Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)


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Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology
Chapter 9 Social Stratification

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Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology Saint Paul University Philippines Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
  2. 2.  Ranking of individuals and groups in any given society.  Hierarchical arrangement and establishment of social categories that may evolve into social groups as well as of statuses and their corresponding roles.  Separating people or objects into categories  In closed stratification, people cannot change their ranking; while in open stratification, people can change their ranking
  3. 3.  “Institutionalized Inequality”  Differentiation of statuses and social roles into ranked orders Social Process • Splitting up of society into social categories that develop into social groups cooperating, competing, conflicting- for the status quo or social change Social Problem • Involves bitter feelings of discontent and of strong demands for equality or social justice.
  4. 4.  The situation in which the economic goods in a society are distributed unevenly among different groups or categories of people
  5. 5. ATTRIBUTIONS STEREOTYPE  It assigns to people different attributes as a result of differences. People are treated differently due to their presumed ethnic characteristics.  One assumes that persons who falls into a particular category on the basis of certain characteristics also have many characteristics that we assume to belong to that category
  6. 6. SELF-FULFILLING PROPHESIS SOCIAL COMPARISONS  Once we categorize people through assigning a stereotype, our perception of their behaviour is being filtered through that stereotype. As a consequence, the person may begin to act as we expect him or het to act.  People need to compare themselves with others in order to establish for themselves what kind of people they are.
  7. 7. A FAIR WORLD JUST WORLD HYPOTHESIS  People are more concerned about establishing equity (just division of rewards) than equality (equal division of rewards)  People like to believe that there is justice, that people get what they deserve.
  8. 8. • Social psychological research indicates that people make attributions about themselves and others, compare themselves with others, form judgement about who is better and who is better and develop beliefs that justify inequalities.
  9. 9. These are categories that separate people or objects
  10. 10.  What people own and inherit is called wealth. It consists of the value of everything a person or group owns.  Income refers to how much people get. It is the amount of money one person or group receives
  11. 11.  Sociologists define power as the ability to control one’s life (personal power) and to control or influence the action of others.
  12. 12.  Social recognition that a person or group receives from others.  Esteem, respect or approval that is granted by an individual or a collectivity for performance or qualities they consider above the average.  Societies differ in what attributes they attach prestige to: ◦ Religion, holiness, zeal ◦ Occupational ranking ◦ Consumption patterns ◦ Leisure activities ◦ Membership in organizations
  13. 13.  Subjective Method. Personal ascription of the class one belongs to.  Reputational Method. Old-timers identify the social classes that exist in the community and to place each resident in one or another category.  Objective Method. Division according to income, occupation, education and type of residence.
  14. 14. 1. Conflict Theory 2. Functionalist Theory
  15. 15. 1. Stratification is the result of the struggle among people for scarce rewards and it persists in society because the “haves” are determined (exploiters) and equipped to preserve their advantage by dominating and exploiting the “have nots” (exploited). 2. Class conflict over material privilege and power; those who own the means of production (capitalists or bourgeoisie) and those who sell their labor (worker or proletariat)
  16. 16. 3. Viewed the: nation or state as an instrument of oppression; religion as a method of diverting and controlling the masses; the family as a devise of keeping wealth and education in the hands of the few 4. People’s lives are centered on how they deal with the material world. The key issue is how wealth is distributed among the people
  17. 17. 5. Four ways in which wealth can be distributed ◦ To each according to need. Basic economic needs of all of the people are satisfied. ◦ To each according to want. Wealth is distributed according to what people desire and request. ◦ To each according to what is earned. ◦ To each according to what can be taken- by using whatever means. Everyone ruthlessly attempts to acquire much wealth as possible without regard for the hardship that might be brought on others.
  18. 18. 1. People are motivated by self interest. 2. Group conflict is a basic ingredient of society 3. Those who do not have property can defend their interests less well than those who have property 4. Economic institutions are of fundamental importance in shaping the rest of society
  19. 19. 5. Those in power promote ideas and values that help them maintain their dominance 6. Only when exploitation becomes extremely obvious will the powerless their dominance.
  20. 20.  If all the positions that have to be filled in a society were equally important and everyone were equally capable of doing their jobs, there would be no need of stratification. But this is not the case. Some tasks are clearly more necessary than others, and some require a great deal more talent and training.  Social inequality is viewed as both necessary and constructive.
  21. 21.  Both theories acknowledge that the evaluation of the contributions of jobs to society also determines unequal rewards.  The Marxist theory leans heavily on the significance of power in the distribution of resources; while the functionalist emphasize the necessity of assigning some position or work higher status than others.  Both theories recognize that social power plays a part in determining the unequal distribution of rewards.
  22. 22. Functionalist View Conflict Theory 1. Stratification is universal, necessary and inevitable 2. Social organization (the social system) shapes the stratification system 1. Stratification may be universal without being necessary and inevitable 2. The stratification system shapes social organizations (social system)
  23. 23. Functionalist View Conflict Theory 3. Stratification arises from the societal need for integration, coordination and cohesion 4. Stratification facilitates the optimal functioning of society and the individual 3. Stratification arises from group conquest, competition, and conflict 4. Stratification impeded the optimal functioning of society and the individual
  24. 24. Functionalist View Conflict Theory 5. Stratification is an expression of commonly shared social values 6. Power is usually legitimately distributed in society 5. Stratification is an expression of the values of powerful groups 6. Power is usually illegitimately distributed in society
  25. 25. Functionalist View Conflict Theory 7. Tasks and rewards are equitably allocated. 8. The economic dimensions is subordinate to other dimensions of society 7. Tasks and rewards are inequitably allocated. 8. The economic dimension is paramount in society
  26. 26. Functionalist View Conflict Theory 9. Stratification systems generally change through evolutionary processes 9. Stratification systems often change through revolutionary process.
  27. 27. 1. Open System 2. Closed System
  28. 28.  Positions are awarded on the basis of merit, and rank is tied to individual achievements.  Status is said to be achieved depending on what the individual accomplishes and what he can do by his own efforts.  It provides people with an equal chance to succeed.
  29. 29.  It consists of a category of people who share similar opportunities, similar economic and vocational positions, similar lifestyles, and similar attitudes and behaviour.  Class boundaries are maintained by limitations on social interaction, intermarriage, and mobility into that class.
  30. 30.  Status is ascribed and determined at birth and people are locked into their parent’s social position.  Ascribed characteristics determine social position, and individuals opportunities are limited accordingly.  Caste lines are clearly defined and legal and religious sanctions are applied to those who attempt to cross them
  31. 31.  It is a rigid system. People are born into and spend their entire lives within a caste with little chance of leaving it.  Contact between castes is minimal and is governed by a set of rules or laws.  Access to valued resources is extremely unequal
  32. 32.  A person’s social position is based on ownership of land, birth or military strength.  An estate is a segment of a society that has legally established rights and duties.
  33. 33. 1. People who have made it 2. People who are doing very well 3. People who have achieved the middle class dream 4. People who have comfortable life 5. People who are just getting by 6. People who are having a difficult time 7. People who are poor
  34. 34.  Upper Class have great wealth, often going back for many generations; are recognized by reputation and lifestyle; have an influence on the society’s basic economic and political structures.  Upper- Middle Class is made up of successful business and professional people and their families; Have a college education, own property and have money savings; live comfortably in exclusive areas
  35. 35.  Lower- Middle Class shares many characteristics with the upper middle class but they have not been able to achieve the same lifestyle because of economic or educational shortcomings; usually high school or vocational education graduates with modest incomes; less professionals, clerical, and sales workers  Working Class is made up of factory works and other blue-collar workers
  36. 36.  Lower Class are people at the bottom of the economic ladder. They have little in the way of education or occupational skills and are consequently either unemployed or underemployed.
  37. 37. • The movement of an individual or group within a stratification that changes the individual’s or group’s status in society • The degree of mobility depends on (1) rules governing how people gain or keep their positions; and (2) structural changes in society.
  38. 38. • Power • Prestige Wealth
  39. 39.  It is the ability to attain goals, control events and maintain influence over others- even in the face of oppositions  People empowerment is a movement aimed at liberating the poor people from their poverty, and the powerless people from their situation.
  40. 40.  It consists of approval and respect an individual or group receives from other members of society 1. Esteem consists of the appreciation and respect a person wins in his or her daily interpersonal relationships. 2. Honor that is associated with specific statuses in society
  41. 41.  The total economic assets of the individual or a family are known as a wealth.  Poverty is a condition in which people do not have enough money to maintain a standard of living that includes the basic necessity of life.
  42. 42. 1. Upward Mobility 2. Horizontal Mobility 3. Geographical Migration 4. Role Mobility
  43. 43.  Movement of individuals or groups from lower to higher status in social stratification system (or vice versa)  Operate intragenerationally- social change during the lifetime of one individual; or intergenerationally- changes in the social level of a family through two or more generations.
  44. 44.  The policy and practice of immigration into a total society and into a local community  Differential fertility of social classes  Presence or absence of individual competition as a value in the culture  Availability of opportunities to prepare one’s self for the competitive process.  Pattern of equality and inequality in a society (religion, sex, ethnic plurality and the like)
  45. 45.  Disappointments and frustrations are cushioned by the traditional conservatism of middle class  Have little contact with his former associates of higher status  Rationalization of the mobility  There is no significant status visibility  Consolation that children may regain social status that one has himself lost
  46. 46.  May come about because of changing one’s occupation, marrying into a certain family and others.  Movement involves a change in status with no corresponding change in social class
  47. 47.  Movement from one geographical spot to another  Includes forced relocation of large groups of people, eviction, and dispossession of unwanted people, voluntary permanent migration from one country to another, or from one region to another within the same country, as well as local residential changes.  Fluidity exemplified by people commuting from home to office or factory, making business trips and taking vacations.
  48. 48.  Voluntary Migration refers to the voluntary movement of people from one geographical area to another  Forced migration includes expulsion of unwanted people, the herding people into reservation areas and concentration camps, the transportation of enslaved individuals and groups
  49. 49.  Economic factor. This refers to the desire of people to seek better food supplies, workers looking for better living.  Political reason. Some people move to escape from political oppression and racial discrimination; or political asylum to other countries  Religious liberty. Some people move to enjoy religious liberty in response to existing religious persecutions in their country
  50. 50.  Educational opportunities. Some avail themselves of educational opportunities prevailing in other areas due to the presence of colleges and university in other areas.  Natural or man-made calamities (floods, denudation, volcanic eruption, earthquake)
  51. 51.  Diffusion of culture means contact and communication between people who had been culturally and geographically isolated.  Biological mixture  Urbanization of the culture. Urban ways of thinking and acting, urban social relations and structures and increasing secondary associations.
  52. 52.  It is the shifting from role to role  Every person enacts multiples roles, even while he remains a total, integrated personality. His participation in different groups and in different situations call for enactment of various roles.  There is normal successive assumption of new roles.  Occupational mobility causes shifting of roles.
  53. 53.  Hard work.  Social structure.  Societal values and norms.  Level of education.  Marriage  Luck
  54. 54.  Higher status is the result of personal achievement.  There as many channels of social mobility as they are social roles the person enacts.  Striving for higher status is often accompanied by certain strains and frustrations  Downward social mobility carries it own costs and personal costs.
  55. 55.  The amount of education a person has constitute one of the most important criteria of social status.  Those who receive higher education may use it as a stepping stone to a higher social status
  56. 56.  Success in life is always attached to upward social mobility.  The values of activity, success and quantity are extremely improtant from the point of view of social mobility.  Upward mobility means for any individual that he enjoys higher status than he previously had, and this is in itself valued as an achievement.