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Edtech ppt

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Educational systems around the world are under increasing pressure to use the new information and communication technologies (ICTs) to teach students the knowledge and skills they need in the 21st century. The 1998 UNESCO World Education Report, Teachers and Teaching in a Changing World, describes the radical implications the new information and communication technologies have for conventional teaching and learning. It predicts the transformation of the teaching-learning process and the way teachers and learners gain access to knowledge and information.
  3. 3. Technology, specifically computer technology, is more pervasive than ever before. As such, it has dramatically changed the face of education in the 21st century and will continue to do so, but the extent to which technological change has improved or revolutionized teaching and learning remains a topic of debate among educators.
  4. 4. ISSUES 1.How do we infuse technology into the entire teacher education program in the context of the – Cognitive approach – Sociocognitive approach 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the integration of technology in the classroom? 3. What are the other factors that hinder the integration of technology in the classroom? 4. What are the essential conditions for implementing ICTs in teacher education?
  5. 5. ISSUES COGNITIVE APPROACH Technologies which support a cognitive approach to language learning are those which allow learners maximum opportunity to interact within meaning-rich contexts through which they construct and acquire competence in the language. Examples of these types of technologies include text-reconstruction software, concordancing software, telecommunications, and multimedia simulation software.
  6. 6. Text-reconstruction software (e.g., NewReader from Hyperbole or Text Tanglers from Research Design Associates) allow teachers to provide students various texts in which letters or words are either missing or are somehow in mixed up order. Students work alone or in groups to complete or re-arrange the texts, thus supporting a process of mental construction of the linguistic system. While such activity could in theory be carried out with paper and pencil, the computer provides facilitative functions for both teachers and students. In keeping with students’ needs, interests, and current curricula, teachers can quickly and easily create re-arranged texts or cloze exercises from any original word-processed passage. Students can use hints provided by the computer as scaffolds for the acquisition process.
  7. 7. • Concordancing software (e.g., Monoconc from Athelstan) allows teachers or students to search through small or large texts to look for instances of the actual use of particular words. Concordancers are thus supplements to dictionaries in that they help locate the usage of a word, rather than just its definition. In addition, concordancers are useful for investigating collocational meanings (e.g., "large box" vs. "big box," or "depend on" vs. "depend in" vs. "depend for") or grammatical features (e.g., "was going" vs. used to go). Indeed, language learners can develop their own hypotheses regarding rules of syntax or semantic collocations and test these out as powerful problem-solving activity.
  8. 8. • Multimedia simulation software allows learners to enter into computerized microworlds that, at their best, simulate an immersion or a “lingistic bath” environment; that is, learners can a sense of experiencing the target language and culture first hand. Many such products also allow a great of learner manipulation of language forms, functions, and cultural knowledge as part of their experience within the simulated environment.
  9. 9. SOCIOCOGNITIVE APPROACHES Sociocognitive approaches, in contrast to cognitive approaches, emphasize the social aspect of language acquisition; learning a language is viewed as a process of apprenticeship or socialization into particular discourse communities (Schieffelin & Ochs, 1986). From this perspective, students need to be given maximum opportunity for authentic social interaction, not only to provide comprehensible input but also to give students practice in the kinds of communication they will later engage in outside the classroom. This can be achieved through student collaboration on authentic tasks and projects (Breen, 1987; Candlin & Murphy, 1987; Long & Crookes, 1992; Prabhu, 1987) while simultaneously learning both content and language (Flowerdew, 1993; Meskill, (in press); Snow, 1991).
  10. 10. SOCIOCOGNITIVE APPROACHES • 1. Computer- Mediated Communication in a Classroom 2. Computer-Mediated Communication for Long Distance Exchange 3. Accessing Resources and Publishing on the World Wide Web
  11. 11. OTHER MODEL STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATING ICTs INTO TEACHING 1. WebQuests. A WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners’ time well, to focus on using information rather than looking for it, and to support learners’ thinking at the levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The WebQuest provides teachers an option of reviewing and selecting web-based learning activities in a lessontype format. The WebQuest model encourages teachers to create for their students new activities and adapt successful ones to take advantage of the Web’s power. 2. CyberGuides. CyberGuides include standards-based, web-delivered units of instruction centred on core works of literature. CyberGuides provide a quick supplementary set of activities for students (and pre-service teachers) as they explore specific pieces of literature. Each CyberGuide contains a student and teacher edition, targeted standards, a description of the task, a process by which the task may be completed, teacher-selected web sites, and an assessment rubric.
  12. 12. OTHER MODEL STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATING ICTs INTO TEACHING 3. Multimedia Presentations. • • creating a web page or site; • • developing a branching hypermedia stack; • • using a multimedia slide show application to create a computer presentation; • • shooting and editing video to create a computer-generated movie. • 4. Telecomputing Projects. Telecomputing projects are Internet-enriched learning activities that often involve students in one location collaborating with students or adults in one or more other locations. They may share, among other things: • • experiences • • beliefs • • data • • information • • problem-solving strategies • • products they have developed or jointly developed.
  13. 13. OTHER MODEL STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATING ICTs INTO TEACHING 5. Online Discussions. A common type of telecomputing activity is online discussion. With the growth of infrastructure around the world comes the ability to access others through remote connections. Students and teacher candidates can connect to experts and peers through a variety of formats, such as chat rooms, electronic bulletin boards, and email. Communicating online offers participants freedom to send and receive information efficiently across diverse geographic locations. 6. Choicemaster is a package designed for teachers who wish to produce straightforward multiple-choice exercises and tests. In tutorial mode, the student receives immediate feedback as every question is completed. It offers clues and explanations when wrong answers are selected. In tests, the students is not offered any feedback until the whole exercise has been completed.
  14. 14. ADVANTAGES OF ICT • One question often asked by administrators is whether or not technologies truly "work," that is, if they promote language learning and do so in a cost-effective way. These types of questions motivated much research in the 1970s comparing use of computers to non-use of computers.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES OF ICT This type of research ignored two important factors. First of all, the computer is a machine, not a method. The world of online communication is a vast new medium, comparable in some ways to books, print, or libraries. To our knowledge, no one has ever attempted to conduct research on whether the book or the library is beneficial for language learning. The enterprise of seeking similar conclusions on the effects of the computer or the Internet is equally inappropriate.
  16. 16. ADVANTAGES OF ICT • Secondly, and even more importantly, new communications technologies are part of the broader ecology of life at the turn of the century. Much of our reading, writing, and communicating is migrating from other environments (print, telephone, etc.) to the screen. In such a context, we can no longer think only about how we use technologies to teach language. We also must think about what types of language students need to learn in order to communicate effectively via computer. • The main advantage of new technologies is thus that they can be used to help prepare students for the kinds of international cross-cultural communication which are increasingly required for success in academic, vocational, or personal life. • This is accomplished through creating opportunities for authentic and meaningful interaction both within and outside the classroom, and providing students the tools for their own social, cultural, and linguistic exploration.
  17. 17. Disadvantages of ICT for language teaching Investment of Money Investment of Time Uncertainty of Results
  18. 18. DISADVANTAGES OF ICT 1. Investment of Money. Uses of new technologies in the long run tend to result in higher productivity, at least in the economic sphere. Productivity in education is certainly harder to measure, but it is not unreasonable to assume that over time new technologies will help create more effective education (bearing in mind the earlier point that the goals and nature of education are changing in the information age, thus making direct comparisons difficult).
  19. 19. DISADVANTAGES OF ICT 2. Investment of Time Just as technologies may save money over the long term, they also may save time. But, potential long-term benefits to an institution are little consolation to an individual teacher who is spending enormous amounts of time learning constantly-changing software programs and trying to figure out the best way to use them in the classroom.
  20. 20. DISADVANTAGES OF ICT 3. Uncertainty of Results As indicated earlier, there is no single predictable outcome for using computers, anymore than there is for using books or libraries. Thus institutions and teachers are expected to invest large amounts of time and money without any guarantee of achieving particular results.
  21. 21. Other factors that hinder the ICT in the classroom The barriers inhibiting the practice of Computer-assisted Language Learning can be classified in the following common categories (a) financial barriers, (b) availability of computer hardware and software, (c) technical and theoretical knowledge, and (d) acceptance of the technology.
  22. 22. factors that hinder the ICT in the classroom • a. Financial Barriers • Financial barriers are mentioned most frequently in the literature by language education practitioners. They include the cost of hardware, software, maintenance (particular of the most advanced equipment), and extend to some staff development.
  23. 23. Factors that hinder the ICT in the classroom • b. Availability of Computer Hardware and Software The most significant aspects of computer are hardware and software. Availability of high quality software is the most pressing challenge in applying the new technologies in education. Underlying this problem is a lack of knowledge of what elements in software will promote different kinds of learning. There are few educators skilled in designing it cause software development is costly and time-consuming. • c. Technical and Theoretical Knowledge A lack of technical and theoretical knowledge is another barrier to the use of Computer-assisted Language Learning technology. Not only is there a shortage of knowledge about developing software to promote learning, but many instructors do not understand how to use the new technologies. Furthermore, little is known about integrating these new means of earning into an overall plan.
  24. 24. Factors that hinder the ICT in the classroom • d. Acceptance of Technologies We live in a time change. Gelatt (1995) stated that change itself has changed. Change has become so rapid, so turbulent, and so unpredictable that is now called "white water" change (p.10). Murphy & Terry (1998a) indicated the current of change move so quickly that they destroy what was considered the norm in the past, and by doing so, create new opportunities. But, there is a natural tendency for organizations to resist change. Wrong conceptions about the use of technology limit innovation and threaten teachers' job and security (Zuber-Skerritt, 1994). Instructors are tend not to use technologies that require substantially more preparation time, and it is tough to provide instructors and learners access to technologies that are easy to use (Herschbach, 1994).
  25. 25. Essential conditions for implementing ICTs in teacher education
  26. 26. Essential conditions for implementing ICTs • Shared Vision. There is proactive leadership and administrative support from the entire system. • Access Educators have access to current technologies, software, and • telecommunications networks. • Skilled Educators Educators are skilled in the use of technology for learning. • Professional Development Educators have consistent access to professional development in support of technology use in teaching and learning. • Technical Assistance Educators have technical assistance for maintaining and using the technology. • Content Standards and Curriculum Resources. Educators are knowledgeable in their subject matter and current in the content standards and teaching methodologies in their discipline.
  27. 27. Essential conditions for implementing ICTs • Student-Centred Teaching. Teaching in all settings encompasses student-centred approaches to learning. • Assessment. There is continuous assessment of the effectiveness of technology for learning. • Community Support. The community and school partners provide expertise, support, and resources. • Support Policies. School and university policies, financing, and rewards structures are in place to support technology in learning. (ISTE, 2000) classrooms as well as lab settings, and provisions must be made for special populations.
  28. 28. Essential conditions for implementing ICTs • Access. The technology should be accessible immediately when it is the best route to the information or tools needed by pre-service teachers, teachers, and students. Furthermore, university model classrooms are important for determining the way technology should be used in the classroom environment. • Skilled Educators. The educators who work with teacher candidates must be skilled in the use of technology for learning. They must be able to apply technology in the presentation and administration of their coursework and facilitate the appropriate use of technology by their teacher candidates.
  29. 29. Essential conditions for implementing ICTs • Professional Development. Even in contexts in which professional development is extensive, it is important to provide consistent access to professional development as the technology constantly changes. • Technical Assistance. Educators need technical assistance to use and maintain technology. The focus of the faculty member, teacher, and pre-service teacher should be on teaching and learning, not on maintaining and repairing the technology beyond basic troubleshooting procedures.
  30. 30. Essential conditions for implementing ICTs • Content Standards and Curriculum Resources. Educators must be knowledgeable in the content, standards, and teaching methodologies of their disciplines. Teacher candidates must learn to use technology in powerful, meaningful ways in the context of teaching content. • Student-Centred Teaching. Teaching in all settings should encompass student-centred approaches to learning.
  31. 31. Essential conditions for implementing ICTs • Assessment. In addition to assessing teaching and student outcomes, institutions should continuously assess the effectiveness of technology for learning throughout the entire teacher preparation environment. The data obtained from this continuous assessment will: • • inform the learning strategies used, • • ensure that the vision for technology-use maintains the appropriate • direction, • • pinpoint potential problems, and • • provide data for altering policies and instructional strategies or for acquiring resources.
  32. 32. Engaging in Computer-assisted Language Learning is a continuing challenge that requires time and commitment. As we approach the 21st century, we realize that technology as such is not the answer to all our problems. What really matters is how we use technology. Computers can/will never substitute teachers but they offer new opportunities for better language practice. They may actually make the process of language learning significantly richer and play a key role in the reform of a country's educational system.
  33. 33. WE TOUCH THE FUTURE WE TEACH… Yoroshko Onigaishimasu!