Issues in Human Services
(HMNS 10085)
Module 1: Introduction & Issues
Pertaining to Children
Learning Plan
• [eLearn]
• Learning outcomes
– To become sensitive to diverse groups within
our community
– To apply conce...
Definitions:
• Inequality:
– Refers to the unequal treatment between groups of
people that disadvantages one group over an...
Definitions:Oppression:
• Privileged or dominant • Oppressed group
– Have disadvantages to
group in society
– Access to re...
Definitions:
• Social Exclusion:
– Outcome of oppression
– Groups of people “have limited opportunities to
participate in ...
Approach to Working With
Children in Human Services
• Structural, strengths-based approach
• 3 levels of social structure:...
Approach to Working With
Children in Human Services

• Human beings
• Not human becomings
Legislation:
• United Nations Convention on the Rights of the
Child.
• Principles:
– Non-discrimination
– Best interests o...
What is a child?
• Under the age of 18
• Not consistently demonstrated in laws in
Canada
• Different ideas of what childho...
Structural Determinants of
Health
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Income, social status
Social support networks
Education, literacy...
Developmentally Appropriate
Practice:
• 2 dimensions:
– Supports that meet the individual needs of the
child
– Supports th...
Some issues specific to children:
• Child abuse and neglect
• Behaviour issues
• Children as exceptional learners
>How wel...
Attachment:
• Infants - attach emotionally and
psychologically to a primary caregiver
• Caregiver needs to be:
– Consisten...
Healthy Attachment:
• Securely attached child:
– Feels loved & lovable
– Able to trust others

• Emotional safety of this ...
Indicators of Healthy Attachment
•
•
•
•

Infant seeks closeness to caregiver
Infant seeks contact to caregiver
Interacts ...
Child Neglect
• Failure to meet a child’s basic needs for
food, clothing, shelter, sleep, medical
attention, education & p...
Physical Abuse:
• Use of deliberate physical force or action
that results in (or could result in) injury.
– Includes: punc...
Sexual Abuse:
• Use of a child for the sexual gratification of
an adult or older child.
• Involves coercion & manipulation...
Emotional Abuse:
• Behaviours towards a child such as:
– Constant criticizing, teasing, belittling, insulting,
rejecting, ...
Legislation:
• Child & Family Services Act < 16 yrs.
• Children’s Aid Societies
• Family and Children’s Services/Child and...
Behaviour in Childhood:
• Think:
What were the expectations on you as a child as
to how you needed to behave?
Function o...
Behaviour in Childhood:
• More recent literature challenges previous
ideas of children’s behaviour.
• Childhood “behaviour...
Approach to Managing
Behaviours:
• Try to understand the causes of the
behaviour:
– What happens before the behaviour?
– W...
Children As Exceptional
Learners:
• Children who encounter difficulties acquiring the
knowledge & skills > risk of school ...
Integrated Vs. Non-Integrated
Programs:
• Children with exceptionalities have better learning
outcomes in a setting integr...
Individualized Education Plan
(IEP)
• Plans that are developed for the special
learning needs of students in elementary &
...
What the special strategies may
be:
• Modifications
• Accommodations
• Adaptations
Children With Learning
Disabilities:
• Definition: “…a number of disorders which may affect the
acquisition, organization,...
Causes of Learning Disabilities:
• Agents causing birth defects
• Premature birth
• heredity
Other problems for students with
Learning Disabilties:
• Social problems
• Emotional problems
• Motivational problems
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD):
•
•

About 3-5% of school-aged children.
2 components to definition:
1.

...
Treatment of ADHD
• Psychostimulants - ritalin
• Controversial:
– Pro - Effective at controlling inhibition & “executive
f...
ADHD & Special Education:
• ADHD often occurs with Learning Disabilities,
Mood or Behavioural Disorders Substance Use.
• M...
Autism Spectrum Disorders
(ASD)
• Definition: Individuals with impairment in
functioning to varying degrees in the
followi...
ASD: What does it look like?
• Communication skills - some have no functional language, others have
delay in the onset of ...
ASD & Special Education
• Require a lot of special education supports
• Ontario, Ministry of Education - PPM 140
– Applied...
Students with Intellectual
Disabilities:
• Definition: An individual with significant
limitations in adaptive behaviour or...
Assessment of Intellectual
Disability
• Assessed by intelligence and adaptive
skills.
• Intelligence - Wechsler Intelligen...
Students with Intellectual
Disabilities & Special Education:
• May be taught functional academics
– Learning to read in or...
Impact on Having a Child With
An Exceptionality on Families:
• Stressful:
–
–
–
–

Having to adapt to unanticipated things...
Reading:
•
•
•

•

•
•

http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm United Nations Convention on
the Rights of the Child.
ht...
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  • Public Health Agency of Canada
  • Hmns10085 mod1

    1. 1. Issues in Human Services (HMNS 10085) Module 1: Introduction & Issues Pertaining to Children
    2. 2. Learning Plan • [eLearn] • Learning outcomes – To become sensitive to diverse groups within our community – To apply concepts of equity and inclusion • Learning activities - week to week + assignments • About me
    3. 3. Definitions: • Inequality: – Refers to the unequal treatment between groups of people that disadvantages one group over another. – Eg. Income inequality - gaps in income between those who earn high incomes compared to those who earn the least. – Eg. Unequal treatment of people based on some characteristic such as gender, race, sexual orientation, age or ability (eg. racial inequality).
    4. 4. Definitions:Oppression: • Privileged or dominant • Oppressed group – Have disadvantages to group in society – Access to resources – Able to influence decision-making – Maintain situations that keep them being in dominant group – Maintains their advantages to a quality of life obtaining the same quality of life. – Much economic & political activity occurs to maintain the advantage & quality of life of the dominant group at expense of those who have less power, influence & work from a disadvantaged position to try to have a good quality of life.
    5. 5. Definitions: • Social Exclusion: – Outcome of oppression – Groups of people “have limited opportunities to participate in the social, economic and cultural activities of society • Consider how each of these concepts fit in with the issues being discussed.
    6. 6. Approach to Working With Children in Human Services • Structural, strengths-based approach • 3 levels of social structure: – Macro – Meso – Micro
    7. 7. Approach to Working With Children in Human Services • Human beings • Not human becomings
    8. 8. Legislation: • United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. • Principles: – Non-discrimination – Best interests of the child – Right to life, survival and development of one’s full potential – Protection rights – Participation rights
    9. 9. What is a child? • Under the age of 18 • Not consistently demonstrated in laws in Canada • Different ideas of what childhood is: >rights of children are not equitably applied
    10. 10. Structural Determinants of Health • • • • • • • • • • • Income, social status Social support networks Education, literacy Employment (including working conditions) Physical environment Personal health practices, coping skills Healthy child development Genetics Health services Gender Culture
    11. 11. Developmentally Appropriate Practice: • 2 dimensions: – Supports that meet the individual needs of the child – Supports that meet the developmental needs of the child - physical, emotional, social and cognitive areas. • Goal of development> independence, thriving as individuals
    12. 12. Some issues specific to children: • Child abuse and neglect • Behaviour issues • Children as exceptional learners >How well does our society support the rights of children being upheld? How well are children’s needs met?
    13. 13. Attachment: • Infants - attach emotionally and psychologically to a primary caregiver • Caregiver needs to be: – Consistently responsive – Consistently nurturing
    14. 14. Healthy Attachment: • Securely attached child: – Feels loved & lovable – Able to trust others • Emotional safety of this primary bond: – Provides security infant/child needs to explore their world – Provides the basis for developing: self-confidence, selfreliance, resiliency necessary to cope with stress, language, empathy, social skills, self-esteem & intimacy • Protective against the impacts of poverty, stress of chaos (in politically unstable nations, for eg.)
    15. 15. Indicators of Healthy Attachment • • • • Infant seeks closeness to caregiver Infant seeks contact to caregiver Interacts in a way to maintain contact Social referencing
    16. 16. Child Neglect • Failure to meet a child’s basic needs for food, clothing, shelter, sleep, medical attention, education & protection from harm. • Includes: lack of appropriate adult supervision of younger children • More serious form: chronic in nature
    17. 17. Physical Abuse: • Use of deliberate physical force or action that results in (or could result in) injury. – Includes: punching, slapping, beating, shaking, burning, throwing – Beyond reasonable force. – Spanking - controversial
    18. 18. Sexual Abuse: • Use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult or older child. • Involves coercion & manipulation - makes it different than play between peers • Includes: sexual touching, inviting a child to touch an adult, encouring a child to engage in sexual activity.
    19. 19. Emotional Abuse: • Behaviours towards a child such as: – Constant criticizing, teasing, belittling, insulting, rejecting, ignoring, isolating • Attacks a child’s sense of self-worth • Also, includes: – Placing unreasonable demands on child that exceed their capacities – Exposure to domestic violence > risk of emotional harm. – Failure to provide love, support & guidance
    20. 20. Legislation: • Child & Family Services Act < 16 yrs. • Children’s Aid Societies • Family and Children’s Services/Child and Family Services
    21. 21. Behaviour in Childhood: • Think: What were the expectations on you as a child as to how you needed to behave? Function of these expectations? What was the message to you as a child?
    22. 22. Behaviour in Childhood: • More recent literature challenges previous ideas of children’s behaviour. • Childhood “behaviours” are seen as a means children have to: – Learn – Communicate – Exert power
    23. 23. Approach to Managing Behaviours: • Try to understand the causes of the behaviour: – What happens before the behaviour? – What structural determinants may not be being met?
    24. 24. Children As Exceptional Learners: • Children who encounter difficulties acquiring the knowledge & skills > risk of school failure – Can negatively affect the life chances of children. • Children who require special education services to realize their potential > Children with exceptionalities. Could be in one of (or more) the following areas: – – – – – Sensory Physical Cognitive Emotional Communication
    25. 25. Integrated Vs. Non-Integrated Programs: • Children with exceptionalities have better learning outcomes in a setting integrated with their sameaged peers? Research is mixed. • Variety of options should be available. • Labeling when in integrated settings: – May be treated differently than same-aged peers – Target for bullying – Diminished self-esteem • Can be a learning opportunity for general education students! • Social benefits may be better met for Special
    26. 26. Individualized Education Plan (IEP) • Plans that are developed for the special learning needs of students in elementary & secondary school • Strengths and needs of students • Particular strategies likely to lead to success
    27. 27. What the special strategies may be: • Modifications • Accommodations • Adaptations
    28. 28. Children With Learning Disabilities: • Definition: “…a number of disorders which may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, understanding or use of verbal or non-verbal information.” • They come from impairments in the processes related to: – Perceiving – Thinking – Remembering – Learning • Rate of diagnosis has increased
    29. 29. Causes of Learning Disabilities: • Agents causing birth defects • Premature birth • heredity
    30. 30. Other problems for students with Learning Disabilties: • Social problems • Emotional problems • Motivational problems
    31. 31. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): • • About 3-5% of school-aged children. 2 components to definition: 1. Inattention - fails to give close attention to detail, careless mistakes in homework; difficulty keeping attention in tasks, easily distracted; does not seem to be listening when spoken to; does not complete homework, or follow through on things started; difficulty with organizing to do tasks & activities; avoidant of activities that require mental effort; loses items frequently. 2. Hyperactivity/impulsivity - fidgets with hands, feet or squirms in seat; leaves a setting when they are required to be there; runs around as though driven by a motor; talks excessively; difficulty waiting for their turn; interrupts or intrudes on others. • At least 6 of each type that interferes in 2 settings, for > 6 months.
    32. 32. Treatment of ADHD • Psychostimulants - ritalin • Controversial: – Pro - Effective at controlling inhibition & “executive functioning” problems. Tends to lead to better academic performance – Con - may be seen as a “fix”, when it should be accompanied by other interventions that promote selfinitiative & self-responsibility • 30% of children do not have a good response to it • Potential for misuse.
    33. 33. ADHD & Special Education: • ADHD often occurs with Learning Disabilities, Mood or Behavioural Disorders Substance Use. • Models of classroom strategies include: – Structuring a classroom with reduced distraction, consistent routine, simplifying & repeating instructions & chunking tasks into smaller units. – Self-management strategies that involve students tracking their behaviours & receiving reinforcement for this.
    34. 34. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) • Definition: Individuals with impairment in functioning to varying degrees in the following areas: – – – – Communication skills Social interactions Repetitive & stereotypic behaviours DSM-IV diagnosis > developmental disorder • Rate of diagnosis has increased
    35. 35. ASD: What does it look like? • Communication skills - some have no functional language, others have delay in the onset of language only. – Not reciprocal/truly conversational • Social interaction - difficulty learning & reading social cues. • Repetitive & stereotypic behaviour- eg. spinning, flapping hands, rocking or obsessive fascinations with certain objects (eg. ceiling fans). • Particular cognition problems - difficulty coding or decoding information > rely on literal meanings, know a lot of detail but not the “big picture” • Abnormal sensory perceptions - hypersensitive to stimuli (eg. sound); underresponsive to some (eg. may seek movement) • Theory of mind - impaired ability to take the perspective of another • Behavioural regulation problems - may tantrum or become “disregulated”.
    36. 36. ASD & Special Education • Require a lot of special education supports • Ontario, Ministry of Education - PPM 140 – Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA) as an instructional approach – Form of behaviour modification that rewards positive behaviours at frequent intervals – Example of a step in education policy that is child-focused & tries to reduce barriers for students with ASD to learn the curriculum.
    37. 37. Students with Intellectual Disabilities: • Definition: An individual with significant limitations in adaptive behaviour or the conceptual, social and practical skills people have learned to be able to function in daily life. – Conceptual skills – Practical skills – Social skills • Variety of conditions - hereditary, chromosomal, events around birth. – One well known example, Down’s Syndrome.
    38. 38. Assessment of Intellectual Disability • Assessed by intelligence and adaptive skills. • Intelligence - Wechsler Intelligence Scale • Adaptive Behavioural Skills - measures independence, daily living skills, & maladaptive behaviour in social interactions, trustworthiness, & self-abusive behaviour.
    39. 39. Students with Intellectual Disabilities & Special Education: • May be taught functional academics – Learning to read in order to function independently (eg. read labels, newspapers, telephone book). • Frequently in non-integrated settings in special classes. • Some instruction in real-life setting (eg. grocery store). • More focus today on self-determination.
    40. 40. Impact on Having a Child With An Exceptionality on Families: • Stressful: – – – – Having to adapt to unanticipated things Adapting parenting practices Extra things to contend with School system has added to this > parents blamed for their children’s issues • Parents now coming to be seen as having a positive influence > more involvement in planning for their child’s educational needs, & in the daily school life of the child (eg. regular communication between school & home).
    41. 41. Reading: • • • • • • http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30197.html-Unicef: Addressingtheneedsofchildren http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_understanding.html-Unicef: Understandingthecrc The rights of children to develop to their full potential. http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/images/stories.offord/pamphlets/ASD_en.pdf . Autism Spectrum Disorders http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/images/stories.offord/pamphlets//Attention%20B . Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/children’s-needs The needs of children.

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