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# Lacture 8 market research

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Marketing Research with statistical part.

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### Lacture 8 market research

1. 1. MARKETING-UTOPIA CORRELATIONThe correlation is one of the most common and most useful statistics. A correlationis a single number that describes the degree of relationship between two variables.Correlation exampleLet’s assume that we want to look at the relationship between two variables, height(in inches) and self esteem.Let’s say we collect some information in twenty individuals.Height is measured in inches.Self esteem is measured based on the average of 10.1-to-5 rating items (where higher score means higher self esteem). Here’s the datafor the 20 cases: Person Height Self esteem 1 68 4.1 2 71 4.6 3 62 3.8 4 75 4.4 5 58 3.2 6 60 3.1 7 67 3.8 8 68 4.1 9 71 4.3 10 69 3.7 11 68 3.5 12 67 3.2 13 63 3.7 14 62 3.3 15 60 3.4 16 63 4.0 17 65 4.1 18 66 3.8 19 63 3.4 20 61 3.6 www.marketingboys.tk (bd.utopia@gmail.com)
2. 2. MARKETING-UTOPIAAnd, here is the descriptive statistics: Variable Mean St. Dev. Variance Sum Minimum Maximum Range Height 65.4 4.40574 19.4105 1308 58 75 17Self Esteem 3.755 0.426090 0.181553 75.1 3.1 4.6 1.5What does a “positive relationship” mean in this context?It means that, in general, higher scores on one variable tend to be paired with higherscores on the other and that lower scores on one variable tend to be paired withlower scores on the other. Calculating the correlationNow we are ready to compute the correlation value. The formula for the correlationis:r=Where:N = number of pairs of scores = Sum of the products of paired scores = Sum of x scores = Sum of y scores ^2 = sum of squared x scores ^2 = sum of squared y scoresWe use the symbol are to stand for the correlation. r will always be between -1.0and +1.0. If the correlation is negative, we have a negative relationship; if it ispositive the relationship is positive. Statistical measure of how well a regression line approximates real data points; anr- squired of 1.0 (100%) indicates a perfect fit.Let’s look at the data we need for the formula. Here is the original data with theother necessary columns: www.marketingboys.tk (bd.utopia@gmail.com)
3. 3. MARKETING-UTOPIA Person Height (x) Self Esteem (y) x*y x*x y*y 1 68 4.1 278.8 4624 16.81 2 71 4.6 326.6 5041 21.16 3 62 3.8 235.6 3844 14.44 4 75 4.4 330 5625 19.36 5 58 3.2 185.6 3364 10.24 6 60 3.1 186 3600 9.61 7 67 3.8 254.6 4489 14.44 8 68 4.1 278.8 4424 16.81 9 71 4.3 305.3 5041 18.49 10 69 3.7 255.3 4761 13.69 11 68 3.5 238 4624 12.25 12 67 3.2 214.4 4489 10.24 13 63 3.7 233.1 3969 13.69 14 62 3.3 204.6 3844 10.89 15 60 3.4 204 3600 11.56 16 63 4.0 252 3969 16 17 65 4.1 266.5 4225 16.81 18 67 3.8 254.6 4489 14.44 19 63 3.4 214.2 3969 11.56 20 61 3.6 219.6 3721 12.96 Sum = 1308 75.1 4937.6 85912 285.45 N = 20 = 4397.6 = 1308 = 75.1 ^2 = 85912 ^2 = 285.45Now, when we plug these values into the formula given above, we get the followingAgain the mathematical formula for computing r is: www.marketingboys.tk (bd.utopia@gmail.com)
4. 4. MARKETING-UTOPIAr=r=r=r=r=r=r = .73So, the correlation for our twenty cases is .73, which is a fairly strong positiverelationship. I guess there is a relationship between height and self esteem, at leastin this made up data! Types of correlationPositive correlation: If x and y have a strong positive linear correlation, r is close to+1. An r value of exactly +1 indicates a perfect positive fit. Positive values indicate arelationship between x and y variables such that as values for x increase, values fory also increase. www.marketingboys.tk (bd.utopia@gmail.com)
5. 5. MARKETING-UTOPIAwww.marketingboys.tk (bd.utopia@gmail.com)
6. 6. MARKETING-UTOPIAwww.marketingboys.tk (bd.utopia@gmail.com)