Male rep. system


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Male rep. system

  1. 1. Reproductive System Mark Jay V. Peña BSED 1
  2. 2. Organs and tissues involved in the production and maturation of gametes and in their union and subsequent development as offspring.
  3. 3. Functions of Reproductive System • Production of gametes • Fertilization • Development and nourishment of a new individual • Production of sex hormones
  4. 4. Formation of Gametes The formation of gametes in males and females occurs by a cell division called meiosis
  5. 5. Male Reproductive System • Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors. Consists of testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis
  6. 6. Scrotum Sac-like structure containing the testes • Dartos Muscle - Layer of loose connective tissue and a layer of smooth muscle • Cremaster Muscles – extensions of abdominal muscles into the scrotum
  7. 7. Testes • Also called Male gonads • Oval organs, 4-5 cm long, within the scrotum • Seminiferous tubules – sperm cells develop • Germ cells – embedded in the sustentacular cells • Sustentacular cells or Sertoli – large and extended from the periphery to the lumen of seminiferous tubule • Interstisial cells or Leydig Cells – secretes testosterone
  8. 8. Spermatogenesis Formation of sperm cells Spermatogonia – most peripheral germ cell Sperm cell – contains head, midpiece, and flagellum
  9. 9. Ducts After their production, sperm cells are transported through the seminiferous tubules and series of ducts to the exterior of the body Rete testis – tubular network where in seminiferous tubule of each testis empties Efferent ductules – carry sperm cells from the testis to a tightly coiled series of threadlike tubules that form a comma shaped structure on the posterior side of the testis called epididymis Epididymis – sperm cells continue to mature until the time it can swim and bind to oocytes Capacitation – occur after ejaculation of semen into the vagina prior to fertilization
  10. 10. Ductus Deferens Also called vas deferens 45 cm Contains smooth muscle which contracts in peristaltic waves to propel sperm cells from the epididymis through the ductus deferens emerges from the epididymis and ascends along the posterior side of the testis to become associated with the blood vessels and nerves that supply the testis which forms the spermatic cord
  11. 11. Seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct Seminal Vesicle – sac shaped gland Ejaculatory duct – short duct extends from the seminal vesicle to the ampulla of the ductus deferens join Urethra – passageway for urine and male reproductive fluids • Urinary bladder to distal end of the penis • Prostatic urethra • Membranous urethra • Spongy urethra
  12. 12. Penis Male organ of copulation and functions in the transfer of sperm cells from the male to the female Three columns of erectile tissue: • Two columns forms the dorsal portion and the sides of the penis and are called corpora cavenosa • Third column – smaller and occupies the ventral portion of penis and is called corpus spongiosum • Glans penis – expands over the distal end of the penis to form a cap • Prepuce – loose fold of skin that covers the glans penis
  13. 13. Glands The seminal vesicles are glands consisting of many saclike structures located next to the ampulla of the ductus deferens. Two glands 1. Prostate gland • consists of both glandular and muscular tissue • Size and shape of walnut • Surrounds the urethra and two ejaculatory ducts • Consists of capsule and numerous partitions • 10-20 short ducts that carry the secretions of the prostate gland to the prostatic urethra
  14. 14. 2. Bulbourethrel glands • Also called as cowper’s gland • Pair of small, mucus secreting glands located near the base of the penis • Size of a pea but they decrease in size with age • A single duct from each gland enters the urethra
  15. 15. Puberty • Sequence of events by which a child is transformed into a young adult • Begins at ages 12-14 • Completed at the age of 18 • Testosterone • Major male hormone secreted by the testes • Necessary for spermatogenesis • Secondary male characteristics • Hair distribution and growth • Skin texture • Fat distribution • Skeletal muscle growth • Changes in the larynx
  16. 16. Male sexual behavior and the male sex act Testosterone is required for normal sexual behavior • Male sex act • Emission • Ejaculation • Orgasm (Climax • Resolution
  17. 17. Sensory Impulses and Integration • Rhythmic massage of the penis • Psychic stimuli • Ejaculation while sleeping ( Wet dreaming )
  18. 18. Disorders (Causes and Treatment) Erectile Dysfunction (ED) • Also called Impotence • Inability to achieve erections • Caused by reduced testosterone secretion resulting from hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular complications • Due to defective stimulation of that erectile tissue by nerve fibers or reduced response of the blood vessels to neutral stimulation • Can be corrected by taking oral medications such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), or verdanafil (Livitra), or by having specific drugs injected to the base of the penis • These drugs increases blood flow into the erectile tissue of the penis, resulting in erection for many minutes
  19. 19. Infertility • Reduced or diminished fertility • Caused by low sperm cell count due to damage in the testes as a result of trauma, radiation, cryptorchidism or infections such as mumps, which blocks the ducts in the epididymis • Also caused by inadequate secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone • Fertility can be achieved by collecting several ejaculations, concentrating the sperm cells and inserting them into the female’s reproductive tract, a process called artificial insemination Reference: Seeley’s Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, Eight Edition