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Collaboration Through Conflict - SFAA 2013

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Session at South FL's first agile conference where we talked about the 5 sources of conflict and various tools to help your team navigate it for better collaboration

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Collaboration Through Conflict - SFAA 2013

  1. 1. Collaboration through Conflict Evolving Better Teams Mark Kilby October 15, 2013
  2. 2. AgileOrlando.com co-founder Mark Kilby Enterprise Agile Coach Software since 1990; Coaching since 2003 Mark@LeadingAgile.com @mkilby– twitter Linkedin.com/in/mkilby http://markkilby.com
  3. 3. Seen these results with teams?
  4. 4. Storm patterns
  5. 5. Purpose today is to… • Better understand the relationship between Conflict & Collaboration • Give you and your teams several tools to navigate through conflict
  6. 6. Benefit Teams that can deliver in any conditions
  7. 7. Agenda 1. Understand Types of Conflict and Collaboration 2. Values & Conflict 3. When Things Still Go Wrong
  8. 8. Understand Types of CONFLICT AND COLLABORATION
  9. 9. Jean Tabaka Agile Fellow Rally Software
  10. 10. Our point of view…
  11. 11. Collaboration invites Conflict Forming Storming Performing Norming
  12. 12. We cannot avoid storms of conflict…
  13. 13. SOURCES of CONFLICT Values Data Interests Christopher Moore’s “The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict” Relationship Structural Courtesy of Jean Tabaka
  14. 14. SOURCE of CONFLICT: DATA • lack of information Values Data Interests Relationship Structural 2 ways it shows up: 1. Day-to-day information sharing (reporting) 2. In collaboration events
  15. 15. Day-to-Day Information Radiators 38 96 8 6 Release Burndown Sprint Burndown 6 5 Velocity Trend
  16. 16. Driven by other Information Radiators Story Backlog Task Backlog In Process Task Can everyone update? User Story User Story 1 Task 2 Task 16 Task Task Task 8 Task 4 Task 4 Task 16 Is everyone updating? 8 Story Done Task Done 8 Task 8 Task 16 2 8 Daily? (at least) User Story 3
  17. 17. Driven by other Information Radiators Story Backlog Task Backlog In Process 8 Task Can everyone update? User Story User Story 1 2 Can you see the whole system? Task Task 16 Task Task Task 8 Task 4 Task 4 Task 16 Is everyone updating? 8 Story Done Task Done 8 Task Task 16 2 8 Daily? (at least) User Story 3
  18. 18. If not, DATA is not truly visible Information Radiators are WRONG 38 96 8 6 Release Burndown Sprint Burndown 6 5 Velocity Trend
  19. 19. If not, DATA is not truly visible Information Radiators are WRONG 38 96 Release Burndown Are you surprised by what you release? Sprint Burndown 8 6 6 5 Velocity Trend
  20. 20. If not, DATA is not truly visible Information Radiators are WRONG 38 96 8 Release Burndown CONFLICT by DATA Sprint Burndown 6 6 5 Velocity Trend
  21. 21. In Collaboration Events: Listing and Brainstorming Values Data Interests Relationship Structural Facilitator Gathering … Our list New _________Requirements _________ _________ Sprint _________observations? _________ _________ Root causes? _________ _________ Ideas for _________ improvement? Risks?
  22. 22. In Collaboration Events: Listing and Brainstorming Can everyone update? Is everyone updating? Our list _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ Is everyone contributing every few minutes? (at least)
  23. 23. In Collaboration Events: Listing and Brainstorming Can everyone update? (if not) CONFLICT by DATA Is everyone updating? Our list _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ Every few minutes? (at least)
  24. 24. SOURCE of CONFLICT: Relationship • strong emotions, misperceptions, or stereotypes Values Data Interests Relationship Structural 2 ways it shows up: 1. Day-to-day interactions 2. In collaboration events
  25. 25. Day-to-Day Relationship Challenges Can you believe what (Dev/QA/etc.) did? Guess WHO botched the build again? Management/Business is making unreasonable requests!
  26. 26. Day-to-Day Relationship Challenges Can you believe what (FAVORITE SCAPEGOAT ROLE) did? CONFLICT Guess WHO of botched the build again? RELATIONSHIP (listen for ________ is making unreasonable “role” labels or requests! assumption of intent)
  27. 27. Day-to-Day Relationship Builders Preemptive: Working Agreements • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Who moves stories in our tracking tool? Who owns and updates metrics? What will be the Release calendar? Who will update it? What are the QA Guidelines? Who will verify? How? What feedback mechanisms will we use? When? What are the expectations for addressing defects? Who will address them? When are we going to update the backlog? How far out for looking ahead? Who writes Acceptance Criteria with examples before the Sprint Who writes Detailed tests within the sprint What are the Agile ceremony rules and expectations? How do we handle new risks? How do we handle documentation and delivery? How do we prioritize defects into the backlog? How do we handle technical debt? How do we monitor activities and progress?
  28. 28. In Collaboration Events: Safety Checks Values Data Interests Relationship Structural Facilitator Do we all feel safe discussing this topic? Let’s check.
  29. 29. In Collaboration Events: Safety Checks Level Description 5 - Secure I feel free to discuss anything. 4 - Safe I can discuss almost anything. Might be some difficult topics to raise. 3 - Neutral I’ll discuss some things. Some will be too hard to participate in. 2 - Dangerous I’ll let others bring up issues, but might chime in on some. 1 - Treacherous I’ll smile and just agree with everyone. Votes How would you rate this meeting for what you can share?
  30. 30. In Collaboration Events: Safety Checks Level Description Votes 5 - Secure I feel free to discuss anything. XXX 4 - Safe I can discuss almost anything. Might be some difficult topics to raise. X 3 - Neutral I’ll discuss some things. Some will be too hard to participate in. XX 2 - Dangerous I’ll let others bring up issues, but might chime X in on some. 1 - Treacherous I’ll smile and just agree with everyone. Anonymous votes X If any vote 3 or less… How can we bring up the level of safety?
  31. 31. SOURCE of CONFLICT: Structural • Someone of unequal power in the conversation • Management, senior staff 2 ways it shows up: 1. Day-to-day interactions 2. In collaboration events Values Data Interests Relationship Structural
  32. 32. Day-to-Day Going to the Gemba Gemba – “the real place” Going to Gemba (Lean) - purposely observing how people work together to create value - Jim Womack
  33. 33. Day-to-Day Going to the Gemba As a manager, … Do you mingle with your staff daily? Do you ask questions that allows everyone to observe how value is created? http://www.flickr.com/photos/kheelcenter/5279277567/sizes/z/in/photostream/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/highwaysagency/5998133376/sizes/z/in/photostream/
  34. 34. Day-to-Day Powerful Questions Scenario Instead of asking… Try asking… Team has been in conversation for a while and you think they need to hear one person’s opinion. What’s your opinion? What is possible here? Team is diving into details and you think they should spend more time “envisioning” solutions. What are other options? What is the part that is not yet clear? What is here that you want to explore? What is just one more possibility? Adapted from “Powerful Questions for Agile Teams” by Lyssa Adkins
  35. 35. In Collaboration Events: Clear Purpose, Agenda, & Working Agreements Senior Staff Facilitator Values Data Interests Relationship Structural
  36. 36. In Collaboration Events: Clear Purpose, Agenda, & Working Agreements Purpose To decide/plan/learn/ evaluate ___________ Senior Staff Facilitator should introduce Organizing Tools at Opening Facilitator Agenda 1. Open 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______ 6. ______ 7. Close Parking Lot Action Items Working Agreements 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______
  37. 37. In Collaboration Events: Clear Purpose, Agenda, & Working Agreements We should discuss XYZ now! Purpose To decide/plan/learn/ evaluate ___________ Agenda 1. Open 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______ 6. ______ 7. Close Parking Lot Action Items Working Agreements 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______
  38. 38. In Collaboration Events: Clear Purpose, Agenda, & Working Agreements Purpose To decide/plan/learn/ evaluate ___________ Does XYZ meets our purpose and agenda? Agenda 1. Open 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______ 6. ______ 7. Close Parking Lot Action Items Working Agreements 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______
  39. 39. In Collaboration Events: Clear Purpose, Agenda, & Working Agreements If it is part of the purpose and agenda, show where it will be discussed Purpose To decide/plan/learn/ evaluate ___________ Agenda 1. Open 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______ 6. ______ 7. Close Parking Lot Action Items Working Agreements 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______ XYZ
  40. 40. In Collaboration Events: Clear Purpose, Agenda, & Working Agreements If it does not, ask to put it in the Parking Lot to check in on what the group should do with this item Purpose To decide/plan/learn/ evaluate ___________ Agenda 1. Open 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______ 6. ______ 7. Close Parking Lot Action Items Working Agreements 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______ XYZ
  41. 41. In Collaboration Events: Clear Purpose, Agenda, & Working Agreements In the “Close”, clear the Parking Lot by asking the group if an action needs to be taken for each item. Be sure it has an owner and due date Purpose To decide/plan/learn/ evaluate ___________ Agenda 1. Open 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______ 6. ______ 7. Close Working Agreements 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______ Parking Lot Action Items XYZ
  42. 42. SOURCE of CONFLICT: Interests Values • competition for resources; scarcity mindset Data Interests Relationship Structural 2 ways it shows up: 1. Day-to-day interactions 2. In collaboration events Courtesy of Jean Tabaka
  43. 43. Day-to-Day Reactions to Scarcity “I don’t see a problem with our resources.”
  44. 44. Day-to-Day Reactions to Scarcity “Management will not give us what we need.”
  45. 45. Day-to-Day Reactions to Scarcity “I can’t do better since I don’t have what I need.”
  46. 46. Day-to-Day Reactions to Scarcity “I just can’t seem to convince people we need this.”
  47. 47. Day-to-Day Reactions to Scarcity “I have to fight for my team to get what they need.”
  48. 48. Day-to-Day Reactions to Scarcity “This is hopeless. I’m just doing the minimum until something better comes along.”
  49. 49. Day-to-Day Reactions to Scarcity We all get “stuck” at one of these place
  50. 50. Day-to-Day Anxiety about Perceived Scarcity
  51. 51. Day-to-Day Learning Anxiety When we realize we are stuck, we have an opportunity to learn about our model of the problem
  52. 52. Day-to-Day Learning “I wonder how I can show a return on investing in these resources?” “I wonder who I’m not considering to collaborate on resource needs?” “I wonder what I’m not seeing to help us get what we need?”
  53. 53. Day-to-Day Learning “I wonder what I’m not seeing to help us get what we need?”
  54. 54. Day-to-Day Learning Anxiety “An upset is an opportunity to learn” - Christopher Avery
  55. 55. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate Facilitator Values Data Interests Relationship Structural
  56. 56. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate Here is the way it is!!! A You’re wrong!!! B
  57. 57. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate !!! !!! !!! A B !!! !!! !!!
  58. 58. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate !!! !!! !!! A !!! CONFLICT of !!! INTERESTS !!! B
  59. 59. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate !!!Are you willing to work this out? A B
  60. 60. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate Yes A Yes B
  61. 61. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate A point of view __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ A point of view A B
  62. 62. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate A point of view __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Did B describe your point of view A? Yes. A B
  63. 63. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate B point of view __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ A Point of View __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ B point of view A B
  64. 64. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate B point of view __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ A Point of View __________________ Yes. __________________ __________________ __________________ Did A describe your point of view B? A B
  65. 65. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate B point of view __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ A Point of View __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ !!!Is there a middle way? A B Both sides feel they are heard and understood
  66. 66. In Collaboration Events: Making All Views Visible in a Debate B point of view __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Brainstorming __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ A A Point of View __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ B
  67. 67. Navigating CONFLICT • DATA– lack of information • Approaches: Information Radiators equally updated, Brainstorming & Listing (facilitated) • RELATIONSHIP – strong emotions, misperceptions, or stereotypes • Approaches: Crucial Conversations, Appreciations, Safety Checks, Working Agreements Values Data Interests Relationship Structural • STRUCTURAL – someone of unequal • INTERESTS – competition for power in conversation resources; scarcity mindset • Approaches: going to Gemba, powerful • Approaches: active listening and questions, clear purpose and agenda, rigorous facilitation to level working agreements, properly using playing field, Avery’s Parking Lot and Action Items Responibility Model
  68. 68. Understand VALUES & CONFLICT
  69. 69. Values CONFLICT Values • Most challenging form of conflict • Approaches: prioritization techniques, affinity grouping in meetings, working agreements about no judgments • Are they always effective? NO. Why? Data Interests Relationship Structural Challenging Values
  70. 70. Values of AgileManifesto.org We are uncovering better ways of developing products by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals & interactions over Processes & tools Working product over Comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over Contract negotiation Responding to change over Following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
  71. 71. Scrum Values Lean Software Principles Commitment Focus Openness Respect Courage Eliminate waste Amplify learning Decide as late as possible Deliver as fast as possible XP Values Empower the team Feedback Simplicity Communication Respect Courage Build integrity in See the whole
  72. 72. The problem with “giving” values… • They may not stick with the team • We may not know what we value • We can’t be sure if our values align with others
  73. 73. A (working) model of how teams evolve CORE is “what binds the group together” and can include: CORE • Elevating Purpose • Collective Values • Preferences (Working Agreements) See “resonant teams” on markkilby.com
  74. 74. A (working) model of how teams evolve What’s in it for me? Drawn to the purpose of the group. Performing Norming CORE Storming Forming What’s in it for us? See “resonant teams” on markkilby.com What’s in it for others to have us work as a team?
  75. 75. A (working) model of how teams evolve Some leaders can get here CORE CORE is “what binds the group together” and can include: • Elevating Purpose • Collective Values • Preferences (Working Agreements) Few get here See “resonant teams” on markkilby.com
  76. 76. A (working) model of how teams evolve CORE is “what binds the group together” and can include: • Elevating Purpose • Collective Values • Preferences (Working Agreements) (without this) CONFLICT CORE of Few get VALUES Many leaders can get here here See “resonant teams” on markkilby.com
  77. 77. TO ANTICIPATE THE “BIG STORMS” WITHIN THE TEAM… WE NEED TO MAP OUR VALUES
  78. 78. A quick walk through… 1-to-1: Mountains & Valleys MAPPING YOUR VALUES
  79. 79. S Euphoric A T I S F TIME A 1993 2003 C T I O N Tragic Adapted from http://www.culturesync.net/happiness 2013
  80. 80. S Euphoric A T I S F TIME A 1993 2003 C T I O N Tragic Adapted from http://www.culturesync.net/happiness 2013
  81. 81. S Euphoric F A E C T I A S F TIME A 1993 2003 C T I O B N Tragic D Adapted from http://www.culturesync.net/happiness 2013
  82. 82. Event A – Values (+) Referred / Trust Explore Proving Self Event B – Values (-) Event C – Values (+) New Path / Explore / Build Together Valued VALUES CHART Event D – Values (-) In looking at the high points, what was most present for you? Event E – Values (+) Respect Valued / Trust New Challenges New Roles Event F – Values (+) Respect / Valued / Trust Adapted from http://www.culturesync.net/happiness
  83. 83. Event A – Values (+) Referred / Trust Explore Proving Self Event B – Values (-) Loyalty / Trust Humility Event C – Values (+) New Path / Explore / Build Together Valued VALUES CHART Event D – Values (-) Valued / Trust In looking at the low points, what was missing the most for you? Event E – Values (+) Respect Valued / Trust New Challenges New Roles Event F – Values (+) Respect / Valued / Trust Adapted from http://www.culturesync.net/happiness
  84. 84. VALUES CHART Event A - Values Event D - Values Valued / Trust Referred / Trust Explore Proving Self Event B - Values Loyalty / Trust Humility Respect Valued Event C - Values Build Together Valued New Path / Explore / What patterns do you see? Event E - Values Respect Valued / Trust New Challenges New Roles Event F - Values Respect / Valued / Trust Collaboration New Industries & Skills Adapted from http://www.culturesync.net/happiness
  85. 85. VALUES CHART Event A - Values Referred / Trust Explore Proving Self Event D - Values Valued / Trust EXPLORING TO LEARN APPRECIATED FOR SERVING CO-CREATING Event B - Values Loyalty / Trust Humility Respect Valued Event C - Values Build Together Valued New Path / Explore / TRUST IN RISK RESPECTING ALL Describe the patterns Event E - Values Respect Valued / Trust New Challenges New Roles Event F - Values Respect / Valued / Trust Collaboration New Industries & Skills Adapted from http://www.culturesync.net/happiness
  86. 86. EXPLORING TO LEARN APPRECIATED FOR SERVING CO-CREATING TRUST IN RISK RESPECTING ALL CORE VALUES
  87. 87. Next... MAP TEAM VALUES
  88. 88. 1) Convert Values to Preferences • Think back to Core Values CORE VALUES CO-CREATING EXPLORING TO LEARN
  89. 89. 1) Convert Values to Preferences • In what “context” will you be working together? CORE VALUES Context: Project: CO-CREATING Presentation: EXPLORING TO LEARN Administration: Career:
  90. 90. 1) Convert Values to Preferences • Express your values as preferences CORE VALUES Context: Preference Project: I would rather pair than work solo on a project CO-CREATING Presentation: I would rather have exercises and Q&A than talk to a bunch of slides EXPLORING TO LEARN Administration: Repetitive work makes me numb Career: I prefer changing roles within an environment See http://ssrm.com/abst
  91. 91. Making it Visible: Values Constellations I prefer to pair Demo Note: Multiple ways to use this technique http://tinyurl.com/l745pqo
  92. 92. Pay attention to… Who is close to center? Who is far away?
  93. 93. Pay attention to… Who is close to center? Who is far away? When does the team “come together”? (Shared Value)
  94. 94. Pay attention to… Who is close to center? Who is far away? When does the team “come together”? (Shared Value) When does the team “spread out”? (Potential conflict?)
  95. 95. Pay attention to… Who is close to center? Who is far away? When does the team “come together”? (Shared Value) When does the team “spread out”? (Potential conflict?) Develop Value-based Working Agreements
  96. 96. WHEN THINGS STILL GO WRONG
  97. 97. Learning Anxiety “An upset is an opportunity to learn”
  98. 98. 1) Keep DATA visible always 2) Develop cross-functionality & check safety in RELATIONSHIPS 3) Go to the gemba, ask powerful questions, and use good facilitation to level STRUCTURE 4) Keep all INTERESTS visible and explore upsets as opportunities to learn about scarcity mindsets 5) Map VALUES to develop daily working agreements
  99. 99. Allows you to chase the storms of conflict to evolve your teams
  100. 100. LIFE WITHOUT CONFRONTATION IS DIRECTIONLESS, AIMLESS, PASSIVE. WHEN UNCHALLENGED, HUMAN BEINGS TEND TO DRIFT, TO WANDER OR TO STAGNATE. CONFRONTATION IS A GIFT. DAVID AUGSBURGER
  101. 101. AgileOrlando.com co-founder Mark Kilby Enterprise Agile Coach THANKS! Mark@LeadingAgile.com @mkilby– twitter Linkedin.com/in/mkilby http://markkilby.com
  102. 102. References: Adkins, Lyssa. Coaching Agile Teams: A Companion for ScrumMasters, Agile Coaches, and Project Managers in Transition, 2010. Addison-Wesley. A great reference for coaches and scrummasters Adkins, Lyssa. Description of the Constellations exercise. http://tinyurl.com/l745pqo Avery, Christopher. Teamwork Is an Individual Skill: Getting Your Work Done When Sharing Responsibility. 2001. Berrett-Koehler Publishers – A great book for anyone to learn more about how to work effectively on teams. Avery, Christopher. See http://LeadershipGift.com for mentoring on the Responsibility Model. Use code “LEADING” for a discount. Kilby, Mark. An evolving model of teams. See “resonant teams” on http://markkilby.com Larsen, Diana and Nies, Ainsley. Liftoff: Launching Agile Projects & Teams. 2011. Amazon Digital Services – if you are launching new teams, this is the book on Agile Chartering. Diana and Ainsley are masters of getting teams successfully launched. Logan, Dave, King, John, and Fischer-Wright, Halee. Tribal Leadership: Leveraging Natural Groups to Build a Thriving Organization. 2012. HarperBusiness – if you want to find ways to organically make changes across an organization, look here Moore, Christopher. The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict.. 2003. Jossey-Bass. Original reference on the 5 sources of conflict. Mountains and Valleys (Values mapping) exercise. Listen to MP3 first. http://www.culturesync.net/happiness Tabaka, Jean. Collaboration Explained: Facilitation Skills for Software Project Leaders. 2006. Addison-Wesley – If you are new to a Scrummaster or Product Owner role, this is a must-have book to understand how you facilitate agile meetings Warren, Caleb , McGraw, A. Peter and Van Boven, Leaf. “Values and preferences: defining preference construction”. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 193–205 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.98 copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Available at: http://ssrm.com/abstract=1995781

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