Proposed Date: September 8, 2012
Number of Participants: 6
Things to bring: pencil, sharpener or cutter, eraser, bond paper and lunch kit
8:00 – 9:00 Intro to Campus Journalism
Brief History of Campus Journalism
Campus Journalism Act of 1991
Brief History of Editorial Cartoons
Editorial Cartoons Today
Tools & Materials Needed
9:00 – 9:30 Designing 101
9:30 – 12:00 Fundamentals of Freehand Drawing
Sharpening a pencil (9:30 – 10:30)
The Power of Construction Lines (10:00 – 10:30)
Tonal Rendering Techniques (10:30 – 12:00)
12:00 – 1:00 Lunch Break
1:00 – 2:00 Video Clips Viewing
How to Draw Editorial Cartoons
Some Outputs of Editorial Cartooning
2:00 – 4:00 Essentials of Good Editorial Cartoon
Facts About Editorial Cartoon
On-the-spot Editorial Cartooning
Note: This training is for FREE. All participants may be provided with fact sheets by the guest instructor at no cost.
JOURNALISM is the art of writing for publication in newspapers and other media, embracing all thoughts and actions
that have significance and interest to the readers.
Brief History of Campus Journalism
According to Jesus Valenzuela in the History of Journalism in the Philippine Islands (1933) and John Lent in
the Philippine Mass Communication (1964), the history of campus journalism in the Philippines started when the
University of Santo Tomas published El Liliputiense in 1890.
However, Oscar Manalo, Narciso Matienzo, and Virgilio Monteloyola in Ang Pamahayagan (1985) argued
that the history of campus journalism in the country started when the University of the Philippines published The
College Folio, now The Philippine Collegian, in 1910. They also added that The Torch of the Philippine Normal
University, The Guidon of the Ateneo de Manila University, and The Varsitarian of the University of Santo Tomas
were also published two years later.
Whatever came first, Carlos Romulo y Peña edited The Coconut, the official student publication of the
Manila High School, now the Araullo High School. It was published in 1912 and it is now considered the first and
oldest high school newspaper in the country.
In 1923, La Union High School in the Ilocos Region published The La Union Tab, the first printed and regularly
issued high school newspaper in the country. Since then, high school newspapers came out one after the other.
Among these high school newspapers were The Pampangan, Pampanga High School, 1925; The Leytean,
Leyte High School, 1925; The Rizalian, Rizal High School, 1926; The Coconut, Tayabas High School, 1927; The Volcano,
Batangas High School, 1927; The Toil, La Union Trade School, 1928; The Samarinian, Samar High School, 1928; The
Melting Pot, Tarlac High School, 1929; The Granary, Nueva Ecija High School, 1929; The Torres Torch, Torres High
School, 1930; and The Cagayan Student Chronicle, Cagayan High School, 1931.
In 1931, 30 out of 106 high schools in the country had campus newspapers registered at the Bureau of Public
Schools. In 1950, this number increased to 169; by 1954, to 253; by 1975, to 500; and by 1986, to more than 900
newspapers in English and in Filipino.
Republic Act No. 7079
Republic Act No. 7079, also known as the Campus Journalism Act of 1991, aims to promote awareness and
develop young talents in journalism. It is also intended to uphold and protect the freedom of the press at the
The Campus Journalism Act of 1991 requires the government to educate young writers, and designates
the Department of Education (DepEd) to oversee periodic competitions, press conferences and training seminars for
student editors and writers and for teacher advisers.
It mostly focuses on regulating the selection and tenure of the staff and advisers of school papers. It also ensures
that student publications get adequate funding, and guarantees press freedom to campus journalists.
What is an Editorial Cartoon?
Editorial cartoons use humor and satire to show a position about current issues. Editorial cartoons
constitute both an unusual art form and a commentary on society. Because they express opinions on public issues,
editorial cartoons are useful teaching aids for examining historic and contemporary issues and events.
History of Editorial Cartoons:
Editorial cartoons have always been an important feature in our country’s newspapers. In fact, they have
been in our newspapers even before the original colonies declared independence to become the United States of
America. Benjamin Franklin drew the first published American cartoon in 1754. He wanted the colonies to unite
together against the British. Instead of just writing about that thought in an editorial, he drew it as an editorial
Franklin’s cartoon portrayed a snake that had been cut apart. Each piece of the snake symbolized an
American colony. Franklin’s point was that if the colonies were cut apart; they would not survive. Franklin titled his
cartoon, “Join or Die.” He got his point across with a picture and very few words. That cartoon is still famous today.
(*Interesting historic cartoon fact: There was a myth at Franklin’s time that if a snake was cut apart and the pieces
were pushed together, the snake would come alive. That makes his cartoon even more significant.)
Editorial cartoons about current events, especially politics, continued after Franklin. Every American
president since George Washington has been the subject of editorial cartoons. Sometimes the subjects of cartoons
are not happy about being in a cartoon because the cartoonist can make them look unflattering through
exaggeration and caricature.
Early editorial cartoons relied on more words and more realistic artwork than we see in contemporary
cartoons. They also had less humor than is found in today’s editorial cartoons.
Modern American cartoonists are indebted to Thomas Nast. Nast refined editorial cartooning to an art
during the 1870s and 1880s. He worked in New York and is called the Father of Modern American Editorial Cartoon.
He is credited with creating the symbols of the elephant and the donkey for the Republican and Democrat parties.
Those symbols are still used today. (*Interesting historic cartoon fact: Thomas Nast was the first to draw the
character we’ve come to recognize as the American Santa Claus.)
Uncle Sam is a symbol that represents the United States of America. An editorial cartoonist created him.
Sam underwent many changes by a variety of cartoonists that drew him. Editorial cartoonist James Montgomery
Flagg drew the most famous Uncle Sam. The U. S. Army still uses Flagg’s Uncle Sam image on posters. Whenever a
cartoonist draws Uncle Sam, that cartoonist wants you to think of the United States. The United States and Uncle
Sam even share the same initials.
Today, nearly every major daily newspaper in the country features an editorial cartoon on its opinion page.
There are only about 250 editorial cartoonists practicing their craft in the United States. Yet, their impact found in
newspaper opinion pages and magazines is profound. Newspapers that don’t have their own editorial cartoonist
buy the work of other cartoonists to put on their editorial/opinion pages.
The Forum is one of the few daily newspapers in the country that has one editorial cartoonists contributing
original work. Editorial cartoons run every day the newspaper is published with two cartoons appearing nearly every
Editorial Cartoons Today:
A cartoonist strives to make an opinion about a subject. The cartoonist assumes that you, as the reader of
an editorial cartoon will have enough knowledge about a specific current event to understand the cartoon. Because
a cartoon must make its point quickly and usually with humor, it is usually drawn with simplicity you won’t find in
other artwork. Cartoonists are proud of the work they do. Cartoons can make people mad when they don’t agree
with the cartoonist or the cartoons can make someone happy when the cartoonist makes a point with which the
reader agrees. A cartoonist prime goal is to get people to think about a certain subject and form their own opinions
Cartoonists generally exaggerate the features of a person when drawing an editorial cartoon. The cartoonist
takes specific features about a person and makes them bigger. For example a big chin might be drawn as a huge
chin, or a big nose might even be more exaggerated.
Cartoonists have usually felt they are working for the public good. They try to attack what they see as wrong
behavior and defend what they see as good. They generally try to protect the little guy in this life from being pushed
around by powerful interests.
Symbols in Editorial Cartooning:
Pencil/Pen/Newspaper = journalism, media
Dove = peace, freedom
Salakot = Juan dela Cruz representing a Filipino citizen
Chain = maltreatment
Syringe = death sentence, drug addiction
Crocodile = abusive person of authority
Beggar = poverty
Mallet = justice
blindfolded woman carrying a weighing scale = justice
big waves = hindrances, advertises
mask = deceiver
eagle = bravery, strength
high rising building = development, progress
key = success
huge rock = tough situation, obstacle
rising sun = hope
multi-tattooed man = criminal, bad man
skull with crossed bones = danger or death
Tools & Materials Needed:
Sharpener or cutter
Pen & ink
The Elements of Design
LINE . Line can be considered in two ways. The linear marks made with a pen or brush or the edge created when two
SHAPE . A shape is a self contained defined area of geometric or organic form. A positive shape in a painting
automatically creates a negative shape.
DIRECTION. All lines have direction - Horizontal, Vertical or Oblique. Horizontal suggests calmness, stability and
tranquility. Vertical gives a feeling of balance, formality and alertness. Oblique suggests movement and
SIZE . Size is simply the relationship of the area occupied by one shape to that of another.
TEXTURE. Texture is the surface quality of a shape - rough, smooth, soft hard glossy etc. Texture can be physical
(tactile) or visual.
COLOR. Color is produced when light, striking an object, is reflected back to the eye.
VALUE. Value is the lightness or darkness of a color. Value is also called Tone
The Principles of Design
Balance in design is similar to balance in physics.
A large shape close to the center can be balanced by a small shape close to the edge. A large light toned shape will
be balanced by a small dark toned shape (the darker the shape the heavier it appears to be)
Gradation of size and direction produce linear perspective. Gradation of color from warm to cool and tone from dark
to light produce aerial perspective. Gradation can add interest and movement to a shape. A gradation from dark to
light will cause the eye to move along a shape.
Repetition with variation is interesting, without variation repetition can become monotonous.
The five squares above are all the same. They can be taken in and understood with a single glance.
When variation is introduced, the five squares, although similar, are much more interesting to look at. They can no
longer be absorbed properly with a single glance. The individual character of each square needs to be considered.
If you wish to create interest, any repeating element should include a degree of variation.
Contrast is the combination of opposing elements eg. opposite colors on the color wheel - red / green, blue / orange
etc. Contrast in tone or value - light / dark. Contrast in direction - horizontal / vertical.
The major contrast in a painting should be located at the center of interest. Too much contrast scattered throughout
a painting can destroy unity and make a work difficult to look at. Unless a feeling of chaos and confusion are what
you are seeking, it is a good idea to carefully consider where to place your areas of maximum contrast.
Harmony in painting is the visually satisfying effect of combining similar, related elements. eg. adjacent colors on the
color wheel, similar shapes etc.
Dominance gives a painting interest, counteracting confusion and monotony. Dominance can be applied to one or
more of the elements to give emphasis
Relating the design elements to the idea being expressed in a painting reinforces the principal of unity.eg. a painting
with an active aggressive subject would work better with a dominant oblique direction, course, rough texture,
angular lines etc. whereas a quiet passive subject would benefit from horizontal lines, soft texture and less tonal
Unity in a painting also refers to the visual linking of various elements of the work.
Sharpening a Pencil
I find it much more practical to sharpen drawing pencils with a knife than with a sharpener, a skill that's simple to
master to keep your pencils in good nick.
If a pencil point is sharpened in a pencil sharpener the ultra-
sharp lead makes grooves or pierces the paper, which makes
erasure difficult. The lead also has a tendency to break off.
Sharpening with a knife on the other hand allows you to
customize the tip.
The key is using your thumb to guide the blade at a shallow
angle that produces curls of wood. Be sure your knife
is very sharp. Many artists prefer a razor knife because they
can dispose of dull blades.
Learning the basics of drawing is essential in effecting quality and expertise. The examples to follow illustrate
the 3 most basic techniques of pencil drawing for beginning level students: tonal, crosshatch and linear rendering.
Each defines "values", the lightness or darkness perceived, in different ways."Tonal" rendering is a gradual, soft
"blending" of dark and light areas together."Crosshatch" is a textural rendering in which lines are duplicated in one
direction, and crossed in other directions called "hatching". The Linear technique is a line drawing in only one
direction, at any angle. Let's check out the practice sheet below.
Activity No. 1: Draw the picture below.
Facts about Editorial Cartoons:
Editorial Cartoons are an integral part of many newspaper editorial pages and are used
to highlight the single most significant aspect of a news item.
Editorial cartoons reflect a subjective evaluation of a news story highlight.
Editorial cartoons focus on a single item that is clearly identified. They also may
represent a simplification of a complex issue.
An effective cartoonist makes use of several specific “tools” to make his or her
It is usually necessary for a reader to be familiar with current events in order to
understand the meaning of editorial cartoons.
Essentials of a Good Editorial Cartoon:
Good editorial Cartoons express the cartoonist’s opinion on a topic and provoke readers to think and clarify their
Thinking skills are much more important than drawing skills in creating a good cartoon.
A good cartoon is always simple and limited. It never tries to tell everything the cartoonist knows about a topic.
Drawing should be uncluttered. Heavy, cleaner lines are better for the newspaper than many light lines.
Any words used (captions, dialogue balloons or words that are part of the drawing itself) should be large, clear
and easily recognized.
Don’t be too much of a perfectionist. If your cartoon is clever and gets across your opinion, you’ve done a good
Cartoonist Use These “Tools” to Communicate:
Symbols: Symbols are simple pictures that are commonly understood by people in our society to stand for ideas or
groups. For example, a donkey is the symbol for the Democratic Party. Uncle Sam or an eagle symbolizes America
and a dove symbolizes peace.
Caricatures: Caricatures are drawings of people that exaggerate certain features to make the cartoon picture of the
famous person quickly and easily recognizable. Caricatures also serve sometimes to poke fun at the person they
Stereotypes: Stereotypes are styles of picturing a person or a group of people that call to the reader’s mind
commonly held ideas or prejudices about the type of person pictured. Stereotypes often found in editorial cartoons
include the lazy, rich Congressman; the old fashioned, bespectacled teacher; the sneaky, fast-talking lawyer; the
rumpled, disorganized scientist and many others.
Analogies: Analogies are comparisons. In simplest terms, they tell us that this thing is like that other thing, at least
in one respect. They often use symbols and compare a current situation to a well-know historic event, story, book,
movie, fairy tale or nursery rhyme.