Editorial Cartooning


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Editorial Cartooning

  1. 1. 1 markleen.webs.com EDITORIAL CARTOONING Training Design Proposed Date: September 8, 2012 Number of Participants: 6 Things to bring: pencil, sharpener or cutter, eraser, bond paper and lunch kit Time Activity 8:00 – 9:00 Intro to Campus Journalism  Brief History of Campus Journalism  Campus Journalism Act of 1991  Brief History of Editorial Cartoons  Editorial Cartoons Today  Symbols Used  Tools & Materials Needed 9:00 – 9:30 Designing 101  Elements  Principles 9:30 – 12:00 Fundamentals of Freehand Drawing  Sharpening a pencil (9:30 – 10:30) Activity 1  The Power of Construction Lines (10:00 – 10:30) Activity 2  Tonal Rendering Techniques (10:30 – 12:00) Activity 3 12:00 – 1:00 Lunch Break 1:00 – 2:00 Video Clips Viewing  How to Draw Editorial Cartoons  Some Outputs of Editorial Cartooning 2:00 – 4:00 Essentials of Good Editorial Cartoon  Facts About Editorial Cartoon  On-the-spot Editorial Cartooning Activity 4 Note: This training is for FREE. All participants may be provided with fact sheets by the guest instructor at no cost.
  2. 2. 2 markleen.webs.com JOURNALISM is the art of writing for publication in newspapers and other media, embracing all thoughts and actions that have significance and interest to the readers. Brief History of Campus Journalism According to Jesus Valenzuela in the History of Journalism in the Philippine Islands (1933) and John Lent in the Philippine Mass Communication (1964), the history of campus journalism in the Philippines started when the University of Santo Tomas published El Liliputiense in 1890. However, Oscar Manalo, Narciso Matienzo, and Virgilio Monteloyola in Ang Pamahayagan (1985) argued that the history of campus journalism in the country started when the University of the Philippines published The College Folio, now The Philippine Collegian, in 1910. They also added that The Torch of the Philippine Normal University, The Guidon of the Ateneo de Manila University, and The Varsitarian of the University of Santo Tomas were also published two years later. Whatever came first, Carlos Romulo y Peña edited The Coconut, the official student publication of the Manila High School, now the Araullo High School. It was published in 1912 and it is now considered the first and oldest high school newspaper in the country. In 1923, La Union High School in the Ilocos Region published The La Union Tab, the first printed and regularly issued high school newspaper in the country. Since then, high school newspapers came out one after the other. Among these high school newspapers were The Pampangan, Pampanga High School, 1925; The Leytean, Leyte High School, 1925; The Rizalian, Rizal High School, 1926; The Coconut, Tayabas High School, 1927; The Volcano, Batangas High School, 1927; The Toil, La Union Trade School, 1928; The Samarinian, Samar High School, 1928; The Melting Pot, Tarlac High School, 1929; The Granary, Nueva Ecija High School, 1929; The Torres Torch, Torres High School, 1930; and The Cagayan Student Chronicle, Cagayan High School, 1931. In 1931, 30 out of 106 high schools in the country had campus newspapers registered at the Bureau of Public Schools. In 1950, this number increased to 169; by 1954, to 253; by 1975, to 500; and by 1986, to more than 900 newspapers in English and in Filipino. Republic Act No. 7079 Republic Act No. 7079, also known as the Campus Journalism Act of 1991, aims to promote awareness and develop young talents in journalism. It is also intended to uphold and protect the freedom of the press at the campus level. The Campus Journalism Act of 1991 requires the government to educate young writers, and designates the Department of Education (DepEd) to oversee periodic competitions, press conferences and training seminars for student editors and writers and for teacher advisers. It mostly focuses on regulating the selection and tenure of the staff and advisers of school papers. It also ensures that student publications get adequate funding, and guarantees press freedom to campus journalists. What is an Editorial Cartoon? Editorial cartoons use humor and satire to show a position about current issues. Editorial cartoons constitute both an unusual art form and a commentary on society. Because they express opinions on public issues, editorial cartoons are useful teaching aids for examining historic and contemporary issues and events. History of Editorial Cartoons: Editorial cartoons have always been an important feature in our country’s newspapers. In fact, they have been in our newspapers even before the original colonies declared independence to become the United States of America. Benjamin Franklin drew the first published American cartoon in 1754. He wanted the colonies to unite
  3. 3. 3 markleen.webs.com together against the British. Instead of just writing about that thought in an editorial, he drew it as an editorial cartoon. Franklin’s cartoon portrayed a snake that had been cut apart. Each piece of the snake symbolized an American colony. Franklin’s point was that if the colonies were cut apart; they would not survive. Franklin titled his cartoon, “Join or Die.” He got his point across with a picture and very few words. That cartoon is still famous today. (*Interesting historic cartoon fact: There was a myth at Franklin’s time that if a snake was cut apart and the pieces were pushed together, the snake would come alive. That makes his cartoon even more significant.) Editorial cartoons about current events, especially politics, continued after Franklin. Every American president since George Washington has been the subject of editorial cartoons. Sometimes the subjects of cartoons are not happy about being in a cartoon because the cartoonist can make them look unflattering through exaggeration and caricature. Early editorial cartoons relied on more words and more realistic artwork than we see in contemporary cartoons. They also had less humor than is found in today’s editorial cartoons. Modern American cartoonists are indebted to Thomas Nast. Nast refined editorial cartooning to an art during the 1870s and 1880s. He worked in New York and is called the Father of Modern American Editorial Cartoon. He is credited with creating the symbols of the elephant and the donkey for the Republican and Democrat parties. Those symbols are still used today. (*Interesting historic cartoon fact: Thomas Nast was the first to draw the character we’ve come to recognize as the American Santa Claus.) Uncle Sam is a symbol that represents the United States of America. An editorial cartoonist created him. Sam underwent many changes by a variety of cartoonists that drew him. Editorial cartoonist James Montgomery Flagg drew the most famous Uncle Sam. The U. S. Army still uses Flagg’s Uncle Sam image on posters. Whenever a cartoonist draws Uncle Sam, that cartoonist wants you to think of the United States. The United States and Uncle Sam even share the same initials. Today, nearly every major daily newspaper in the country features an editorial cartoon on its opinion page. There are only about 250 editorial cartoonists practicing their craft in the United States. Yet, their impact found in newspaper opinion pages and magazines is profound. Newspapers that don’t have their own editorial cartoonist buy the work of other cartoonists to put on their editorial/opinion pages. The Forum is one of the few daily newspapers in the country that has one editorial cartoonists contributing original work. Editorial cartoons run every day the newspaper is published with two cartoons appearing nearly every Sunday. Editorial Cartoons Today: A cartoonist strives to make an opinion about a subject. The cartoonist assumes that you, as the reader of an editorial cartoon will have enough knowledge about a specific current event to understand the cartoon. Because a cartoon must make its point quickly and usually with humor, it is usually drawn with simplicity you won’t find in other artwork. Cartoonists are proud of the work they do. Cartoons can make people mad when they don’t agree
  4. 4. 4 markleen.webs.com with the cartoonist or the cartoons can make someone happy when the cartoonist makes a point with which the reader agrees. A cartoonist prime goal is to get people to think about a certain subject and form their own opinions about it. Cartoonists generally exaggerate the features of a person when drawing an editorial cartoon. The cartoonist takes specific features about a person and makes them bigger. For example a big chin might be drawn as a huge chin, or a big nose might even be more exaggerated. Cartoonists have usually felt they are working for the public good. They try to attack what they see as wrong behavior and defend what they see as good. They generally try to protect the little guy in this life from being pushed around by powerful interests. Symbols in Editorial Cartooning:  Pencil/Pen/Newspaper = journalism, media  Dove = peace, freedom  Salakot = Juan dela Cruz representing a Filipino citizen  Chain = maltreatment  Syringe = death sentence, drug addiction  Crocodile = abusive person of authority  Beggar = poverty  Mallet = justice  blindfolded woman carrying a weighing scale = justice  big waves = hindrances, advertises  mask = deceiver  eagle = bravery, strength  high rising building = development, progress  key = success  huge rock = tough situation, obstacle  rising sun = hope  multi-tattooed man = criminal, bad man  skull with crossed bones = danger or death Tools & Materials Needed:  Pencil  Sharpener or cutter  Eraser  Drawing paper  Pen & ink  T-square  Triangles  Ruler  Drawing table
  5. 5. 5 markleen.webs.com The Elements of Design LINE . Line can be considered in two ways. The linear marks made with a pen or brush or the edge created when two shapes meet. SHAPE . A shape is a self contained defined area of geometric or organic form. A positive shape in a painting automatically creates a negative shape. DIRECTION. All lines have direction - Horizontal, Vertical or Oblique. Horizontal suggests calmness, stability and tranquility. Vertical gives a feeling of balance, formality and alertness. Oblique suggests movement and action. SIZE . Size is simply the relationship of the area occupied by one shape to that of another. TEXTURE. Texture is the surface quality of a shape - rough, smooth, soft hard glossy etc. Texture can be physical (tactile) or visual. COLOR. Color is produced when light, striking an object, is reflected back to the eye. VALUE. Value is the lightness or darkness of a color. Value is also called Tone The Principles of Design BALANCE Balance in design is similar to balance in physics. A large shape close to the center can be balanced by a small shape close to the edge. A large light toned shape will be balanced by a small dark toned shape (the darker the shape the heavier it appears to be) GRADATION Gradation of size and direction produce linear perspective. Gradation of color from warm to cool and tone from dark to light produce aerial perspective. Gradation can add interest and movement to a shape. A gradation from dark to light will cause the eye to move along a shape. REPETITION Repetition with variation is interesting, without variation repetition can become monotonous. The five squares above are all the same. They can be taken in and understood with a single glance.
  6. 6. 6 markleen.webs.com When variation is introduced, the five squares, although similar, are much more interesting to look at. They can no longer be absorbed properly with a single glance. The individual character of each square needs to be considered. If you wish to create interest, any repeating element should include a degree of variation. CONTRAST Contrast is the combination of opposing elements eg. opposite colors on the color wheel - red / green, blue / orange etc. Contrast in tone or value - light / dark. Contrast in direction - horizontal / vertical. The major contrast in a painting should be located at the center of interest. Too much contrast scattered throughout a painting can destroy unity and make a work difficult to look at. Unless a feeling of chaos and confusion are what you are seeking, it is a good idea to carefully consider where to place your areas of maximum contrast. HARMONY Harmony in painting is the visually satisfying effect of combining similar, related elements. eg. adjacent colors on the color wheel, similar shapes etc. DOMINANCE Dominance gives a painting interest, counteracting confusion and monotony. Dominance can be applied to one or more of the elements to give emphasis UNITY Relating the design elements to the idea being expressed in a painting reinforces the principal of unity.eg. a painting with an active aggressive subject would work better with a dominant oblique direction, course, rough texture, angular lines etc. whereas a quiet passive subject would benefit from horizontal lines, soft texture and less tonal contrast.
  7. 7. 7 markleen.webs.com Unity in a painting also refers to the visual linking of various elements of the work. Sharpening a Pencil I find it much more practical to sharpen drawing pencils with a knife than with a sharpener, a skill that's simple to master to keep your pencils in good nick. If a pencil point is sharpened in a pencil sharpener the ultra- sharp lead makes grooves or pierces the paper, which makes erasure difficult. The lead also has a tendency to break off. Sharpening with a knife on the other hand allows you to customize the tip. The key is using your thumb to guide the blade at a shallow angle that produces curls of wood. Be sure your knife is very sharp. Many artists prefer a razor knife because they can dispose of dull blades.
  8. 8. 8 markleen.webs.com Tonal Rendering Learning the basics of drawing is essential in effecting quality and expertise. The examples to follow illustrate the 3 most basic techniques of pencil drawing for beginning level students: tonal, crosshatch and linear rendering. Each defines "values", the lightness or darkness perceived, in different ways."Tonal" rendering is a gradual, soft "blending" of dark and light areas together."Crosshatch" is a textural rendering in which lines are duplicated in one direction, and crossed in other directions called "hatching". The Linear technique is a line drawing in only one direction, at any angle. Let's check out the practice sheet below. Activity No. 1: Draw the picture below.
  9. 9. 9 markleen.webs.com Facts about Editorial Cartoons:  Editorial Cartoons are an integral part of many newspaper editorial pages and are used to highlight the single most significant aspect of a news item.  Editorial cartoons reflect a subjective evaluation of a news story highlight.  Editorial cartoons focus on a single item that is clearly identified. They also may represent a simplification of a complex issue.  An effective cartoonist makes use of several specific “tools” to make his or her points clear.  It is usually necessary for a reader to be familiar with current events in order to understand the meaning of editorial cartoons. Essentials of a Good Editorial Cartoon:  Good editorial Cartoons express the cartoonist’s opinion on a topic and provoke readers to think and clarify their own opinions.  Thinking skills are much more important than drawing skills in creating a good cartoon.  A good cartoon is always simple and limited. It never tries to tell everything the cartoonist knows about a topic.  Drawing should be uncluttered. Heavy, cleaner lines are better for the newspaper than many light lines.  Any words used (captions, dialogue balloons or words that are part of the drawing itself) should be large, clear and easily recognized.  Don’t be too much of a perfectionist. If your cartoon is clever and gets across your opinion, you’ve done a good job! Cartoonist Use These “Tools” to Communicate: Symbols: Symbols are simple pictures that are commonly understood by people in our society to stand for ideas or groups. For example, a donkey is the symbol for the Democratic Party. Uncle Sam or an eagle symbolizes America and a dove symbolizes peace. Caricatures: Caricatures are drawings of people that exaggerate certain features to make the cartoon picture of the famous person quickly and easily recognizable. Caricatures also serve sometimes to poke fun at the person they picture. Stereotypes: Stereotypes are styles of picturing a person or a group of people that call to the reader’s mind commonly held ideas or prejudices about the type of person pictured. Stereotypes often found in editorial cartoons include the lazy, rich Congressman; the old fashioned, bespectacled teacher; the sneaky, fast-talking lawyer; the rumpled, disorganized scientist and many others. Analogies: Analogies are comparisons. In simplest terms, they tell us that this thing is like that other thing, at least in one respect. They often use symbols and compare a current situation to a well-know historic event, story, book, movie, fairy tale or nursery rhyme.
  10. 10. 10 markleen.webs.com Editorial Cartoon Samples: