Hmns10085 mod6

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Hmns10085 mod6

  1. 1. Issues in Human Services (HMNS 10085) Module 6: Issues Pertaining to Older Adults
  2. 2. Defining Older Adulthood: • Very complex • Statistics Canada defines a senior citizen as, – “a person age 65 years or older, who is eligible to collect full pension benefits.” • Chronological age (years) • Social age (social expectation for 65 year old adults to retire
  3. 3. Different Categories of Older Adulthood • 3 different age groups: – “Young old” - 65 to 70 years » 53% are women – “Middle old” - 75 to 84 years » 60% are women – “Old old” - 85+ years » 70% are women
  4. 4. Aging Population • Means that older adults, as a group, are growing more than the growth of the population of all Canadians • Percentage of the Canadian population that was 65 years or older: – – – – 1981 - 9.6% 1991 - 11.4% 2001 - 12.5% 2005 - 13.1% • Projected that 18.9% of the Canadian population will be 65 years or older in 2021
  5. 5. Reasons for Aging Population: • Longer life expectancy - more older adults • The beginning of the baby boom generation have started to reach the age of 65 years (in 2011). • Lowered birth rate - fewer babies being born
  6. 6. Ageism: • “Any attitude, action or institutional structure that subordinates or oppresses a person or group on the basis of age.” (Hick, 2006, p. 252). • Western society > aging is feared > places premium importance on productivity >when one stops working in the paid labour force, rely on fixed income >viewed as not productive but as burdensome • Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982. >prohibited to discriminate based on age
  7. 7. Health Problems of Aging: • 65-74 age group: – Most remain in good health – 1/3 report some level of pain or discomfort • 75+ years: – More likely to suffer from pain - acute pain from injury or illness – Chronic pain lingering months to years – Eg. arthritic conditions, diabetes, heart disease – May lead to depression
  8. 8. Health Problems of Aging: • Over the age of 75 years, adults experience the following problems at higher rates: – Mobility – Vision – Memory
  9. 9. Health Problems of Aging: • Incidence of long term, debilitating terminals illness have increased with increased life expectancy: – Cancer – Alzheimers • Loss of independence and the fear of it • Myth > older adults all get dementia > only 4% of people aged 75+ have dementia
  10. 10. Need for Care: At Home • Need assistance with many of the activities they do daily: – Eg. Meal preparation Everyday housework Heavy household chores Attending appointments Financial managing Moving around the house Nursing care
  11. 11. Need for Care: At Home • Large proportion do not tend to receive the help they need. • 41% of older adults 65+ either received help but needed more or received no help at all. – Mobility – 42% of those aged 65+ received no help or received help but needed more. – Vision – 46.3% of those aged 65+ received no help or received help but needed more. – Memory – 50.8% of those aged 65+ received no help or received help but needed more.
  12. 12. Who Are Unpaid Caregivers? • Mostly women (57%) – May be an older woman themselves (16% are 65+ years, 8% are 75+ years). • Women provide assistance with personal care (bathing, toileting, dressing) – 60% of women vs. 30% of men > tasks inside the house – 33% of women vs. 53% of men > tasks outside the house • Personal care tasks and care management tasks >more frequent, daily usually
  13. 13. Caregivers’ Other Responsibilities: • Many caregivers provide this care while trying to maintain other responsibilities – – – – 43% of caregivers are between the ages of 45-54 Children at home 76% are married 57% are employed > only 1/3rd retired • Tends to be long term – Provide care for > 5 years – 10% providing care for > 10 yrs
  14. 14. Caregiver Stress • Higher level of symptoms of distress: – Depression – Anxiety – Headaches -Feeling Demoralized -Insomnia -Irritability • Can be mitigated by: – Positive interpretation of caregiving – Getting some relief from caregiving, occasionally • Considered one of the causes of Elder Abuse & Neglect.
  15. 15. Relocation to Long Term Care • Due to a combination of risk factors: – Experiencing difficulty doing activities of daily living – Having a form of dementia – Recent hospitalization/health deterioration – Being 85+ – Living alone
  16. 16. Impacts of Move to Long Term Care • Stress • Loss of culture • Loss of community – LGBTQ • May feel relief
  17. 17. Impacts of Move to Long Term Care • • • • Change in habits and routines Less contact with family and friends Loss of clubs or organizations Greater difficulty doing hobbies previously enjoyed.
  18. 18. Rights of Older Adults:Violations • Abuse in institutional settings • Direct - individual resident is target of abuse or neglect • Systemic - policies or procedures that limit the rights or result in the direct abuse or neglect of residents (eg. restraints)
  19. 19. Rights of Older Adults: Violations: • Some signs or symptoms of abuse: – – – – – – Dehydration/malnourishment Untreated medical issues Missing aids (eg. hearing aids) or property Unexplained injuries Use of restraints, if frequent & to replace care Decisions made for the resident - not able to participate in decision-making – Lack of sufficient medical reasons for medication given – Family having difficulty contacting resident
  20. 20. Rights of Older Adults: Long Term Care Homes Act, 2007 • To improve the quality of care in Long-Term Care: • Steps to improve care: – The Home is “primarily the home of its residents & is to be operated so that it is a place where they may live with dignity & in security, safety & comfort, and have their physical, psychological, social, spiritual & cultural needs adequately met.” (Mead, 2010). – Bill of rights which includes the right not to be neglected, to have access to their personal health records – Goal of care -> independence to the greatest extent possible
  21. 21. Rights of Older Adults: Long Term Care Homes Act, 2007 • Steps to improve care: – Limits to restraints- resident safety – Respect of choices and lifestyle – Provide opportunity to have private meetings with partners or another person – Provide social & recreational activities > includes those who not able to leave room – Enforcement of these rights by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care
  22. 22. Loss of Significant Relationships • Acute grief - up to ~ 6 months – Physical symptoms - headaches - dizziness… – Psychological symptoms - intense sadness - longing & yearning for deceased - Feelings of hopelessness…. --> Becomes less acute & intense - may last years
  23. 23. Loss of Significant Relationships • Major disruption to the life of the surviving spouse – Finding new & positive meaning in life – Developing new social roles – Relationships with friends may change – Financial loss – Housing – Transportation – Need for increased social support
  24. 24. Income of Older Adults: • Sources of income (beginning at age 65): – Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement – Canada Pension Plan – Guaranteed Annual Income Supplement (GAINS) (Ontario) – Over two thirds of older adults rely on OAS & CPP as main source of income – the remainder > private pension or one sponsored by an employer. – small number of older adults also have RRSPs
  25. 25. Income of Older Adults • Has improved > success of combined public & private retirement income system. – Seniors with low income: 1985 > 14.7% 2004 > 7.3% • Due to: – More people becoming eligible for Canada Pension Plan – Maturation of CPP - 1990s > more retirees earning full benefits – More women in the labour force
  26. 26. Groups of Older Adults Vulnerable to Experiencing Poverty: • Women: – 22% of all older adult women experience poverty vs. 10% of older adult men (City of Hamilton) • Recent newcomers (1991+): – 27% vs. 17% of older adults on the whole, experience poverty • Visible minorities: – 20% & 23% (Ontario) vs. 17% of older adults experience poverty • Aboriginal: – 25% vs. 17% of older adults experience poverty
  27. 27. Readings: 1. Mayo, S., Wetselaar, R., Bakht, L. & Camplin, B. (2011). Profile of Vulnerable Seniors in Hamilton: Summary Report. Hamilton: Social Planning and Research Council of Hamilton • http://www.sprc.hamilton.on.ca/Reports/pdf/SPRC_Seni ors_Report_2011_Summary.pdf 2. Walters, Joan (2012). “The Silver Tsunami”. In The Hamilton Spectator, January 14, 2012. Hamilton: • http://www.thespec.com/news/local/article/654486--the-silver-t

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