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Prepared by: Mark Jhon Cardoza Oxillo
Derived from the Greek word
“historia” which means
“knowledge acquired through
inquiry or investigation”
Also known as the study of
the past
DEFINITION OF HISTORY
Is the account of the
past of a person or a
group of people through
written documents and
historical evidences
DEFINITION OF HISTORY
History also focused on
writing about wars,
revolutions, and other
important breakthroughs
DEFINITION OF HISTORY
It means that unless a
written document can
prove a certain historical
event, then it cannot be
considered as a
historical fact.
NO DOCUMENT, NO HISTORY
Government Records
Chronicle’s Accounts
Personal Letters
Receipts, etc.
SOME VALID HISTORICAL
DOCUMENTS
Restricting historical
evidence as exclusively
written is a discrimination
against other social
classes who were not
recorded in paper.
DISCRIMINATION IN THE
VALIDITY OF HISTORY
Others got their
historical documents
burned or destroyed in
the events of war or
colonization.
DISCRIMINATION IN THE
VALIDITY OF HISTORY
QUESTIONS
AND ISSUES IN
HISTORY
What is history?
Why study history?
And history for whom?
QUESTIONS ON HISTORY
HISTORIOGRAPHY
Is the history of history
It covers how historians
have studied and
developed history
including its sources,
techniques, and
theoretical approaches
HISTORIOGRAPHY
It should not be
confused with History
because history is the
study of the past, the
events that happened in
the past.
HISTORIOGRAPHY
It focuses on how a certain
historical text was written,
who wrote it, what was the
context of its publication,
what historical method was
employed, what sources
were used
HISTORIOGRAPHY
 Is the school of thought
that emerged between the
18th and 19th century. This
thought requires empirical
and observable evidence
before one can claim that a
particular knowledge is
true.
POSITIVISM
Historians were
required to show
written primary
documents in order to
write a particular
historical narrative.
POSITIVISM
 Is the school of thought that
emerged in the early 20th
century when formerly
colonized nations grappled
with the idea of creating their
identities and understanding
their societies against the
shadows of their colonial past.
POST-COLONIALISM
Two Things in Writing History:
1. Tell the history of their
nation that will highlight
their identity free from that
colonial discourse and
knowledge
POST-COLONIALISM
Two Things in Writing History:
2. To criticize the
methods, effects, and
idea of colonialism
POST-COLONIALISM
HISTORY AND
THE HISTORIAN
Facts cannot speak for
themselves. It is the
historian’s job not just to seek
historical evidences and facts
but also to interpret them. It is
their job to give meaning to
these facts and organize them
into timeline, establish
causes, and write history.
HISTORY AND THE HISTORIAN
It comprises certain
techniques and rules that
historians follow in order
to properly utilize sources
and historical evidences
in writing history.
HISTORICAL METHODOLOGY
HISTORICAL
SOURCES
Two Classification:
1. Primary Sources
2. Secondary Sources
HISTORICAL SOURCES
Are those sources
produced at the same
time as the event,
period, or subject being
studied
PRIMARY SOURCES
Ex: (Commonwealth 1935)
-Minutes
-Newspaper clippings
-Records
-Photographs
-Eyewitness(es)
PRIMARY SOURCES
Are those sources
produced by an author
who used primary
sources to produce the
material
SECONDARY SOURCES
Ex: (Phil. Revolution 1935)
-Teodoro Agoncillo’s Revolt of
the Masses 1956
SECONDARY SOURCES
 When examining a
source, the historian must
conduct:
(a). External Criticism
(b). Internal Criticism
HISTORICAL SOURCES
- the practice of verifying the
authenticity of evidence by
examining the physical
characteristics; consistency with
the historical characteristic of the
time when it was produced, and
the materials used for the
evidence
EXTERNAL CRITICISM
- Is the examination of the
truthfulness and factuality of the
evidence. It looks at the content
of the source and examines the
circumstance of its production. It
could be done by looking at the
author, its context, agenda, the
purpose behind its creation
INTERNAL CRITICISM
-Hoax Code of
Kalantiaw
-Ferdinand Marcos as
WWII Soldier
DECEPTION CASES IN
PHILIPPINE HISTORY
- The code was a set of rules
contained in an epic Maragtas
which was allegedly written by
Datu Kalantiaw. The document
was sold to National Library and
was regarded as an important
precolonial document
HOAX CODE OF KALANTIAW
-In 1968, an American historian
William Henry Scott debunked
the authenticity of the code
due to lack of evidence to
prove that the code existed in
precolonial Philippine society.
HOAX CODE OF KALANTIAW
-This was widely believed by
students of history and Marcos
had war medals to show. This
claim was disproven when
historian counterchecked
Marcos’s claims with the war
records of the United States.
FERDINAND MARCOS AS
WORLD WAR II SOLDIER
END

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Readings in Philippine History - Introduction to Philippine History

  • 1. Prepared by: Mark Jhon Cardoza Oxillo
  • 2. Derived from the Greek word “historia” which means “knowledge acquired through inquiry or investigation” Also known as the study of the past DEFINITION OF HISTORY
  • 3. Is the account of the past of a person or a group of people through written documents and historical evidences DEFINITION OF HISTORY
  • 4. History also focused on writing about wars, revolutions, and other important breakthroughs DEFINITION OF HISTORY
  • 5. It means that unless a written document can prove a certain historical event, then it cannot be considered as a historical fact. NO DOCUMENT, NO HISTORY
  • 6. Government Records Chronicle’s Accounts Personal Letters Receipts, etc. SOME VALID HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS
  • 7. Restricting historical evidence as exclusively written is a discrimination against other social classes who were not recorded in paper. DISCRIMINATION IN THE VALIDITY OF HISTORY
  • 8. Others got their historical documents burned or destroyed in the events of war or colonization. DISCRIMINATION IN THE VALIDITY OF HISTORY
  • 10. What is history? Why study history? And history for whom? QUESTIONS ON HISTORY
  • 12. Is the history of history It covers how historians have studied and developed history including its sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches HISTORIOGRAPHY
  • 13. It should not be confused with History because history is the study of the past, the events that happened in the past. HISTORIOGRAPHY
  • 14. It focuses on how a certain historical text was written, who wrote it, what was the context of its publication, what historical method was employed, what sources were used HISTORIOGRAPHY
  • 15.  Is the school of thought that emerged between the 18th and 19th century. This thought requires empirical and observable evidence before one can claim that a particular knowledge is true. POSITIVISM
  • 16. Historians were required to show written primary documents in order to write a particular historical narrative. POSITIVISM
  • 17.  Is the school of thought that emerged in the early 20th century when formerly colonized nations grappled with the idea of creating their identities and understanding their societies against the shadows of their colonial past. POST-COLONIALISM
  • 18. Two Things in Writing History: 1. Tell the history of their nation that will highlight their identity free from that colonial discourse and knowledge POST-COLONIALISM
  • 19. Two Things in Writing History: 2. To criticize the methods, effects, and idea of colonialism POST-COLONIALISM
  • 21. Facts cannot speak for themselves. It is the historian’s job not just to seek historical evidences and facts but also to interpret them. It is their job to give meaning to these facts and organize them into timeline, establish causes, and write history. HISTORY AND THE HISTORIAN
  • 22. It comprises certain techniques and rules that historians follow in order to properly utilize sources and historical evidences in writing history. HISTORICAL METHODOLOGY
  • 24. Two Classification: 1. Primary Sources 2. Secondary Sources HISTORICAL SOURCES
  • 25. Are those sources produced at the same time as the event, period, or subject being studied PRIMARY SOURCES
  • 26. Ex: (Commonwealth 1935) -Minutes -Newspaper clippings -Records -Photographs -Eyewitness(es) PRIMARY SOURCES
  • 27. Are those sources produced by an author who used primary sources to produce the material SECONDARY SOURCES
  • 28. Ex: (Phil. Revolution 1935) -Teodoro Agoncillo’s Revolt of the Masses 1956 SECONDARY SOURCES
  • 29.  When examining a source, the historian must conduct: (a). External Criticism (b). Internal Criticism HISTORICAL SOURCES
  • 30. - the practice of verifying the authenticity of evidence by examining the physical characteristics; consistency with the historical characteristic of the time when it was produced, and the materials used for the evidence EXTERNAL CRITICISM
  • 31. - Is the examination of the truthfulness and factuality of the evidence. It looks at the content of the source and examines the circumstance of its production. It could be done by looking at the author, its context, agenda, the purpose behind its creation INTERNAL CRITICISM
  • 32. -Hoax Code of Kalantiaw -Ferdinand Marcos as WWII Soldier DECEPTION CASES IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY
  • 33. - The code was a set of rules contained in an epic Maragtas which was allegedly written by Datu Kalantiaw. The document was sold to National Library and was regarded as an important precolonial document HOAX CODE OF KALANTIAW
  • 34. -In 1968, an American historian William Henry Scott debunked the authenticity of the code due to lack of evidence to prove that the code existed in precolonial Philippine society. HOAX CODE OF KALANTIAW
  • 35. -This was widely believed by students of history and Marcos had war medals to show. This claim was disproven when historian counterchecked Marcos’s claims with the war records of the United States. FERDINAND MARCOS AS WORLD WAR II SOLDIER
  • 36. END