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Hmns10085 mod3

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Hmns10085 mod3

  1. 1. Issues in Human Services (HMNS 10085) Module 3: Poverty
  2. 2. Definition of Poverty • “The experience of material and social deprivation that prevents individual, communities and entire societies from reaching their full potential.” (Raphael, 2007, p. 6). • Income and wealth inequality
  3. 3. How should poverty be defined? • Relative poverty - compares incomes to average incomes in that society • Absolute poverty - resources to pay for basic needs (food & shelter) • Being excluded or marginalized from the standards of living available to the average income-earning Canadian
  4. 4. How is poverty measured? • Poverty line > Statistics Canada Low Income Cut-Off (LICO) • Income level that below it, individuals would spend a larger share of their income on basic necessities – 55% of income vs. ~34% of income
  5. 5. How is poverty measured? • Depth of poverty - how much income would it take to raise individual/family to the LICO • Poverty duration - length of time someone experiences low income
  6. 6. Poverty in Canada • 3.2 million Canadians lived below LICO in 2009 – 9.6% of all Canadians • Same number of people had incomes that moved above LICO, as moved below LICO • Depth of poverty - 26% below LICO • Duration of poverty - 60% of Canadians living in poverty, it is temporary – For 40% of those living in poverty it is more enduring – 5% - they lived in poverty for > 10 years.
  7. 7. What causes poverty? • Income distribution across a nation. • Income equality vs. inequality • Top income earning group - 40% of the total income generated by Canadians – Bottom income group - 6% of the total income • Top 2 income earning groups - 65% of total income generated by Canadians – Bottom 2 income earning groups - 18% of total income • Above figures from 1996 > in 2004, the total income of top earning group has risen by almost 20% • The rich are getting richer! • OR, income inequality is increasing
  8. 8. What causes poverty? • Cost of living - cost of goods generally rises • Those whose incomes have not risen, actually paying more of their income for the same goods • Low social assistance & income assistance benefits • Trends in the types of jobs available • Wage trends • Groups of people at risk
  9. 9. Job Trends Contributing to Poverty: • More temporary or part time jobs being created • Secure full time jobs with benefits are disappearing • In the “new economy”, jobs are in the service sector - retail, hospitality industries
  10. 10. Job Trends Contributing to Poverty • 2007- 194, 000 or 50% of families experiencing poverty had a major income earner with full time work – Average income was $23,500 • Single individuals experiencing poverty, 306,000 or 28% had full time work – Average income was $10, 400 • “Working poor” • Lack of consistent minimum wage standards
  11. 11. Poverty impacts some groups more than others: • • • • • Women Aboriginal individuals People of colour People with disabilities Recent newcomers to Canada
  12. 12. Child Poverty • Between 2002 & 2007, 23% of all children (1.4 million) living in poverty at least one year in 6. – 107, 000 lived in poverty for all 6 years. • Impacts child growth & development • When parents had a higher level of educational attainment > opportunities for earning higher than poverty-level income. This may provide: – Access to play items likely to lead to optimal development – Lowered stress of parents – Access to neighbourhoods that are a safer physical & social environment
  13. 13. Child Poverty • Educational outcomes associated with child poverty: 1. Lowered receptive vocabulary scores 2. Almost 50% more likely to have cognitive difficulties 3. 45% more likely to experience behavioural difficulties
  14. 14. Child Poverty • Health outcomes associated with childhood poverty: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Higher probability of health problems Higher infant mortality rate Lower birth weight babies Growth delay More likely to have asthma & other chronic diseases More likely to visit hospital emergency departments More likely to die from injuries
  15. 15. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation: • Food insecurity – Food bank usage > 25% of those accessing the Daily Bread Food Bank are employed, the rest receive social assistance • On average, people accessing the Daily Bread Food Bank, had $5.67 left over after paying rent and utility bills. • Half of those accessing DBFB had not eaten for a whole day in the past, and half of these people did so “almost every month”. • 43% identified not being able to afford nutritionally balanced meals
  16. 16. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation: • Housing: – 2004 - the proportion of renters spending more than 30% on housing was ~42% in Toronto. – The proportion spending more than 50% was 20% >high risk of homelessness
  17. 17. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation • Homelessness: – A state of having nowhere to live – Can be “hidden homeless” > couch surf – Use of homeless or family shelters • Housing crisis > exacerbated by the lack of affordable housing • Not only is subsidized housing not being built, rent controls (regulations to control rent increases) have been relaxed. • Wait lists in Hamilton for subsidized housing were at > 4000 applicants long in 2005. • Housing also needs to be adequate - not in need of major
  18. 18. Impact of Experiencingn Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation: • Health outcomes: – Cardiovascular disease is 3 times higher for those living in poverty – Incidence of heart attack - 2.5 times higher in the lowest income level than in the highest – 1 year survival rates 82% for those in the upper income level, & 76.4 for those in the lowest income level – Slower access to specialists
  19. 19. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation: • Health outcomes: – Rate of diabetes is higher - 4 times greater for women in lower income communities than those in higher income communities – For men in lower income communities, 40% higher rate than middle income earning men, & 50% higher than men in higher income communities – Higher incidence of death due to mental health disorders amongst those living in poverty – Life expectancy> men 2.8 years less for those in lowest income communities compared to men in the next income earning group >5 years less than those in the highest income earning
  20. 20. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation: • Inequality of opportunities - culture, recreation & leisure: areas of deprivation – Access to leisure, recreation & cultural activities is a determinant of health – Cost money, and tend to be not affordable – Recreation pursuits > health behaviours that may make people less vulnerable to health concerns
  21. 21. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Experience of Stress • Associated with being able to meet basic needs, social needs • Worry about this on a daily basis • Where will money come from to cover some costs that are unexpected? • Stress involved with “going without”
  22. 22. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Experience of Stigma • Blame • Seen as “undeserving” • Feelings of degradation - internalized public sentiments • Lowered self-esteem effects of stigma
  23. 23. Readings: • National Council on Welfare (2010). Duration of poverty. Poverty Profile 2007. Ottawa: National Council on Welfare. • National Council on Welfare (2010). Education & poverty. Poverty Profile 2007. Ottawa: National Council on Welfare. • National Council on Welfare (2010). Paid work and poverty. Poverty Profile 2007. Ottawa: National Council on Welfare. • National Council on Welfare (2010). Sources of income. Poverty Profile 2007. Ottawa: National Council on Welfare. • National Council on Welfare (2010). The dollars and sense of solving poverty. Poverty Profile 2007. Ottawa: National Council on Welfare. Above profiles all retrieved from site for National Council on Welfare http://www.ncw.gc.ca/

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