Interactive English: Language and Communication


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Interactive English: Language and Communication

  1. 1. Mariano Marcos State University COLLEGE OF TEACHER Laoag City Name: MARK IAN C. TAGAMI Section: BEED II-A Assignments: Definition of Language, Communication and Linguistics Short History of Language Study Forms and Elements of Communication Communication Models: Its Definition, Elements and Applications Course of Study: Interactive English (ENGL 100) Subject Professor: MR. MARK ANTHONY JUAN Date: April 12, 2014 NATURE OF MAN, LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION What is Language? Language is succinctly defined as the “human system of communication that uses arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures or written symbols. Human beings can communicate with each other. We are able to exchange knowledge, beliefs, opinions, wishes, threats, commands, thanks, promises, declarations, feelings – only our imagination sets limits. We can laugh to express amusement, happiness, or disrespect, we can smile to express amusement, pleasure, approval, or bitter feelings, we can shriek to express anger, excitement, or fear, we can clench our fists to express determination, anger or a threat, we can raise our eyebrows to express surprise or disapproval, and so on, but our system of communication before anything else is language. Language is a system of communication based upon words and the combination of words into sentences. Human beings way of communication is either be verbal or non-verbal. The ideas, questions or what you want to express is can be in a word form wherein you speak or write or it may can be sign language wherein the sender and the receiver understands each other. Birds, chimpanzees, dogs, gorillas or any forms of animals have also their way of language where they understands themselves but still human language is above of them all. In other words, language – as defined above – is an exclusively human property. 1
  2. 2. With these above-mentioned statements manifesting the inevitable prowess of language to our life, I can express that language is an extremely important and vital tool in interacting with people around us in order to survive. What is Communication? Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another; it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information or feeling to a receiver. Such a communication process can be found in many disciplines, ranging from psychology and sociology to engineering, technology, and artificial intelligence. This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating. Use of these processes is developmental and transfers to all areas of life: home, school, community, work, and beyond. It is through communication that collaboration and cooperation occur. Communication is a two-way process that results in a shared meaning or common understanding between the sender and the receiver. An understanding of how communication works can help us to understand and improve our communication. Effective communication is critically important in the teaching-learning process because it will facilitate more the taking place of information or learning acquired in the school. What is Linguistics? Linguistics is defined as the scientific study of language. It is the study of knowledge systems in all aspects wherein it encompasses how such a knowledge system structured, how it is acquired, how it is used in the production and comprehension of messages. Linguistics consequently deal with number of particular questions. Linguistics has intellectual connections and overlaps with many disciplines in the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. The underlying purpose of studying linguistics is the advancement of knowledge because the context of this field is not only how a person receives information or ideas, but it is how is the correct pronunciation of the words utter, proper enunciation, where did the words came from, how are the words organized well that makes them appropriate to listen with and many more. 2
  3. 3. Where Does Human Language Come From? Language, being an efficient human adjustment to the environment, evolved by natural selection. Biologists refer to the modern human as homo sapiens, Latin for ‘wise man’, but the possession of language is such an important part of the definition of the modern human that homo loquens ‘talking man’ would be an equally appropriate name. Since humans are the only creatures on Earth that possess language, this system of communication must by necessity be younger than the split between the human lineage and that of our closest modern non-human relative, the chimpanzee. This split is generally assumed to have taken place 5 to 7 million years ago. The oldest creatures in the human lineage are called hominids, while the first individuals belonging to our own genus, Homo, appeared about 1.9 million years ago. Few researchers – if any at all – believe language to be close to 2 million years old, but before we discuss in more detail the upper limit or the maximum age of language, let us take a closer look at the lower limit or the minimum age of language. FORMS AND ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION The Communication Process Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channelled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, however the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication in order for the act of communication to occur. Communicating with other people involves three (3) primarily steps: 1. Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or feelings. 2. Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols. 3. Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand. 3
  4. 4. During the transmitting of the message, two elements will be received: content and context. Content is the actual words or symbols of the message that is known as language — the spoken and written words combined into phrases that make grammatical and semantic sense. We all use and interpret the meanings of words differently, so even simple messages can be misunderstood. And many words have different meanings to confuse the issue even more. Context is the way the message is delivered and is known as paralanguage — it is the nonverbal elements in speech such as the tone of voice, the look in the sender's eyes, body language, hand gestures, and state of emotions (anger, fear, uncertainty, confidence, etc.) that can be detected. Although paralanguage or context often cause messages to be misunderstood as we believe what we see more than what we hear; they are powerful communicators that help us to understand each other. Indeed, we often trust the accuracy of nonverbal behaviors more than verbal behaviors. Forms of Communication Verbal Communication Verbal communication refers to the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. In verbal communication remember the acronym KISS (keep it short and simple). Verbal communication is further divided into: oral communication and written communication. Oral Communication In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking. Written Communication 4
  5. 5. In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used. Written Communication is most common form of communication being used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills. Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail are the types of written communication used for internal communication. For communicating with external environment in writing, electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases are used. Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is all about the body language of speaker. Nonverbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message received. Often, nonverbal signals reflects the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts verbal communication and hence affect the effectiveness of message. Nonverbal communication have the following three elements: Appearance Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics Surrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings Body Language facial expressions, gestures, postures Sounds Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate 5
  6. 6. Elements of Communication Process The basic communication model consists of five elements of communication: the sender, the receiver, the message, the channel and feedback. Sender The sender plays the specific role of initiating communication. To communicate effectively, the sender must use effective verbal as well as nonverbal techniques. Speaking or writing clearly, organizing your points to make them easy to follow and understand, maintaining eye contact, using proper grammar and giving accurate information are all essential in the effectiveness of your message. You will lose your audience if it becomes aware of obvious oversights on your part. The sender should have some understanding of who the receiver is in order to modify the message to make it more relevant. Receiver The receiver means the party to whom the sender transmits the message. A receiver can be one person or an entire audience of people. In the basic communication model, the receiver, is directly across from the speaker. The receiver can also communicate verbally and nonverbally. The best way to receive a message is to listen carefully, sitting up straight and making eye contact. Don’t get distracted or try to do something else while you're listening. Nodding and smiling as you listen to the sender speak demonstrate that you understand the message. Message The message may be the most crucial element of effective communication. A message can come in many different forms, such as an oral presentation, a written document, an advertisement or just a comment. In the basic communication model, the way from one point to another represents the sender's message traveling to the receiver. The message isn't necessarily what the sender intends it to be. Rather, the message is what the receiver perceives the message to be. As a result, the sender must not only compose the message carefully, but also evaluate the ways in which the message can be interpreted. Channel 6
  7. 7. The message travels from one point to another via a channel of communication. The channel sits between the sender and receiver. Many channels, or types, of communication exist, from the spoken word to radio, television, an Internet site or something written, like a book, letter or magazine. Every channel of communication has its advantages and disadvantages. For example, one disadvantage of the written word, on a computer screen or in a book, is that the receiver cannot evaluate the tone of the message. For this reason, effective communicators word written communications clearly so they don't rely on a specific tone of voice to convey the message accurately. The advantages of television as a channel for communication include its expansive reach to a wide audience and the sender's ability to further manipulate the message using editing and special effects. Feedback The last element of effective communication, feedback, describes the receiver's response or reaction to the sender's message. The receiver can transmit feedback through asking questions, making comments or just supporting the message that was delivered. Feedback helps the sender to determine how the receiver interpreted the message and how it can be improved. Context Communication does not take place in a vacuum. The context of any communication act is the environment surrounding it. This includes, among other things, place, time, event and attitudes of the sender and receiver which makes the communication more lively and effective. Noise Noise is any factor that inhibits the conveyance of a message. That is, anything that gets in the way of the message being accurately received, interpreted and responded to. Noise may be internal or external. A student worrying about an incomplete assignment may not be attentive in class (internal noise) or the sounds of heavy rain on a galvanized roof may inhibit the reading of a storybook to second graders. The communication process is dynamic, continuous, irreversible, and contextual. It is not possible to participate in any element of the process without acknowledging the existence and functioning of the other elements. 7
  8. 8. Communication Models A communication model is an idealized systematic representation of the communication process. Such models serve as standardization tools, and they provide the means to: 1. question and interpret actual communication systems that are diverse in their nature and purpose, 2. furnish order and structure to multifaceted communication events, and 3. lead to insights into hypothetical ideas and relationships involved in communication. The Johari Window One of the simplest and most common communication models within law enforcement is the Johari window. Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham created a communication model and named it after themselves. They combined their names and called the model the Johari window. This model has four regions, or areas, that represent basic areas of knowledge or information held by the manager and others. 8
  9. 9. The four panes, or windows, represent relevant information about the manager’s ability to interact with other persons effectively. The Johari window has two basic aspects of communication: exposure and feedback. The exposure aspect concerns the ability of the police administrator to express feelings and ideas in an open method. This aspect basically represents the manager’s ability to transmit information. The feedback aspect involves the ability of the administrator to receive information from others. The Johari window panes are distinct regions that encompass the following characteristics: Area I: The area I pane is known as the free area, or arena. It represents the portion of a manager’s communication ability that allows him or her to freely share and receive information with and from others. This ability is the key to a successful interpersonal relationship in an organization. Therefore, the larger this pane, or region, is in relationship to the other panes, the more effective the manager is in dealing with superiors and subordinates. Area II: The area II pane is known as the blind area, or blind spot. Everyone has heard or used the saying “I was blindsided!” This area represents information known by others— superiors, peers, or subordinates—that is not known to the administrator. In many bureaucracies, individuals believe that knowledge or information is power. In some ways, this belief is true. Police officers cannot make a valid decision if information is hidden from them. The larger this pane, the more information is being withheld from the manager. Area III: The area III pane is known as the hidden area, or the facade. This area represents how much information an officer keeps private. Everyone makes conscious or unconscious decisions to withhold certain information from others. This information may relate to personal habits or professional knowledge. When an officer withholds information, area I— the free area, or arena—is prevented from expanding. Although withholding a portion of ourselves from others is normal and healthy, a problem arises when an individual withholds information to the extent that it prevents a free, honest interchange of knowledge. Area IV: The area IV pane is called the unknown area. This area represents the amount of information that is unknown to both the manager and his or her superiors, and to his or her subordinates. As the free area, or arena, grows through effective communication, the unknown area shrinks. 9
  10. 10. Schramm’s Model of Communication Wilbur Schramm (1907–1987) introduced a model that illustrated the importance of interpersonal communication. He is considered by many people to be the father of the study of communications, and he played a critical role in the development of this research. Schramm was the first academic professional to identify himself as a communications scholar, he created the first academic degree in communications, and he trained the first generation of communications scholars. Schramm established a model of communication that attempts to explain the problems inherent in human communication. His model evolved in stages. It proceeded from a relatively simple individual form of communication to a complex model involving interaction between two parties. In the first stage of Schramm’s model, a source sends a message through an encoder; the message is received by a decoder and transmitted to its designation. The source is the mind of the person starting the communication process. The encoder is the process by which ideas are converted to symbols for transmission to another person. The decoder is the process by which symbols are received and converted into ideas by the person receiving the information. The signal is symbols that are produced and transmitted. Schramm slowly modified his first-stage model to include the concept that only the information that is shared in the respective parties’ fields of experience is actually communicated. This is the only portion of the information that is communicated because it is the only shared portion of the signal that both parties understand. Schramm’s contribution to communications theory included the concept that each person has a field of experience that controls both the encoding and decoding of information and determines the meaning of this information. In the third stage of the model, communication is viewed as an interaction in which both parties actively encode, interpret, decode, transmit, and receive signals. This model includes the feedback of continuously shared information. 10
  11. 11. Schramm’s Model of Communication Riley’s Model John W. and Matilda White Riley, a husband and wife team of sociologists, point out the importance of the sociological view in communication in another way. The two sociologists say such a view would fit together the many messages and individual reactions to them within an integrated social structure and process. The Riley’s developed a model to illustrate these sociological implications in communication. The model indicates the communicator (C) emerges as part of a larger pattern, sending messages in accordance with the expectations and actions of other persons and groups within the same social structure. This also is true of the receiver (R) in the communications process. In addition, both the communicator and receiver are part of an overall social system. Within such an all-embracing system, the communication process is seen as a part of a larger 11
  12. 12. social process, both affecting it and being in turn affected by it. The model clearly illustrates that communication is a two-way proposition. The important point the Rileys' model makes for us is that we send messages as members of certain primary groups and that our receivers receive our messages as members of primary groups. As you likely can visualize, group references may be a positive reinforcement of our messages; at other times they may create a negative force. Riley’s Model of Commuciation Aristotle’s Model of Communication Aristotle speaks of a communication process composed of a speaker, a message and a listener. Note, he points out that the person at the end of the communication process holds the key to whether or not communication takes place. Aristotle’s Model of Communication 12
  13. 13. Lasswell’s Model of Communication Harold Lasswell, a political scientist, developed a much quoted formulation of the main elements of communication: "Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect." This summation of the communications process has been widely quoted since the 1940s. The point in Lasswell's comment is that there must be an "effect" if communication takes place. If we have communicated, we've "motivated" or produced an effect. It's also interesting to note that Lasswell's version of the communication process mentions four parts — who, what, channel, whom. Three of the four parallel parts mentioned by Aristotle — speaker (who), subject (what), person addressed (whom). Only channel has been added. Most modern-day theorists discuss the four parts of the communication process, but use different terms to designate them. Laswell’s Model of Communication Shannon’s Model of Communication 13
  14. 14. Another viewpoint on communication is offered by Claud Shannon and Warren Weaver (1949). This model is focused on information theory, and in particular the transmission and reception of messages. The model introduces three elements not found in Aristotle’s model: a transmitter, a receiver, and sources of noise. In telecommunications the transmitter and receiver would be the hardware used by the sender and receiver during the act of communication. Noise may come from static sources (like solar flares), unusual weather conditions, or electron equipment that interferes with the signal. Although at first glance, this model seems to be geared strictly for telecommunications such as radio and television, some of the elements may easily generalize into other fields of interest. Consider that in any face-to-face situation, there may be environmental or other sources of noise that interfere with the communication. Shannon's model breaks the process of communication down into eight discrete components: An information source. Presumably a person who creates a message. The message, which is both sent by the information source and received by the destination. A transmitter. For Shannon's immediate purpose a telephone instrument that captures an audio signal, converts it into an electronic signal, and amplifies it for transmission through the telephone network. Transmission is readily generalized within Shannon's information theory to encompass a wide range of transmitters. The simplest transmission system that associated with face-to-face communication has at least two layers of transmission. The first, the mouth (sound) and body (gesture), create and modulate a signal. The second layer, which might also be described as a channel, is built of the air (sound) and light (gesture) that enable the transmission of those signals from one person to another. A television broadcast would obviously include many more layers, with the addition of cameras and microphones, editing and filtering systems, a national signal distribution network (often satellite), and a local radio wave broadcast antenna. The signal, which flows through a channel. There may be multiple parallel signals, as is the case in face-to-face interaction where sound and gesture involve different signal systems that 14
  15. 15. depend on different channels and modes of transmission. There may be multiple serial signals, with sound and/or gesture turned into electronic signals, radio waves, or words and pictures in a book. A carrier or channel, which is represented by the small unlabeled box in the middle of the model. The most commonly used channels include air, light, electricity, radio waves, paper, and postal systems. Note that there may be multiple channels associated with the multiple layers of transmission, as described above. Noise, in the form of secondary signals that obscure or confuse the signal carried. Given Shannon's focus on telephone transmission, carriers, and reception, it should not be surprising that noise is restricted to noise that obscures or obliterates some portion of the signal within the channel. This is a fairly restrictive notion of noise, by current standards, and a somewhat misleading one. Today we have at least some media which are so noise free that compressed signals are constructed with an absolutely minimal amount information and little likelihood of signal loss. In the process, Shannon's solution to noise, redundancy, has been largely replaced by a minimally redundant solution: error detection and correction. Today we use noise more as a metaphor for problems associated with effective listening. A receiver. In Shannon's conception, the receiving telephone instrument. In face to face communication a set of ears (sound) and eyes (gesture). In television, several layers of receiver, including an antenna and a television set. A destination. Presumably a person who consumes and processes the message. Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication 15
  16. 16. Helical or Dance’s Communication Model Frank Dance (1967) proposed the communication model called Dance’s Helix Model for a better communication process. The name helical comes from the “Helix” which means “an object having a three-dimensional shape like that of a wire wound uniformly around a cylinder or cone”. He shows communication as a dynamic and non-linear process. Dance explains the communication process based on this Helix structure and compares it with communication. In the Helix structure, the bottom or the starting is very small then it’s gradually moves upward in a back and forth circular motion which form the bigger circle in the top and still move further. The whole process takes some time to reach. As like helix, the communication process starts very slowly and defined small circle. Communicators share information with only small portion of themselves to their relationships. It gradually develop into higher level but will take time to reach and expanding its boundaries to the higher pedestal. Later, the communicator commit more and share more portion of themselves. 16
  17. 17. Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model David K. Berlo (1960) took a different approach to constructing a model. Rather than attempting to identify elements of interest, and relationships between those elements, he created what he called “a model of the ingredients of communication”. This model identifies controlling factors for four identified elements of communication: Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver. This model promises to be helpful in identifying specific factors to use in experimentation. The first part of this communication model is the source. All communication must come from some source. The source might be one person, a group of people, or a company, organization, or institution such as MU. Several things determine how a source will operate in the communication process. They include the source's communication skills — abilities to think, write, draw, speak. They also include attitudes toward audience, the subject matter, yourself, or toward any other factor pertinent to the situation. Knowledge of the subject, the audience, the situation and other background also influences the way the source operates. So will social background, education, friends, salary, culture — all sometimes called the sociocultural context in which the source lives. Message has to do with the package to be sent by the source. The code or language must be chosen. In general, we think of code in terms of the natural languages — English, Spanish, German, Chinese and others. Sometimes we use other languages — music, art, gestures. In all cases, look at the code in terms of ease or difficulty for audience understanding. Within the message, select content and organize it to meet acceptable treatment for the given audience or specific channel. If the source makes a poor choice, the message will likely fail. Channel can be thought of as a sense — smelling, tasting, feeling, hearing, seeing. Sometimes it is preferable to think of the channel as the method over which the message will be transmitted: telegraph, newspaper, radio, letter, poster or other media. Kind and number of channels to use may depend largely on purpose. In general, the more you can use and the more you tailor your message to the people "receiving" each channel, the more effective your message. 17
  18. 18. Receiver becomes the final link in the communication process. The receiver is the person or persons who make up the audience of your message. All of the factors that determine how a source will operate apply to the receiver. Think of communication skills in terms of how well a receiver can hear, read, or use his or her other senses. Attitudes relate to how a receiver thinks of the source, of himself or herself, of the message, and so on. The receiver may have more or less knowledge than the source. Sociocultural context could be different in many ways from that of the source, but social background, education, friends, salary, culture would still be involved. Each will affect the receiver's understanding of the message. Elaboration Likelihood Model Richard Petty and John Cacioppo developed this model in 1980s. In here, the underscores the concept of persuasion. Persuasion is very much associated with our daily life. Persuasion occurs when readers, listeners or viewers learns a message from what they read, listen or watch. The Elaboration Likelihood model proposes that each and every message is undergoing the process of persuasion in two different ways: the central route and the peripheral route. The process of persuasion through the Central route is straight to the point and complete. The central route needs a thoughtful consideration of arguments which contains in the message. It requires more involvement from the part of reader or viewer. The peripheral route is known to be weak and the involvement of the receiver will be low. The message sent through peripheral route is not analysed cognitively. In here, the receiver of the message is not sure whether to agree with the message or to disagree. 18
  19. 19. Barnlund’s Communication Model Transactional models can be defined as the act of exchange and interacting of systematic representation of objects or events in idealized and abstract forms among people and the environment. The nature of transactional models is sometimes based on random choice or personal sudden desire of change of mind, especially one that is unusual or unexpected. The current evolutionary development of basic interpersonal communication models is the Transactional Model of communication, first proposed by Barnlund (1970) and subsequently refined by other theorists. Departing from a linear view of communication which had its seeds before the time of Aristotle, the transactional model posits that interpersonal communication is a dynamic, process- 19
  20. 20. oriented activity in which the two participants are simultaneously s e n d i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g m e s s a g e s . The Transactional Model of Communication proposed by Barnlund states that giving and receiving messages is reciprocal (Barnlund, 1962). This means that both communicators (the sender and the receiver) are responsible of the effect and effectiveness of the communication. People do not simply send meaning from one to the other then back again. They need to build a shared meaning of the message. In addition, both verbal and non-verbal behavioral cues, the environmental and noise are a part of the message. Barnlund broke down communication into two types: interpersonal (encoding and decoding messages within one's self) and intrapersonal (encoding and decoding messages with another). Barnlund’s Transactional Model Wesltey & Maclean’s Model A revolutionary approach to communication was offered by Bruce Westley and Malcolm S. MacLean Jr. This model posits that the communication process begins with receiving messages or signals from the environment, rather than sending messages. The key feature of this process is that there is feedback at every step, a circular feedback. This model is by far complicated, however it presents a broadened view of communication in four ways: 1. Accounts for the relationship between interpersonal communication and communication involving mass media 2. Suggests that communication begins with an individual receiving messages rather than sending them 20
  21. 21. 3. Describes how many of the signals that are important to the communication process may not be intentionally sent 4. Emphasizes the changes messages undergo as they are passed along from one person to another Westley and Maclean’s Model of Communication EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION MODEL Berlo’s Communication Model Zeny and Roland wants to meet at the University library to do their reports and assignments. Zeny sent an email to Roland’s email account which she said, “Roland, let’s go to the University library tomorrow for our works.” Immediately, Roland read the message and he replied her, “ Okay, I will be there by 8:30 AM. You wait for me, okay? Zeny replied, “yes”. In here, the source of the communication is Zeny, the message is that they’ll be going to the university library to do their work, their channel is by means of electronic mail and the receiver is Roland. Dance’s Communication Model When a child is born, the only means of communication is crying, s/he cries for everything like hunger, pain, cold and more. As the child grows, the means of communication become wider and broader. He learns to make noises then he learns language to obtain attention and fulfill his needs. As the situation shows, the Helix model of communication was manifested 21
  22. 22. by the developing language means of the child from crying and later into a more complex and compound means of language. Schramm’s Communication Model Jennifer wants to watch a movie. She invited Sam to accompany her in the movie. Jennifer to Sam -“Will you accompany me for a movie ?” Sam kept mum and did not respond and hence the communication between Sam and Jennifer was not complete. If Sam was not interested for the movie, he could have responded or given the feedback to Jennifer about his unwillingness. According to Schramm’s model, whenever the information reaches the recipient, it becomes his responsibility to give the feedback and let him know if he has downloaded the message in exactly the same manner the speaker wanted. If he is not clear with anything or has any doubts, it must be cleared with the speaker. Thus when the speaker conveys any message to the listener, the listener, decodes the message and once again passes the message to the speaker after understanding it and completing the full circle. Lasswell’s Communication Model “CNN NEWS – A water leak from Japan’s tsunami-cripple nuclear power station resulted in about 100 times the permitted level of radioactive material flowing into the sea, operator Tokyo Electric Power Company said on Sunday.” In this statement, we need to identify the following elements which makes up the Laswell’s model of communication: who, what, channel, whom and effect. Who – Tokyo Electric Power Company What – Radioactive material flowing into sea Channel – CNN NEWS (Television medium) Whom – Public Effect – Alert the people of Japan from radiation. 22
  23. 23. The Johari Window Linda spent most of her time sketching in the office which was her preferred pastime and her co-workers found her very shy and elusive. With that evaluation, she got the idea how she was and tried to be more talkative and interacted more with other co-workers. This helped her to increase her open area and thus making the hidden and unknown areas smaller. REFERENCES: Berlo, D. (1960). The process of communication: An introduction to theory and practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Ruben, B. D. (1984). Communication and human behavior. Hew York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 23
  24. 24. cation_v1/OUMH1303_Topic1/OUMH1303_1_2.html models&Itemid=9 24