Systematic review searches

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Systematic review searches

  1. 1. PART 2: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW SEARCHES Mark MacEachern, MLIS
  2. 2. Search construction      Concept building Boolean logic Vocabulary Techniques Evaluating searches
  3. 3. Search construction: Concept building   Identify major concepts of topic PICO helps for clinical questions  Example: In children, is practicing good oral hygiene effective for caries management?  What are the major concepts?  Oral hygiene  Caries management and prevention  Children
  4. 4. Search construction: Concept building  Alternate words / Synonyms  Oral hygiene, flossing, toothbrushing, etc.  Caries, cavity, cavities, etc.  Management, prevention, control, etc.  Children, child, pediatric, pediatrics, adolescent, etc.
  5. 5. Search construction: Boolean Logic  AND  OR NOT Oral hygiene Dental Caries  Dental Caries Oral Hygiene Animals Humans
  6. 6. Search construction: Boolean Logic Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3 Oral hygiene Dental caries Children OR OR OR Flossing AND Cavities AND Pediatrics OR OR OR Toothbrushing Cavity Adolescent
  7. 7. Search construction: Vocabulary Keywords Controlled vocabularies
  8. 8. Search construction: Vocabulary Keywords Controlled vocabularies What are they?  Literal search  Looks for occurrences of words When to use?  Current topics  Not easy to describe concepts  No vocabulary exists in database Examples  Drug names (Lipitor, Prozac)  Slang  Concepts (Swine flu, oil spill)
  9. 9. Search construction: Vocabulary Keywords What are they?  Set of words or phrases used to describe concepts  Dictionary of accepted terms for a database When to use?  Searching a database that uses one Examples  Controlled vocabularies MeSH (Medical Subject Headings)  EMTREE (Embase)
  10. 10. Search construction: Vocabulary Keywords Controlled vocabularies MeS H
  11. 11. Search construction: Techniques       Truncation Wild cards Adjacency Phrases Boolean Parentheses       floss* p?diatrics screen* adj10 cancer* “oral hygiene” “oral hygiene” AND “dental caries” (“oral hygiene” OR “flossing”) AND caries Note: Techniques vary from database to database
  12. 12. Search construction: Techniques  Limits – use sparingly (language, species, pt)
  13. 13. Search construction: Techniques  Exploding subject headings  Use differs across databases
  14. 14. Search construction: Filters  A predefined search designed to target specific study methodologies (RCTs, Cohort, Systematic Reviews) Use a validated filter (whenever possible)  Example: PubMed Clinical Queries – Specific, Therapy     (randomized controlled trial[Publication Type] OR (randomized[Title/Abstract] AND controlled[Title/Abstract] AND trial[Title/Abstract])) 93% Sensitive 97% Specific
  15. 15. Sources         PubMed Ovid MEDLINE EMBASE Scopus Web of Science PsycINFO CINAHL Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews        Conference Papers Index ClinicalTrials.gov Proquest Theses & Dissertations CABI Google Scholar Sociological Abstracts And others…
  16. 16. Sources: PubMed (pubmed.gov)   Primary biomedical database 20+ million citations   Native interface for MEDLINE dataset Citations indexed with MeSH
  17. 17. Sources: Ovid MEDLINE   Different interface to search MEDLINE dataset Heavily used for systematic reviews   Provides additional search functionality (adjacency) Uses MeSH (like PubMed)
  18. 18. Sources: Ovid MEDLINE
  19. 19. Sources: EMBASE   Similar to PubMed, Ovid Indexes many more international journals than MEDLINE   Uses EMTREE Includes MEDLINE, unless you NOT out
  20. 20. Sources: Grey literature   “Information produced on all levels of government, academic, business and industry in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishing, i.e., where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body” Types  Conference abstracts (Conference Papers Index)  Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov)  Government reports, documents (.gov, CABI)  Dissertations (ProQuest Dissertations and Theses)  Unpublished manuscripts
  21. 21. Sources: Other options         Examine the references of articles of relevance  Included studies and relevant reviews Use cited by features Contact authors Snowballing (esp for complex questions or interventions) Contact companies, organizations, societies, etc Hand search important journals (by Impact Factor, perhaps) Search for ongoing studies (prelim data)  Clinicaltrials.gov ; controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN) Citation tracking
  22. 22. Search completion: Citation mgmt  Endnote
  23. 23. Recap      Spend time developing your search Search multiple databases Test your searches Take notes during process to facilitate reporting Consult an expert searcher

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