qualify for assistance (Hick, 2007, p.258-260) 16
  17. 17. Complicated & Cumbersome  800 rules and regulations  expensive to administer  applied inconsistently  rules impossible to communicate to clients  takes years to train a caseworker (Hick, 2007, p.258-260) 17
  18. 18. Ontario Works 1997 18
  19. 19. 3 Types of Eligibility for Social Assistance Financial Eligibility  a household must show financial need  a needs test compares the households assets with its needs  when the needs exceed the assets then the household may receive social assistance (Hick, 2007, p.266) 19
  20. 20. Maximum asset levels OW (OW Peel, 2013)  A Single person $2500  Couple $5000  Sole parent 1 child $3000 *  Couples With one child is $5500 * * $500 for each additional dependant 20
  21. 21. Administrative Eligibility  Complete an application form  Provide evidence that they meet the eligibility criteria (bank books, pay subs, doctor’s notes etc  Meet with an OW worker and sign waver to allow the worker verify information  Applicant must agree to contact the office immediately if circumstances change  (Hick, 2007, p.266) 21
  22. 22. Categorical Eligibility  This refers to the different types of reasons people apply for assistance  (i.e.) resident of Ontario, 18 years of age  there are some categories that are generally ineligible for OW these include sponsored immigrants, people in jail, welfare fraud conviction, students and elderly (Hick, 2007, p.266-7) 22
  23. 23. Ontario Works Basic Needs amounts (OW Peel, 2013) Dep. OtherDep. Other thanthan spousespouse Dep.Dep. 18 & 0lder18 & 0lder Dep.Dep. 0-170-17 RecipientRecipient CoupleCouple 00 00 00 250250 458458 11 00 11 344344 458458 11 11 00 575575 602602 22 00 22 344344 458458 22 11 11 575575 602602 22 22 00 719719 762762 23
  24. 24. Ontario Works Shelter Amounts (OW Peel, 2013) Basic Shelter AllowanceBasic Shelter Allowance Benefit unit sizeBenefit unit size Maximum monthly shelterMaximum monthly shelter allowanceallowance 11 $376$376 22 $596$596 33 $648$648 44 $702$702 55 $758$758 6 or more6 or more $785$785 24
  25. 25. Mandatory & Discretionary Benefits (OW Peel, 2013) Mandatory benefits must be provided to those recipients that meet the criterion. Discretionary benefits are provided at the discretion of the case worker. 25
  26. 26. Examples of Maximum Benefits Ontario Works HouseholdHousehold ExamplesExamples OWOW BasicBasic NeedsNeeds OWOW Max.Max. ShelterShelter Total OWTotal OW per Monthper Month 1 person1 person $250$250 $376$376 $626$626 CoupleCouple $458$458 $596$596 $1,054$1,054 *1 adult*1 adult 1 child under 181 child under 18 $344$344 $596$596 $940$940 *This household will also receive approximately $482.07*This household will also receive approximately $482.07 Canada Child Tax Benefit, National Child Benefit Supplement Ontario Child Benefit, UCCB (+GST Rebate not included 45-55) 26
  27. 27. Adequacy of Welfare Peak Welfare Rates & 2013 Rates for Ontario PeaPea kk YearYear PeakPeak Amt.Amt. 20132013 Amt.Amt. $ Change$ Change fromfrom Peak toPeak to 20132013 % Change% Change from Peakfrom Peak to 2013to 2013 SingleSingle EmployablEmployabl ee 19921992 $10,200$10,200 $7,512$7,512 -$2,688-$2,688 -36%-36% 27
  28. 28. Welfare Incomes by household type for Ontario (NCW, 2011) 28
  29. 29. Adequacy of Welfare: Single person (NCW, 2011) 29
  30. 30. Adequacy of Welfare: One Parent, one child (NCW, 2011) 30
  31. 31. Adequacy of Welfare: person with a disability (NCW, 2011) 31
  32. 32. Adequacy of Welfare: Couple Two Children (NCW, 2011) 32
  33. 33. Federal Policy for Welfare CAP – Canada Assistance Plan: 1966-1996 Paid 50% of the cost of welfare 1991 capped for the 3 wealthiest provinces “Cap on CAP” Conditions include: no work for welfare, no residence requirement, appeals system (Hick, 2010, p. 28-29) 33
  34. 34. Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST, 1996)  National standards diminished  CHST included education, health & social services  “workfare” allowed in the new agreement (Hick, 2010, p. 28-29) 34
  35. 35. References Huffington Post (September 12, 201 2). Poor In Canada: Statistics Canada Reports One In 10 Canadians Are Living In Poverty. Retrieved September 7, 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2011/06/15/poor-canada-poverty-statistics-canada_n_877311.html?view=screen Hick, S. (2004). And (2007). Social Welfare In Canada: Understanding Income Security. Toronto, ON: Thompson. Hick, S. (2010). Social work in Canada an introduction. Toronto, ON., Canada: Thompson Educational Publishing. National Council of Welfare. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.ncw.gc.ca/h.4m.2@-eng.jsp OECD. (2011). Society at a Glance. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/home/0,2987,en_2649_201185_1_1_1_1_1,00.html Stats Canada. (2012). Low Income Lines. Retrieved September 11, 1012 Sarlo, C. (2001). New study says poverty in Canada overstated. Fraser Institute. Retrieved September 12, 2012. http://www.fraserinstitute.org/publicationdisplay.aspx?id=12569&terms=poverty+line http://www.simcoe.ca/dpt/ss/ow/index.htm http://www.cleo.on.ca/english/index.htm http://www.campaign2000.ca/quiz2/a1.html 35

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