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The teaching professions in the context of globalisation: A systematic literature review by Tore Bernt Sorensen

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The teaching professions in the context of globalisation: A systematic literature review by Tore Bernt Sorensen

  1. 1. The teaching professions in the context of globalisation: A systematic literature review University of Cambridge February 7th 2018 Tore Bernt Sorensen Université Catholique de Louvain
  2. 2. The ERC TeachersCareers project - objectives, hypotheses and questions The literature review - being systematic and making a case for the choices involved Observations, initial results, strands of the literature
  3. 3. ERC TeachersCareers Project • 5 years project starting from 2017 • Principal Investigator Xavier Dumay, 2 post-docs and 1 PhD (with 2 post-docs and 1 PhD starting from autumn 2018) • 4 Working Packages (teacher policy, supply, labour markets, mobility) • Critical friends – scholars affiliated with the project • Partners in Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Institut de Recherche sur l’Education at Université de Bourgogne, Department of Education at University of Oxford This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement N° 714641)
  4. 4. Research objective The objective of the Teacherscareers project is to analyse the political construction of global (European) models of teachers’ careers, and how they have been appropriated in three distinctive national systems (France, England, French- speaking Belgium), thereby reconfiguring the labour markets for teachers (supply, allocation, and mobility).
  5. 5. TeacherPolicy Educational Regimes Employment Regimes Research objective Teacher Supply Teacher Allocation Teacher Mobility 5
  6. 6. Teachers as policy problem • The representation of teachers as a policy problem is not new, yet since the 2000s – new intensity in political (and politically framed research) activities – the problem has been redefined in being scaled up to the global level, calling for collaborative (not necessarily common) solutions • Effective (motivated, skilled, innovative) teachers are central for realizing goals of productivity, equity and adequacy. However, around the world issues of low attractiveness and retention rates of teaching professions (leading to shortages in supply), and fragmented and segregated labour markets present significant challenges.
  7. 7. Hypotheses • Teacher policies in Europe are increasingly anchored in the global education policy field and influenced by a performative view of educational systems (flexibilisation of employment relations + the learning shift in education). • Transnational teacher policies models/instruments are hybridized by the twin national employment and educational modes of regulation, reconfiguring labour markets for teachers (supply, allocation, and mobility).
  8. 8. Working Package on teacher policy • In which ways have teachers’ careers been subject to political processes and governance mechanisms internationally? • Can we observe normative models of ‘good’ teachers and their careers internationally? How have they evolved over time in terms of their semantic universes (flexibilisation + learning shift)? • To which extent are the national trajectories of teacher policies linked to global governance structures and their normative models, and are they related in the same way - through identical mechanisms? • How to characterise the evolution of teacher policies in each national context? Which models of teachers’ careers and labour markets for teachers?
  9. 9. Literature review on teachers and teaching in the context of globalisation
  10. 10. Guiding question for the review • How has the ‘teacher problem’ since the 1990s been represented in the Anglophone peer-reviewed academic literature on the teaching professions in the context of globalisation and Europeanisation? (the review should help us formulating hypotheses about mechanisms, or institutional logics, at work at the global or transnational scale, and how these mechanisms interact with other mechanisms or conditions present at other scales)
  11. 11. Defining review, defining literature “Although the literature review is a widely recognized genre of scholarly writing, there is no clear understanding of what constitutes a body of literature. Each reviewer must decide which specific studies to include or exclude from a review and why. And each such decision alters the character of the set as a whole and could also therefore alter the net conclusions drawn from the set.” “… even systematic reviews require nontrivial judgments as researchers try to define the boundaries of their research questions and their standards for acceptable literature. Often, when readers approach a systematic review, they may be unaware that microlevel decisions have influenced the composition of the literature as a whole.“ (pp.139-140, emphasis added) Kennedy, M. (2007). Defining a literature. Educational Researcher, 36(3), 139–147
  12. 12. Review Organizing and prioritizing the most relevant information in a larger pool of information. Many sorts of literature reviews, with various purposes in terms of theoretical development and/or policy purposes. Systematic literature reviews for policy design: Evidence-based policy, effective application of best public policy practices  Aggregative reviews focused on effectiveness of interventions (e.g. meta-analysis through statistical pooling of primary research studies) Systematic literature reviews for theory-building and hypothesis testing: Mapping, discussing, and perhaps bringing together different strands of the relevant literature, to identify and challenge established paradigms and schools of thought  Configurative reviews (Gough, Oliver, and Thomas, 2013)  Conceptual (integrative, theoretical, methodological, and historical) reviews (Kennedy, 2007)
  13. 13. Being systematic Aggregative reviews, ideally exhaustive to avoid bias in the reporting of findings Configurative reviews, mapping and discussing patterns in the literature and findings
  14. 14. Review as configuration • The very topic of teachers and teaching in the context of globalisation calls for a configurative review o identifying themes and major schools of thought and their variations, as well as minority views and dissent o the limitations of the exclusive scope on English language contributions should be understood with this objective in mind
  15. 15. Review stages 1. Need – who is doing the review and what are the findings used for? 2. Review question and underlying assumptions 3. Scope and inclusion criteria 4. The design of a search strategy 5. Screening to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant studies 6. Coding to collect information and findings as a basis for mapping the field 7. Mapping by describing the nature of the research field defined by the inclusion criteria 8. Appraise by judging the relevance, quality and contributions of the studies 9. Synthesise by bringing together the findings to address the research questions 10. Communicate by presenting the review, including methodology, findings and synthesis Gough, Oliver, and Thomas (2013). Learning from research: Systematic reviews for informing policy decisions—A quick guide. London: Nesta. Petticrew and Roberts (2006). Systematic reviews in the social sciences: A practical guide. Blackwell.
  16. 16. Scope and inclusion criteria 4 cross-cutting dimensions: • The social dimension: teachers as a diverse yet distinctive social group, working in primary and (lower and upper) secondary education (ISCED levels 1, 2 and 3). • The work dimension: the work and practices going on inside schools as well as the labour markets and career pathways of teachers. • The political dimension: governance and political processes concerned with the control, regulation or management of teachers as the main labour force in education • The scalar dimension: the intensification of political processes across sub- national, national and international scales. These pluri-scalar governance activities involve heterarchical networks as well as hierarchies, informal discussions as well as formal negotiations structured according to political mandates. The 4 dimensions are central for the design of search strategies, screening, and coding of the relevant literature.
  17. 17. What to include? • Literature which is explicitly addressing internationalising, globalising or regionalising processes and teachers  EXCLUDING literature which does not theorise or address those globalising processes but that appears to be influential in promoting globalising processes of teacher policy (often cited in publications by the OECD, the European institutions, etc.) • Priority given to articles in academic journals and book contributions issued by publishing houses.  We apply a strict concept of peer-reviewed literature, EXCLUDING publications from organisations affiliated with state authorities and intergovernmental organisations, conference papers, working papers, commissioned papers written by university-based scholars, reports from consultancies, foundations and think tanks, news reports, and websites (all regarded as grey literature).
  18. 18. Search strategy Hand-search Identifying key contributions Compiling lists of bibliographies Electronic data searches Selecting databases Defining and applying search strings Compiling lists of references Initial selection of literature for relevance screening Final pool of literature – to be coded
  19. 19. Hand search – key contributions 3 book chapters in edited volumes 2 monographs (Robertson, 2000; Darling-Hammonds et al, 2017) 3 special issues of peer-reviewed journals International Journal of Educational Research (2006) Comparative Education Review (2012) Educational Researcher (2017) Edited volumes Reforming Teaching Globally (2007) Routledge World Yearbook of Education 2013 Promoting and Sustaining a Quality Teacher Workforce (2015) International Handbook of Teacher Quality and Policy (2018)
  20. 20. Hand search – 4 review-like key contributions Contribution Total ref Cross- ref Ref to other key contributions Grey literature Non- English References included in pool for screening Nóvoa (2000) in Swing et al. 2000 72 3 0 5 28 36 Tatto (2008) in Prospects 109 13 3 20 1 80 Paine et al. (2016) in Gitomer and Bell (ed) 371 34 6 79 16 236 Akiba (2017) in Educational Researcher 202 32 19 27 0 127 Total 754 82 28 131 45 479
  21. 21. Databases 2 major databases to complement the hand-search and challenge our preconceptions: 1. Scopus – maintained by Elsevier 2. Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) – maintained by Institute of Education Sciences. IES is the statistics, research, and evaluation arm of the US Department of Education.  different results and few cross-references between Scopus and ERIC searches – and to hand-search  Selection policy: journals vs. books and chapters (publisher- based)
  22. 22. Composing the search string Social dimension teacher OR teaching profession AND Work dimension labour OR career OR work OR retention OR supply OR allocation OR demand OR practice AND Political dimension policy OR reform OR governance OR law OR control OR management OR managing OR regulation AND Scalar dimension international OR global OR globalisation OR supranational OR european OR transnational OR regionalisation OR comparative
  23. 23. Tuning search strings • Finding a balance between search sensitivity and specificity (and manageability) • Search parameters o Title, abstract and keywords/descriptors Using certain descriptors in ERIC yields more results than using the same keywords in Scopus
  24. 24. Pool for screening Source References Key contributions 107 4 review-like contributions 479 Scopus 134 ERIC 270 Total 990
  25. 25. Screening criteria • Screening not for quality, but for relevance • 4 dimensions - again: o The social dimension – focusing on teachers o The work dimension: practices, labour markets, career pathways of teachers (including initial education and training) o The political dimension: governance and political formation o The scalar dimension: global, transnational, international, regional contexts (also contextualised case studies), policy borrowing and lending
  26. 26. References post-screening Initial pool Selected % relevant Key contributions 107 (70) (65%) 4 review-like contributions 479 (9 +21+70=30= 130) (27%) Scopus 134 50 37% ERIC 270 51 19% In total 990 (301) (30%)
  27. 27. General observations • Our preconceptions have been challenged (teacher migration abroad)… and confirmed (geographical bias and main strands) • Strong focus on Europe (Finland), the US (and Canada), Australia, and East and South-East Asia (but also references on especially Sub- Saharan Africa)  The nature, agencies and mechanisms of globalisation  Mapping comparisons in the literature • IEA TIMSS study prominent data source during the 2000s (US and Japan), with the OECD TALIS programme and the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)  Emphasis on policy?
  28. 28. Themes in the literature (Numbers refer to 51 ERIC search results) Teachers, teaching and learning (31 references) • ITE/teacher education/teacher training (18) • Teacher induction (3) • Professional development and professional learning communities (6) Teacher policy, focused on policy formation, governance, power (13) • teacher voice in policy formation at various scales, including labour conflict (5) Labour market, workforce modelling, supply, demand, migration (11) Teacher attitudes (16) Certification, accountability, evaluation (6)
  29. 29. Initial coding 3 strands of literature: • a ‘teaching and learning-centric’ literature with a strong focus on teacher education, pedagogy, social and cultural context, levels of professional autonomy, and opportunities for career-long professional development • a neo-institutionalist perspective concerned with cross-cultural patterns of teaching practices and beliefs, and institutional change regarding teachers’ careers  Recent emphasis on tension, conflict and situated sense-making (Akiba, 2017) • a critical literature focused on domination and power relations in the global education policy field Strengths, limitations and epistemic gains? What are we missing? Where is the neo-liberal literature?
  30. 30. Moving on Coding procedures  4 dimensions (social, work, political, scale)  QDA Miner and Wordstat The review and the project?  Europe and the global field – regionalisation and globalisation  The cases of England, French-speaking Belgium, and France  Taking stock and looking ahead Feedback and comments welcome