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Facilitating Learning: Motivation
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Motivation as a school framework

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Motivation as a school framework

  1. 1. Using motivation theories to sustainably maximise outcomes in school.
  2. 2. Goals:  to fill the spaces untouched by programs like Art andScience of teaching andVisible Learning.  to engage teachers’ motivation to improve teaching using autonomy supportive approaches.  To engage student’s motivation to improve learning behaviours. Coreunderstandings (forteachers)  Motivation is an internal and personal decision but can be changed by external factors over time.  Students are individuals whose motivations are derived from all previous experiences. Motivations may be dysfunctional, but they aren’t ‘bad’ or ‘naughty’.  Motivational factors such as prior success are all high performers in Hattie’s effect sizes.  The more ‘autonomous’ or internalised motivation is, the more effective it is in affecting sustainable behaviours.  Sincerity is necessary forgood professional relationships.  Motivation can be effected by environmental factors (nudges) that meet the three needs of efficacy, relatedness, and autonomy.  Efficacy, relatedness, autonomy, social maturity and emotional maturity all interact in producing motivation.  Efficacy beliefs (expectations of possibility and probability of success orfailure) in a specific context is a key driver in motivation and continued effort.  Rewards and punishments (including grades and comparison) are demotivating.  Autonomous supporting environments are better for motivation than controlling environments.  Ability beliefs are better for motivation than competence beliefs. (similarto growth and fixed mindset)  Learning goals are better for motivation than performance goals.  Growth mindset is better for motivation than fixed.  Specific efficacy beliefs eg that students are capable of success in this task or context are more important than general beliefs such as a growth mindset. Coreunderstandings (forstudents)  My brain develops when I put in effort to learn.  Improvement = success, learning = success.  Effort leads to improvement through learning  Abilities can improve with effort  Putting in effort at school is useful in later life  Teachers and school support my growth  Teachers do not judge, just evaluate.  Learning can be enjoyable.  Feedback is just useful information  The work at school is designed so that I can succeed at it.  What happens to me depends a lot on what I do  Success (progress/learning) at school is valuable to me.
  3. 3. Motivation theories say that high quality motivation occurs when: Teacherrelationshipsand classroomclimate 1. Relationships of teachers andschool with students isautonomysupportive, ie meeting 3 needs ofautonomy,relatednessand efficacy. 2. Relationshipsof administratorswith teachers isautonomysupportive. 3. Teachers accept andwork with each student’sperspective (even if they appear dysfunctional tostartwith). 4. Teachers are acceptingof students’responses to learningeg boredomor disinterest,appreciatingbothinner and outer obstaclesto motivation. 5. Students perceive themselves assupported (never judged). 6. Use of controllinglanguage,wheredirectivesand words thatconvey control—wordssuchas should,must,andhave to, are minimised. 7. Use of autonomysupportivelanguage,wherewords that convey choice, possibilityandsocial orempathicbenefits are maximised. 8. Processes, languageandbehavioursthatrespect autonomy are internalised and systematised. 9. Teachers convey a sense of invitationrather thancoercion. 10. Opportunitiesto exploreand try new thingswithout pressure are provided. 11. Teachers provide structure, includingclearguidelines,goals,andlimits, withouta controllingattitudeor approach a. Structures that minimisesnecessityfor control. b. Structures that provide directionwithflexibilityandtrust. c. Structures that minimisenecessityfor correction. 12. A meaningful rationaleisprovidedwhen askingstudentsto do something. 13. Feedback isperceived asinformational,notjudgmental.Specificandclear positivefeedback aboutwhat was donewell tends to enhance autonomous motivation. Task/curriculumdesign 14. Explicitimprovementis clearlyalignedwith effort (efficacy,growthmindset) 15. Classroomandtask structures are designedto conveymessages of autonomy,efficacyandrelatedness 16. Students perceive they have real choice, particularlycognitivechoice(not just content or context) either individuallyoras a group. Eg insteadof 3 teacher-generated options,explaintherationaleof a task, ask for possibleapproachesandselect the 3 most manageable.(autonomy) 17. Students understandthe purposeof learning (value). 18. Students understandthe process oflearning (competence). 19. Students havea process for integratingfeedback. (efficacy,value,cost) 20. Productiveresponse to feedback is expected and time given for it. (competence,efficacy,value, cost) Oversightand compliancerequirements 21. Teachers themselves need to experience autonomy,competence,and relatedness intheir jobs. 22. Goalsare focusedon learning for intrinsicpurposessuchas: a. contributeto society, b. be physicallyfit,or c. grow as a person. 23. Excessive oversightof teachers externalisesand therefore limits motivation. 24. Teachers have the resources andpermissionto attend to the (three) basic psychological needsofstudents. 25. Teachers and students are NOT asked to focuson outcome measures beyond ‘improvement’, andmetrics are notrequired to be met. Potentialschool environment changes/interventions Administrator’s mindset and beliefs • Accept that each teacher’s perceptions of their job at school is their reality. • Clarify what you mean by a functional teacher to use as a base line for improvement. • Meet each teacher’s needs and respectfully support them to replace dysfunctional behaviours with more functional. • Absolutely avoid judgement of a teacher because of behaviour or outcomes. Regard behaviours and outcomes as information to guide your next strategies. • Be subtle in your behaviours to support sincerity and trust. • ‘Sit beside’ teachers and appreciate what they are doing rather than praise. • Accept that assessment is for ‘discovering what students know’ rather than ‘seeing how well they have done’. • Define (and describe) success as ‘progress’ and ‘learning’. • Accept an action research model of personal/professional improvement.
  4. 4. Teacher’s mindset  Acceptthat each student’sperceptionsof theirlife atschool istheirreality.  Meetstudent’sneedsandrespectfullysupportthemtoreplace dysfunctional behaviourswithmore functional.  Be subtle in yourbehaviourstosupportsincerityandtrust.  ‘Sitbeside’studentsand appreciate whattheyare doing ratherthanpraise.  Clarifymeaning(tooneself) of ‘passconceded’orC- (thinkfunctional inthat subjector situation).  Assessmentis for‘discoveringwhatstudentsknow’ ratherthan‘seeinghow well they havedone’.  Define (anddescribe) successas‘progress’or‘learning’. Structure/design  Create curriculumthatis clearly developmental sostudentsperceive improvement.  Monitorimprovementexplicitlyandinvolve the students.(NoteA – E is a poor metric for this.Explicit learningsor learningcontinuaarebetter).  Use ‘NY’ inreporting(wherepossible) tosignifynotlearnedyetwhenever effortisbeingmade.  Keepclearseparationwhenreportingonlearning,effort,andbehaviour.  Buildprocessesthatalloweffective monitoringandsupportof learning.  Personalisecurriculum,assessment,andlearningprocesses.  Allowinterimsuccesstocontribute tofinal success.  Designprocesses toreduce ‘cost’tostudentswhere possible. o Time – do more in school time,lessathome exceptforenrichment or by choice. o Emotional – be autonomysupportive,avoidjudgementorcriticism,help studentsreframe theirbeliefsaboutsuccessandfailure,give early feedbackonbasics,frontendassessment,guarantee outcomes.  Designeverythingto make ALLforms of value explicit(butsubtle). o Pleasure inlearning–successfullysolvingproblems,groupworkand creativity,immediatereal application. o Utilityvalue i. (longterm) forthe good of society, environment,personalgrowth, healthandwellbeing. ii. (shortterm) growbrain,improve chance of successin otherareas, recognitionof interimsuccess.  Designtasksas problemsthatcan be solvedinmultiple waysandatmultiple levels.  Provide amixture of noveltyandconsistencyinlesson/taskdesign.  Give meaningfulchoice inunitdesign. (topic,mode,methodandcomplexity)  Designassessmenttodiscoverwhatstudentsknowratherthansee howthey have done on whatwas taught. Pedagogy  Ensure clarityof outcomes,processes,requirementsof atask or learning experience.  Explicitlyteachcore learningintentionsandsupportstudentstoself-monitor successcriteria.  Describe andteacheffort.  Ensure effortisrewardedwithimprovement.  Individualise curriculum.  Activelybuildandmaintainprofessional relationships.  Smile andknowyourstudentsasindividuals.  Model pleasure indiscoveryandlearning.  Avoidrewardsunlesstheycanbe framedasmeasurement(of improvement).  Avoidpunishmentbytreating problematicbehaviourasan ‘opportunityto learn’.  Explicate ‘intrinsicorsociallysoundgoalsforlearning.  Give constructive,informational feedbackwithoutgrades(initially)andclass time to discussoract on it.  Minimise oversightandcompliance butbuildprocessesthatalloweffective monitoringandsupportof learning.  Give studentsopportunitiesto‘share’ theirknowledge to‘help’ others.  Organise foreasilymanaged earlyinformational feedbacktoensure direction and keyskillsare correct.  Teach abouthowthe brainchangeswhile learning(Paul).  Use Growthmindsetquestionnaires.  Use pre,and post-tests,andeffectsize (withcare). Language  Mean whatyou say.  Describe all learningasbrainexercisenotforfuture benefitorachievement.  Alwaysdescribe inabilitytodosomethingas‘yet’.  Describe successaslearningorprogress.  Avoidtalkingabout‘passing’atall.Focusonlearningandimprovement.  Use autonomysupportive language inall school interactionsanddocuments.  Language of appreciationisbetterthanpraise.  Praise little buthonestly.  If you praise,praise processandeffort,notintelligence orachievement.  Avoidpunitive,comparative,orjudgmental language.  Say ‘yesand’,ratherthan‘notuntil’ to requeststoimplyautonomy andbuild self-controlanddelayedgratification.  Use positive languageof assessmente.g. assessmentis a‘chancetoget credit’ and meanit.
  5. 5. Usingmotivationtheorytomaximise studentoutcomesandwellbeing - asustainable ‘nudge’based pedagogical framework. Outcomes – achievement. wellbeing Learning behaviours: engagement, focus, performance, persistence, resilience Environmental Influences not controllable at school previous achievement, SES, family,cultural milieu Value/costExpectancy Masters: Curriculum as continuum, assessment of what you learn Curriculum structure Student/teacher relationships Flexibility and personalisation of teaching School climate Autonomy supportive environment Student mindsets Policies, procedures. Impacting theories/ideas Environmental Influences that are controllable at school. Deci, Ryan: Self Determination Theory Marzano: Guaranteed and viable curriculum Ability vs competency beliefs I can ‘do’ school I value myteacher’sopinion I enjoy learning My brain develops when I put in effort to learn. Assessment design Pedagogy Teacher behaviours and language My abilities can improve with effort Learning = Improvement = success Effort equates to improvement I am not judged Teachers and school support my growth Hattie: Effect sizes Feedback is just useful information Locus of control Dweck: Mindset EQ: SWPB Performance vs learning goals Pedagogical style Parent support Pedagogical quality What happens to me depends a lot on what I do. Attribution theory theory Attribution training Level and type of motivation (SDT) Student decides (EVT) Putting in effort at school will be useful to me in later life I value successat school I knowwhatmy jobis Language of school communications I am able to do the work. Martin: Personal Best Teacher mindsets I value learning
  6. 6. EVT Achievement behaviours Choice, performance, persistence, resilience Perceived task values Intrinsic value Utility value Cost Attainment value Goals and general self schemata Critical self schemata Long range goals Immediate goals Perceptions of socialiser’s attitudes and expectations Expectancies Efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations Current, Future Interpretations of past events Attributions Task specific beliefs Self concept of ability Perceptions of task difficulty A growth mindset correlates strongest with learning goals Autonomous vs controlled environment Fixed vs Growth mindset Broad achievement goals and narrow task achievement goals Cultural milieu Past performances Ability beliefs Vs Competence beliefs Performance goals vs learning goals Socialisers values, beliefs and behaviours Gould:Task design, pedagogy, assessment characteristics Hattie High influence activities Visible Learning p256
  7. 7. Types of motivation (modified fromIntrinsicandExtrinsic Motivations:ClassicDefinitionsandNewDirectionsRichard M.RyanandEdwardL. Deci) Motivationisbestunderstoodasa continuumfromamotivatedtointrinsicallymotivatedasinthe followingdiagram: Amotivated Noadequatereasontoengage Extrinsic Intrinsic External regulation Introjection identification Integration Authority Approval from others Consciousvaluingof activity with goals Complete consistency betweengoalsand values Inherent satisfaction The behaviour is maintained because it is: demanded by threat or reward expected by others linked to future goals consistent with internal beliefsand goals consistent with basic needs and pleasure Students engage because they are made to they know parents and/or teachers want them to they want good results they know it is a good thing for them they are interested Effective learningbehaviours,suchasfocusand attention,increasefromlefttorightthroughthe formsof motivation,withminimal inamotivation. Adoptingasone’s own,an extrinsicgoal requiresthatone feel efficaciouswithrespecttoit.Studentswillmore likelyadoptandinternalize agoal if theyunderstanditand have the relevantskillstosucceed atit. Thus,we theorize thatsupportsforcompetence (e.g.,offeringoptimal challengesandeffectance-relevantfeedback)facilitate internalization. Controllingcontextsmayyieldintrojectedregulationif theysupportcompetence andrelatedness,butonlyautonomysupportivecontextswill yieldintegratedself-regulation. To fullyinternalizearegulation,andthustobecome autonomouswithrespecttoit,people mustinwardlygraspitsmeaningandworth.Itis these meaningsthatbecome internalizedandintegratedinenvironmentsthatprovide supportsforthe needsforcompetence,relatedness,andautonomy. Increasingsustainablevalue
  8. 8. Definitions: Ability beliefs Broadbeliefs aboutcompetenceinagiven domain,thattend to befixed. Achievementvalues Importanceofdoingwell (integratedextrinsic),intrinsic orinterestvalue, utility value (identifiedextrinsic)orusefulnessof the task, andcost Attributions Themeaningpeopleapplyto experiencesbasedontheirinternalisedbeliefsystems. Autonomous Internalto oneself,arisingfrom the personthemselvesandintegratedinto their beliefsystem. Autonomy-supportive approaches Behaviours that aim to meetthe three needsof studentsin classrooms(Efficacy,Autonomy andRelatedness),entailtakingstudents' perspectives, acknowledgingtheirneedsandfeelings,providingsupportwhenthey faceobstacles,andproviding choiceandsupportinginitiativewherepossible.Inaddition, positive, non-evaluative feedbackthat is informationalratherthanpressuringorperformancedriven,supportsautonomy. Climate The‘feeling’inacontextsuchas a classroom orwholeschoolthatconveys messagesorexpectations. Choice In school,choicecanbesuperficialormeaningful.Meaningful choicecanhaveasignificantimpacton motivation. Competencebeliefs Ability to be successfulinagiven task (similarto efficacy). Controlbeliefs Thebeliefsoneholdsaboutone’spowerto effect outcomes.Relatestolocusof control.An internallocusofcontrolis when someonebelievestheyare the majoreffectorof their outcomesegbystudying or not. An externallocusof controlis the opposite egthat poorperformanceisbecausetheteacheris‘bad’etc. Controlled Externalto oneself,arisingoutsidethe person (ega system or teacherorrule) Controllingapproaches Behaviours suchasrewards, punishments,demands,andevaluative pressuresto controlbehaviourand to foster desiredachievementoutcomes. Cost (of behaviour) A generalterm for the time,effort andrisks of behavingin a certainway. In Expectancy-Valuetheory, cost is weighedagainstexpectationsofsuccessand outcomesandthevalue of achievingthosegoals. CulturalMilieu Therangeof messagesarisingfrom thewholeenvironment,media,friends,family, etc Efficacy Ability to be successfulinagiven task (similarto competence) Efficacyexpectations(or expectancies) Specific beliefsaboutwhetheronecaneffectivelyperform the behavioursnecessaryto producetheoutcome(e.g.,“I canpracticesufficientlyhardto winthe next tennis match”). Expectancies Set of expectationsaboutpotential success,outcomesorresults of an action. Externalregulation Least autonomous.Externalmotivatorssuchas classic rewardsandpunishmentswidelygivento controlpeople'sbehaviours. Extrinsic motivation Motivationsexternalto the behaviouror task suchas rewardor punishment,sociallyinfavour or marginalised.InSDT theory, thereare 4 levels of extrinsic motivationfrom least(worst) to most(best) autonomous –external, introjected,identified,integrated. Fixedmindset Thebeliefthat one’sintelligenceorabilityis fixed at birthand canNOT improvewitheffort. Goal An aim that one is committedtothat serves as a guidefor future behaviour. Growthmindset Thebeliefthat one’sintelligenceorabilitycanimprovewith effort. Internalregulation Mostautonomous.Internalmotivators suchas personalgoals,personalimprovement,beingofsocialbenefit. Intrinsic motivation Motivationsrelatedto interest inthe behaviour or task itself. Learninggoals Seekingafter new skills,knowledgesorideas Motivation Theinternaldriveto engageina behaviour.It canbeintrinsic orextrinsic. Outcomeexpectations(or expectancies) Generalbeliefsthat certainbehaviourswillleadto certainoutcomes(e.g.,the beliefthat practicingwillimproveone’sperformance Overjustification effect Theeffectof decreasingaperson'sintrinsic motivationto perform a task dueto anexpectedexternalincentivesuchasmoneyor prizes. Performance-approachgoals Desireto demonstratecompetenceandoutperform others. Performance-avoidancegoals Desireto avoid lookingincompetent. Relatedness Theconnectiononefeelstowardspeople,places,contexts(egschool)orevents Resilience Theabilityto try againin the faceof adversity. Socialisers People(or systems) that influenceaperson’sbeliefsystems, teachers,parents, friendsor schools,home-life,clubsetc Values The‘worth’andsocialimportanceofanoutcome,orabstract,desirableendstate that peoplestrive for or aim to uphold,suchasfreedom,loyalty, or tradition.

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