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B2267 pickles 08

  1. 1. B2267University of Wisconsin-Extension Cooperative ExtensionWisconsin Safe FoodPreservation Series Homemade Pickles & Relishes Barbara H. Ingham
  2. 2. ContentsFermented pickles 1 Pickle recipes 15Fresh pack or quick process pickles 2 Fermented or crock pickles 15Refrigerator pickles 2 Brines for fermented pickles 17Freezer pickles 2 Fermented pickle recipe 18Use high quality ingredients 3 Fresh pack and quick process Vegetables and fruits 3 recipes 20 Start with the right ingredients 4 Vegetable pickle recipes 28 Water 5 Fruit pickle recipes 41 Vinegar 5 Relish recipes 46 Salt 6 Refrigerator pickle recipes 52 Use the right amount of salt 7 Freezer pickle recipes 54 Weigh salt for best accuracy 7 Family favorite pickle recipes 57 Sugar 8 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Spices, garlic and dill 8 Series publications 59 Grape leaves 9 Web sites 59 Firming agents 9 Recipe index 60Equipment for fermented or crock pickles 10Equipment for all pickles 11Processing in a boiling water canner 12 Sterilizing jars 12 Headspace 14When jars fail to seal 14Alternative low-temperature pasteurization process 14 University of Wisconsin-Extension Cooperative Extension, 2002
  3. 3. Both types of pickles are preservedW hen your garden yields a surplus of fresh produce, by acid. The acid may be: or when the farm stand has I acetic acid from commercialprices too low to resist, then it’s time vinegar (5 percent acetic acid) —to make pickles. Follow the research- used in fresh pack or quicktested recipes in this bulletin for safe process pickles and relishes — orand easy preparation and preserva- I lactic acid produced by bacteriation of your garden bounty. in fermented or crock pickles.Pickling is one of the oldest knownmethods of preserving foods, and along-time favorite among home Fermented picklescanners. While cucumbers are the Fermented pickles — also calledmost popular pickled product, many crock pickles — are produced byother vegetables and fruits can be curing cucumbers or other vegeta-successfully pickled at home. bles in a salt brine for several weeks.To the inexperienced person, pickling During this treatment, salt-tolerantmay seem to be a complex proce- bacteria convert carbohydratesdure, laden with mysterious steps (sugars) in the vegetables into lacticand unknown outcomes. In fact, you acid by a process known as fermen-can make safe, high quality pickles if tation. Lactic acid preserves theyou remember two basic rules: pickles and gives them their charac- teristic tangy flavor.1. Use high quality ingredients. The salt concentration is very impor-2. Follow tested recipes precisely. tant in this process, and is necessaryThe recipes in this bulletin tell you to encourage growth of the righthow to make two different types of types of bacteria. For this reason, youpickles for canning: fermented or will want to use the exact amountcrock pickles, and of salt stated in each recipe.fresh pack or Cucumbers fermented in salt brinequick process without added herbs or spices arepickles and called salt stock. They may be storedrelishes. in the brine for several months and then made into sour or sweet pickles. Cucumbers fermented in salt brine with added dill, spices and garlic make genuine dill pickles. When completely cured, the cucumberHOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 1
  4. 4. flesh becomes a transparent olive- Use the exact amount of vinegargreen. The cured dills are packed in stated in each recipe, or an unsafecanning jars, covered with boiling product may result. Salt or sugarhot brine, and heat processed in a can be decreased in fresh packboiling water canner for a product pickles with safe results, but picklesthat can be enjoyed all year long. may lack some characteristic flavor and texture.Fresh pack or quickprocess pickles Refrigerator pickles Some pickle recipes that call forMany popular kinds of pickles are enough vinegar (5 percent aceticknown as fresh pack or quick acid) can be stored safely in theprocess pickles. Fresh pack pickles refrigerator at 40° F or colder for upare not fermented. Instead, a hot to 1 month.solution of vinegar and salt (and These pickles do not require heatsometimes sugar) is prepared and processing, but they must be keptpoured over the pickles before they refrigerated. Do not decrease theare processed. Pickles prepared in amount of vinegar in these recipes;this way include fresh pack dill an unsafe product may result.pickles, bread-and-butter pickles, andbeet pickles.Also in this category are: Freezer pickles If you like to make sweet pickles —I Fruit pickles prepared from fruits and want to make them quickly and such as peaches, pears or apples in the coolest possible way — try simmered in a spicy, sweet-sour making freezer pickles. syrup. For some reason, cucumber andI Relishes prepared from chopped other vegetable slices packed in vegetables or fruits simmered in vinegar and sugar remain crisp when vinegar solutions. frozen. Freezer pickles taste best ifAfter jars are filled, fresh pack pickles chilled. Once thawed, these picklesare processed in a boiling water must be kept refrigerated for usecanner. Such pickles are preserved by within 2 weeks.the acetic acid in the added vinegar,and the heat processing. Followtested recipes precisely.2 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  5. 5. You can make many types Use high qualityof delicious pickles. ingredients Fermented pickles are produced by Vegetables and fruits Select fresh, firm, high quality veg- fermenting cucum- etables and fruits for pickling. Discardbers or other vegetables in a salt brine bruised, moldy or insect-damagedfor several weeks. During fermentation produce.or curing, bacteria convert sugars in Grow or purchase varieties of cucum-the vegetables into lactic acid, which bers that are designed for pickling.preserves the pickles and gives them Pickling cucumbers suited fortheir characteristic tangy flavor. Wisconsin include Alibi, Bush Pickle, Calypso, Diamante, Eureka, Fancipak,Fresh pack or quick process pickles are Northern Pickling, and Homemadequick and easy to prepare. Vegetables Pickles. Using varieties of cucumbersor fruits are packed in jars, covered designed for pickling will yield a highwith a hot vinegar solution, and imme- quality product.diately heat processed. Also in this Although pickling cucumbers makecategory are pickles prepared from good gherkin pickles at 1 to 2 inches,fruits such as peaches, pears or apples pickles are more typically made fromsimmered in a spicy, sweet-sour syrup, cucumbers that are 3 to 5 inches long. You can leave them whole, orpackaged and processed. Relishes are slice them lengthwise into spears orprepared from chopped vegetables or crosswise into slices or chunks.fruits simmered in a vinegar solution When cucumbers grow longer thanbefore being heat processed. 5 inches, they are best chopped andRefrigerator or freezer pickles can be made into relish. Fresh-eatingprepared without heat processing. “slicing” varieties and ‘‘burpless’’ cucumbers can be used in relishes orCucumbers and other vegetables are for quick process bread-and-butterpacked in a strong vinegar and sugar pickles, but are not suitable for fer-solution for storage in the refrigerator mented pickles or fresh pack dillor freezer. pickles.HOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 3
  6. 6. Wax-coated cucumbers bought fromsupermarkets are not suitable for Start with thepickling because of varietal qualities, right ingredientsand because the pickling solution Select fresh, firm,cannot penetrate the wax coating. high quality veg-For best quality, pickle fruits or veg- etables and fruitsetables within 24 hours of harvest, or for pickling. Varieties recommendedrefrigerate for no more than a fewdays. This is particularly important for for Wisconsin can be found in thesecucumbers because they deteriorate publications, available from yourrapidly, and if stored for too long will county UW-Extension office ornot make a quality product. Cooperative Extension Publications atJust before pickling, sort fruits and the address on the back cover:vegetables for uniform size accord- Apple Cultivars for Wisconsin A2105ing to recipe directions. Wash care-fully, especially around the stems. Growing Pumpkins and Other VineSoil trapped near the stem can be a Crops in Wisconsin A3688source of bacteria that can cause Harvesting Vegetables from the Homepickles to soften. Garden A2727Discard floating or damaged cucum- Home Fruit Cultivars for Northernbers, and fruits or vegetables that are Wisconsin A2488over-ripe or damaged. Home Fruit Cultivars for SouthernRemove all blossoms, and cut a 1⁄16- Wisconsin A2582inch slice from the blossom end of Vegetable Cultivars and Planting Guidevegetables and discard. The blossoms for Wisconsin Gardens A1653contain enzymes that can cause soft-ening and result in an unacceptableproduct.4 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  7. 7. Water To prepare safe,Softened water is recommended formaking pickles and relishes. Hard high qualitywater usually contains lime — pickles, usecalcium hydroxide — that may: softened water, undiluted commercialI decrease acidity, resulting in an white or cider vinegar, canning and unsafe product, and pickling salt and whole spices.I contain iron, magnesium or Never use homemade vinegar in sulfur compounds that can making pickles, or vinegar that has cause discoloration or off-flavors. been diluted, unless specified in theIf you use hard water, you can recipe. Otherwise, an unsafe productremove some of these minerals: may result.I Boil the water for 15 minutes in a large kettle, then let the water Firming agents such as calcium stand in the kettle for 24 hours. chloride, calcium hydroxide (lime) andI After 24 hours, pour off the water aluminum (alum) are not necessary for carefully, leaving sediment in the pickling, and using them may result in kettle. an unsafe product. The use of theseVinegar compounds is not recommended.Use commercial vinegar that is stan- white vinegar to ensure uniformdardized at a 5 percent acetic acid flavor and attractive color.content. Use the type of vinegar therecipe calls for, either white vinegar Apple cider vinegar can be a goodor cider vinegar. If the recipe does choice for many pickles. Its mellow,not specify a particular vinegar, use fruity taste blends well with otherany of the following commercial flavors. But cider vinegar darkensvinegars of 5 percent acetic acid. most vegetables and fruits.Note: Many grocery stores now Apple cider flavored distilledalso stock 4 percent vinegar. This vinegar looks and tastes like applevinegar is not approved for home cider vinegar, but is made by addingcanning. Choose carefully. apple cider flavoring to white dis- tilled vinegar. Use this as you wouldWhite vinegar has a mellow aroma use apple cider vinegar.and tart acid flavor, and maintainsthe appearance of light-colored veg-etables or fruits. Many recipes specifyHOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 5
  8. 8. Do not dilute vinegar unless the Kosher pure flaked salt requiresrecipe specifies. An unsafe product special care if used for pickling.may result. If you want a less sour Flaked salt weighs less per volumeproduct, add sugar rather than using than canning and pickling salt, soless vinegar. Vinegar also loses you need about 50 percent more —strength as you boil it, so follow 11⁄2 cups of flaked salt equals aboutrecipe instructions precisely. 1 cup of canning and pickling salt.Do not use homemade vinegar in If you use kosher salt for fermentedmaking pickles. The acetic acid pickles, you must weigh out thecontent of homemade vinegar is proper amount. Weigh out 73⁄4highly variable and may be too low ounces (220 grams) of flaked salt,to ensure safety. and you will have the equivalent ofVinegar may naturally contain 1 cup of canning and pickling salt.sediment in the bottom of the bottle. Kosher salt is more expensive thanYou can remove the sediment by canning and pickling salt, and maystraining the vinegar through double be harder to find.layers of cheesecloth. Avoid using a Dairy salt used in making cheesemetal strainer, as it may darken the can also be used in making pickles,vinegar. since it is pure salt. For best accuracy, weigh out 73⁄4 ounces (220 grams) ofSalt dairy salt per cup of salt in a recipe.Canning and pickling salt — pure No other adjustments in the recipegranulated salt — is recommended are necessary.for use in all kinds of pickles. This salt Reduced-sodium (‘‘light’’) saltsdoes not contain anti-caking agents may be used in fresh pack or quickor iodine, and is available in most process pickles only, but maysupermarkets. Recipes in this booklet change the flavor. For best results,call for canning and pickling salt. use tested recipes designed to beNever alter salt concentrations in lower in sodium.fermented pickles. Proper fermen-tation depends on correct propor-tions of salt and other ingredients.6 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  9. 9. Plain table salt, iodized table salt Use the right and sea salt are not recommended amount of salt for pickling. Table salt contains anti- caking ingredients that make the Recipes in this pub- pickling solution cloudy and leave lication call for sediment at the bottom of the jar. canning and Iodine may also darken pickles, in pickling salt. If you use other pure salt addition to producing a cloudy brine. such as kosher salt or dairy salt for If you find you must use table salt, making fermented pickles, weigh salt sea salt or salt substitutes for to equal each cup of canning and pickling, use these only for fresh pickling salt. For the same weight, pack or quick process pickles. measures will vary (see chart below). Avoid using these for fermented pickles. The potassium chloride in Plain or iodized table salt, sea salt, salt substitutes cannot substitute for reduced-sodium salts and salt substi- sodium chloride in the brines for fer- tutes may be used for making fresh mented pickles. pack or quick process pickles, but may Ice cream salt, rock salt and solar not yield a quality product. Ice cream salt should not be used for pickling. salt, rock salt and solar salt are not These salts are not considered food- grade, and contain impurities that considered food-grade and should not can cause discoloration or other be used for pickling. defects in pickled products.Weigh salt for best accuracyType of salt Weight equivalent MeasureCanning and pickling salt (Morton®)* 73⁄4 oz. (220 g.) 1 cupKosher flaked salt (Diamond Crystal®)* 73⁄4 oz. (220 g.) 11⁄2 cups* Reference to products is not intended to endorse them, nor to exclude others that may be similar. If you use these products, follow the manufacturer’s current label directions. oz. = ounce g. = gramHOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 7
  10. 10. Sugar Dill heads — fresh green-seededEither white granulated sugar or heads of the dill plant — are best forbrown sugar can be used in pickle making dill pickles.recipes, depending on your prefer- If dill is ready before cucumbers areence and the product color you in season, store it in the freezer asdesire. follows:Some honey could be used in I Cut fresh dill heads, wash ifmaking the sweet-sour syrup for fruit needed, shake off excesspickles. But substitute sparingly — moisture, and allow to air dry fortoo much honey can mask fruit an hour.flavor. I Place dill heads in a heavy food-Sugar substitutes (artificial sweet- grade plastic bag, seal, label andeners) are not recommended in freeze.pickling because the heat processing You can also hold early dill by placingrequired may cause a bitter flavor. freshly washed heads in a large clean jar and covering the heads with undi-Spices, garlic and dill luted commercial white or ciderMost pickle recipes call for whole vinegar (5 percent acetic acid). Coverspices for fresher and more concen- the jar and keep it in a cool placetrated flavor than ground spices. until you are ready to make dillSpices deteriorate and lose their pickles. Use the dill-flavored vinegarpungency in heat and humidity. with the dill heads as you make freshStore any unused spices in an air- pack dill pickles later on.tight container in a cool place. Fresh dill leaves, dried leaves (dillTo keep spices from discoloring weed) or dried dill seeds can bepickles, tie them in a cheesecloth bag used if fresh dill heads are notbefore adding to the pickling solution. available.After simmering in the pickling Try this substitution: 1 tablespoonsolution, remove the spice bag. of dried dill seed or weed equalsGarlic should be mature and free about one fresh dill head.from dark spots or discoloration.Separate the bulb into cloves. Tapeach clove with a knife to easilyloosen and peel off the thin paperyskin.8 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  11. 11. Grape leaves Use of a firming agent is no longerGrape leaves have historically been recommended. Nevertheless, aused in fermented pickles. People number of firming agents have beenfound that if they placed grape used in pickle recipes over the years.leaves in the crock or brine during These are mentioned here only tofermentation, cucumbers were less describe the conditions under whichlikely to soften. they might be safely used.Researchers later discovered that Most firming agents provide calcium,grape leaves contain varying which combines with natural pectinamounts of a natural inhibitor that in vegetables and fruit to formreduces the effect of a softening calcium pectate, giving the pickles aenzyme found on moldy cucumber firmer texture.blossoms. Food-grade calcium chloride isIf you remove the blossom end available at some home canningbefore soaking cucumbers in brine, supply stores. Use at a rate of noyou do not need to use grape leaves more than:as a firming agent. Gently wash I 1 teaspoon per gallon of picklingcucumbers and then trim a thin slice solution in fresh pack pickles.(1⁄16 inch) from the blossom end and I 1 teaspoon per gallon of brine indiscard. fermented pickles. Calcium hydroxide — also calledFirming agents pickling lime or slaked lime — isIf you use freshly picked cucumbers, available at some supermarkets orfollow an up-to-date tested recipe, through home and garden catalogs.and heat process pickles for the Do not use agricultural or burntcorrect length of time, pickles will lime; this is not food-grade.turn out crisp and you won’t need to Food-grade pickling lime can beadd firming agents. safely used only if you follow eachA safe alternative for making crisp of these three rules:pickles is to soak cucumbers in ice 1. Lime is used as a lime-waterwater for 4 to 5 hours before solution as an initial soak forpickling. fresh cucumbers 12 to 24 hours before pickling them. It must not be added to the final brine or pickling solution.HOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 9
  12. 12. 2. Lime is added at a rate of no more than 2 tablespoons per Equipment gallon of water in the soaking for fermented solution.3. Excess lime absorbed by or crock pickles cucumbers is removed by Container for brining pickles — rinsing. To remove excess lime, Use a clean container, usually 2 to 5 drain the lime-water solution, gallons in size. Any of the following rinse and then cover the cucum- would be an appropriate container: bers in fresh water. Soak in water I Crock or stone jar free of chips for 1 hour. Repeat rinsing and and with a good glaze on the soaking two more times. interior surface.Caution: To make safe pickles, excess I Heavy food-grade plastic con-lime absorbed by cucumbers must tainer in which food productsbe rinsed off thoroughly after were originally packed, includingsoaking. Do not add lime to the plastic ice cream buckets andpickling solution; use only as an pails — If you are not sureinitial soak. Lime does not dissolve whether a plastic container is safewell in water, and may be slightly for food, read its label or contactcaustic (sting). Handle with care. the manufacturer. Another optionAvoid inhaling lime dust while is to line the questionable con-mixing the lime-water solution. Keep tainer with several thicknesses ofout of reach of children. food-grade plastic bags.Aluminum, found in alum, also I Stainless steel or glass containercombines with natural pectin to firm — Do not use copper, brass, gal-the pickles’ texture. While alum has vanized steel or iron containers orlong been used in home pickle utensils. These metals react withmaking, it can give pickles an objec- acids or salt, discoloring pickles ortionable bitter or astringent flavor. forming dangerous compounds.Alum is not recommended and is Cover and weight — A large glass ornot included in the recipes in this china plate that will fit inside thebulletin. If you choose to use alum, container is suitable for holding veg-use it only for fermented cucum- etables beneath the brine. Weigh itbers. Alum does not work with fresh down by placing a sealed, water-pack or quick process pickles. filled jar on top of the plate. The veg- etables should be covered by 1 to 2 inches of brine.10 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  13. 13. Another method for sealing a crock is Canning jars and lids — Standardto fill a heavy-duty food-grade plastic home canning jars are recom-bag with 2 to 3 inches of brine, seal mended for pickled products.the bag, and place it on the top of However, because the processingthe crock, allowing it to completely time for pickles is short, glass jarscover the surface of the brine. Filling used to pack commercial productsthe bag with brine is a precaution, insuch as mayonnaise can be used —case the bags are accidentally punc- but only if standard two-piecetured. canning lids fit their threaded rims.Caution: Do not use plastic garbage Do not reuse jars from commercialbags for food storage. The chemicals food products that are designed forused to manufacture non-food-grade one-time use, such as peanut butter,plastic containers and bags may not jelly, canned vegetables or pickles.be safe for food. Most recipes call for pint or quart jars. Use only the size jar specified in each recipe. Safe processing timesEquipment may not have been calculated for larger jars. If you use 11⁄2 pint jars,for all pickles process them as if they were quarts.Container for heating picklingsolution — Use a large stainless Lids — Use new two-piece vacuumsteel, aluminum or unchipped enam- seal lids, consisting of a flat metal lidelware pan or kettle for heating the with sealing compound and apickling solution. Do not use copper, reusable metal screw band. Pretreatbrass, galvanized steel or iron con- lids as the package directs.tainers or utensils. These metals react Caution: Porcelain-lined zinc capswith acids or salt, discoloring pickles and rubber rings have not beenor forming dangerous compounds. made for years, and are not recom-Measuring equipment — Use mended.standard cup and spoon measures Boiling water canner — A boilingfor all liquid or dry ingredients. water canner is a large kettle with aKitchen scales are needed if recipes tight-fitting cover and a rack to keepspecify quantities of ingredients by jars from resting on the bottom. Theweight, or if you substitute kosher canner should be deep enough forflaked salt for canning and pickling water to cover the tops of the jars bysalt. 1 or 2 inches without boiling over. The diameter of the canner should be no more than 4 inches wider than the diameter of your stove’s burnerHOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 11
  14. 14. to ensure proper heat treatment forall jars. Do not use a large wash kettle Processing in a boilingthat fits over two burners because water cannerthe middle jars may not get enough Except for refrigerator or freezerheat. pickles, pickle products require heatA deep pressure canner can be used treatment after jars are filled toas a boiling water canner. Just be sure obtain a safe, high quality product.the canner is deep enough to allow Heat processing seals jars andfor 1 to 2 inches of briskly boiling destroys harmful organisms andwater above the jar lids. Fill the enzymes that can cause spoilage,pressure canner with hot water, add softening or off-flavors.jars and enough water to cover them For adequate heating, process in aby 1 to 2 inches, and place the lid on boiling water canner for the correctthe canner. But do not lock the lid in length of time.place, and leave the petcock open or Follow these steps for processingweighted pressure control off. pickles and relishes in a boiling waterOther equipment you may need — canner:Candy or jelly thermometer (if you 1. Pretreat two-piece lids as thepasteurize pickles), bowls, mixing package directs.spoons, timer, jar-filling supplies(funnel, ladle, rubber spatula, lid and 2. Thoroughly wash and rinse jars.jar lifters), pot holders, wire rack, Keep them hot until you fill them.labeling supplies. If you have a dishwasher, run them through a complete cycle and keep them hot in the dishwasher.Sterilizing jars 3. Pack hot jars with vegetables orIf the recipe calls for a short pro- fruit. Fill one jar at a time with thecessing time — less than 10 pickle product — with rawminutes — wash jars in warm, cucumber for fresh pack dills, orsoapy water, and rinse. Sterilize with a heated pickle product. Dojars by boiling for 10 minutes. not pack too tightly. Immediately fillKeep hot until filled. the jar with a boiling hot picklingRecipes for refrigerator pickles solution, leaving the proper amountare not heat processed, and jars of headspace between the top ofmust also be sterilized by boiling the liquid and the top of the jar (seefor 10 minutes before filling. illustration on page 14).When canning pickles and relishes, most recipes call for 1⁄2-inch headspace.12 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  15. 15. 4. Remove air bubbles by sliding a 7. When the processing time is rubber spatula or bubble freer complete, carefully remove jars between the food and the sides of from the canner, without tilting, the jar in several places. Add hot and place them upright on a rack brine or pickling solution as needed or counter. Do not cover the jars to adjust headspace to recom- during cooling. Do not retighten mended level.Wipe jar rims with a the bands on two-piece lids, even clean, damp cloth or towel. Place though they may be loose. If liquid the lid on the jar. Screw the metal has boiled out during processing, band on firmly, but not too tightly. do not remove the lid to add5. Place filled jars in a boiling water more. As the jars cool, the lids will canner that has sufficient very hot snap down in the center. water (140˚ to 170˚ F) in it to cover 8. When jars have cooled, test for seal. the jars and lids by at least 1 inch. Lid tops should be depressed and Add boiling water carefully around remain that way, and will ring when jars if needed to bring the water tapped with a spoon. After 24 level in the canner to 1 to 2 inches hours or when jars are cool, you above the jar lids. Do not pour can carefully remove the screw boiling water directly on jar lids. bands. Wash and dry the jar lids6. Put the cover on the canner. When and threads. Store jars without the water returns to a full rolling screw bands in a cool, dry place out boil, start counting the processing of direct sunlight for up to 1 year. time. Processing times in this pub- lication are safe for all Wisconsin elevations. Elevation map Remember to adjust for eleva- tion above sea level when pressure canning vegetables. Consult the elevation map, or call your county Land Information office (listed under county govern- ment in your phone book). If you share recipes with friends and rela- tives, be sure to include adjust- ments for changes in elevation. Elevation above 1,000 feet Elevation below 1,000 feetHOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 13
  16. 16. When jars fail to seal AlternativeIf any jars fail to seal, refrigerate thejars and consume the pickles or relish low-temperaturewithin 1 week. pasteurization processYou can also reprocess pickles and Low-temperature pasteurization canrelishes within 24 hours: produce a better pickle texture, butI Remove the contents of the jars. must be done very carefully to avoid spoilage and is only acceptable forI Reheat the pickling solution or certain recipes. brine to boiling. Fill jars with room temperature pickles.I Repack into clean, hot jars leaving Pour 165° to 180° F liquid over the proper headspace, remove product, leaving the appropriate head- bubbles, wipe jar rims clean and space. Remove bubbles with a rubber cap with new pretreated lids. spatula.Wipe the jars clean and adjustI Process in a boiling water lids. canner for the full length of Process at 180˚ F for 30 minutes. time. Be sure to use a thermometer. Caution: Use this process only when a recipe indicates (see sweet pickle recipes, pages 22-27).Headspace lid headspace level of liquid Reprinted with permission from Complete Guide to Home Canning. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 539 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture), 1994: http://extension.usu.edu/publica/foodpubs.htm14 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  17. 17. Pickle recipes Fermented or crock picklesHundreds of pickle recipes can be Fermented pickles — like Grandmafound in cookbooks and reference used to make in a crock — use bene-books published by canning equip- ficial bacteria naturally present toment makers — but not all are tested convert cucumbers into pickles.to ensure safety. The recipes in this Beneficial or “good” bacteria producepublication are tested to ensure both the acid that gives these pickles theirsafety and quality. Follow recipes pre- familiar taste — and also preservecisely, adding the proper proportions them so they can be processed andof ingredients, and processing the stored in a jar for up to 1 year.final product for the correct length of Cucumbers or other vegetables aretime. fermented in a salt brine for severalIn many cases, you can make slight weeks to prepare these pickles.adjustments in spices. But be sure to Do not alter the amount of salt inkeep proportions of vegetables or fermented pickles. Salt concentra-fruit, vinegar and water unchanged, tion is very important in fermenta-and preparation steps intact. tion.For fermented pickles, you must also I Too little salt will cause microbesadd the exact proportion of salt to grow and allow spoilage tocalled for in each recipe. occur.Follow heat processing instructions I Too much salt will slow theaccurately to produce safe, high growth of desirable lactic acid-quality pickles. Follow the steps on producing bacteria.pages 12-13 for safe processing. Accurately measure salt and water for pickle brine. If you substitute kosher flaked or dairy salt for canning and pickling salt, weigh out salt to make sure you have substi- tuted the correct amount: 1 cup canning and pickling salt weighs 73⁄4 ounces (220 grams). See “Weigh salt for best accuracy” chart on page 7.HOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 15
  18. 18. The chart on the next page lists the During fermentation, cucumbersproportions of canning and pickling must be kept beneath the surface ofsalt and water required for various the brine. A plate weighed down withbrine strengths. a water-filled jar or a heavy-dutyWhen cucumbers are placed in brine, food-grade plastic bag filled withthey lose water and weight and brine can keep the vegetables sub-become somewhat flexible or merged.rubbery. Complete curing will take from 4 to 8As cucumbers soak in the brine, they weeks, depending on the tempera-gradually absorb salt and become ture during fermentation.firm, crisp and tender. More salt is Good quality pickles may beadded during brining to keep the produced when the crock is storedbrine strong enough. between 70˚ and 75° F. TemperaturesProperly fermented cucumbers will of 55˚ to 65° F are also acceptable,break when you bend them, and may but fermentation will take longer.gain weight as they absorb salt water. Avoid temperatures above 80˚ F,They will absorb sugar, vinegar and because pickles will become soft andflavorings more readily than will fresh may spoil.cucumbers. The color inside cured After fermentation is complete,cucumbers is a uniform translucent pickles should be heat processed in aolive-green, in contrast with opaque boiling water canner. Canned fer-white fresh cucumber flesh. mented pickles can be stored on the shelf for up to 1 year.16 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  19. 19. The recipes in this bulletin call for canning andpickling salt. If you substitute kosherflaked salt, for best accuracy weigh73⁄4 ounces (220 grams) kosher saltper cup of canning and pickling salt.For fresh pack or quick process picklesonly, you may use plain or iodizedtable salt, sea salt, reduced-sodiumsalt or salt substitutes. But using thesemay not yield a quality product. Icecream salt, rock salt and solar saltshould not be used in any pickle Note:recipe. These salts are not considered g. = gramfood-grade, and may be unsafe to use. lb. = pound oz. = ounce tbsp. = tablespoon tsp. = teaspoon 1 quart = 2 pints = 4 cupsBrines for fermented picklesBrine strength Proportion of% salt salt and water Use5% 3⁄ 4 cup (5.8 oz. or 164 g.) Short-term brining of salt per gallon of water cucumbers, green tomatoes, green snap beans10% 11⁄2 cups (11.6 oz. or 329 g.) Starting concentration salt per gallon of water for brining cucumbers and cauliflower15% 21⁄4 cups (19.2 oz. or 544 g.) Final brine strength for salt per gallon of water cucumbers and cauliflowerHOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 17
  20. 20. FERMENTED PICKLE RECIPEDill pickles 4. Use a weight to hold the plate down and keep the cucumbers under the4 lbs. pickling cucumbers, brine. Cover the crock loosely with a 3 to 6 inches long clean cloth. Keep pickles at room tem-4 to 5 heads fresh or dry dill weed, perature (70˚ to 75° F). Temperatures or 2 tbsp. dill seed of 55˚ to 65˚ F are acceptable, but1⁄ 2 cup canning and pickling salt then fermentation will take 5 to 6 weeks. Avoid temperatures above1⁄ 4 cup vinegar (5% acetic acid) 80˚ F, or pickles will become too soft8 cups water during fermentation. Do not stir pickles around in the container, but beOne or more of the following: sure they are completely covered with2 tsp. whole mixed pickling spice brine. If necessary, make more brine (optional) using the original proportions.2 garlic cloves, peeled (optional) Remove scum daily. Most scum can be avoided if you use a brine-filled bag to2 dried red peppers (optional) seal the crock. See page 16.1. Wash cucumbers, and drain on a rack Caution: If the pickles become soft or wipe dry. Handle gently to avoid or slimy, or develop a disagreeable bruising. Trim 1⁄16 inch from the odor, discard them. blossom end and discard. But leave 5. In about 3 weeks, the cucumbers will 1⁄ 4-inch stem attached. Place half of have become olive green and should dill and spices on the bottom of a have a desirable flavor. clean crock or a container of glass or 6. Once the fermentation is complete, food-grade plastic. Add cucumbers, heat process pickles for storage. To remaining dill, and spices. process fermented dill pickles, drain2. Mix the vinegar and water together. the pickles, collecting the fermenta- Add salt and stir to dissolve. Pour the tion brine. Strain the fermentation vinegar and salt mixture over cucum- brine through a double layer of bers. cheesecloth or paper coffee filters into3. Cover with a heavy plate or lid that fits a large pan. Heat to boiling, and inside the crock or container. simmer for 5 minutes.18 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  21. 21. FERMENTED PICKLE RECIPESome people dislike the flavor andcloudiness of the fermentation brine, andprefer to prepare fresh brine for canning.To make fresh brine:Add 1⁄2 cup salt and 1 quart vinegar (5%acetic acid) to 1 gallon water. Heat toboiling, and simmer for 5 minutes.7. Pack the fermented pickles and some of the dill into clean, hot quart jars. Do not pack too tightly. Add a fresh garlic clove to each jar, if desired. Cover with hot brine, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. Remove bubbles with a rubber spatula. Wipe jar rims with a clean, damp cloth.8. Cap jars with pretreated lids. Adjust lids.9. Process in a boiling water canner: 10 minutes for pints, 15 minutes for quarts.*Note: This recipe requires about 3 weeksfor the cucumbers to ferment when thecrock is stored at 70˚ to 75° F.Yield: 9 to 10 quarts o *Adjust time for elevation; see map on page 13.Make Your Own Sauerkraut (B2087) isavailable from your county UW-Extensionoffice or Cooperative ExtensionPublications (learningstore.uwex.edu).HOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 19
  22. 22. FRESH PACK & QUICK PROCESS RECIPESBread-and-butter Or:pickle slices For firmer pickles: Wash cucumbers or squash carefully. Trim 1⁄16 inch from6 lbs. pickling cucumbers, the blossom end and discard. Cut into 4 to 5 inches long, or 3⁄ 16-inch slices. Mix 1 cup pickling slender zucchini or yellow squash lime, 1⁄2 cup salt and 1 gallon water in (1 to 11⁄2 inches in diameter) a 2- to 3-gallon crock, glass or enamel-8 cups onions (about 3 pounds), ware container. Caution: Avoid peeled and thinly sliced inhaling lime dust while mixing the1⁄ 2 cup canning and pickling salt lime-water solution. Cover and soak cucumbers in lime-water solution forCrushed or cubed ice 12 to 24 hours, stirring occasionally. Remove cucumbers from lime1 cup pickling lime (optional, solution, rinse well and resoak 1 hour see directions for firmer pickles) in fresh cold water. Repeat the rinsingPickling solution: and soaking step two more times.41⁄2 cups sugar Rinse and drain. Handle carefully, as4 cups vinegar (5% acetic acid) slices will be brittle. Drain well. 2. Prepare pickling solution by combin-2 tbsp. mustard seed ing sugar, vinegar and spices in a large11⁄2 tbsp. celery seed kettle. Bring to a boil, and boil 101 tbsp. ground mustard minutes. Add well-drained cucumbers (or squash) and onions, and slowly1. Wash cucumbers or squash carefully. reheat to a boil. Trim 1⁄16 inch from the blossom end 3. Fill clean, hot pint or quart jars with and discard. Cut into 3⁄16-inch slices. slices and pickling solution, leaving 1⁄2- Combine cucumbers or squash and inch headspace. Remove bubbles with sliced onions in a large bowl. Add salt. a rubber spatula. Wipe jar rims with a Cover with 2 inches crushed or cubed clean, damp cloth. ice. Refrigerate 3 to 4 hours, adding 4. Cap jars with pretreated lids. more ice as needed. Drain. Adjust lids. 5. Process in a boiling water canner: 10 minutes for pints or quarts.* Note: After processing and cooling, store jars for 4 to 5 weeks to develop ideal*Adjust time for elevation; see map flavor.on page 13. Yield: 7 to 8 pints20 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  23. 23. FRESH PACK & QUICK PROCESS RECIPESDill pickles, quick process 4. Pack cucumbers into clean, hot pint or quart jars, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace.8 lbs. pickling cucumbers, If desired, add 1 teaspoon mustard 3 to 5 inches long seed, 11⁄2 fresh dill heads and 1 or 22 gallons water garlic cloves per jar. Cover cucumbers3⁄ 4 cups canning and pickling salt with hot pickling solution, leaving 1⁄2- inch headspace. Remove bubbles withPickling solution: a rubber spatula. Wipe jar rims with a11⁄2 quarts vinegar (5% acetic acid) clean, damp cloth.1⁄ 2 cup canning and pickling salt 5. Cap jars with pretreated lids.1⁄ 4 cup sugar Adjust lids. 6. Process in a boiling water canner:2 quarts water 10 minutes for pints, 15 minutes for2 tbsp. whole mixed pickling spice quarts.* Yield: 7 to 9 pints3 to 4 tbsp. whole mustard seed (1 tsp. per pint jar)10 to 12 fresh dill heads, washed o (11⁄2 heads per pint jar), or 1 tbsp. dill seed or dill weed per pint jar1 or 2 garlic cloves per jar, peeled (optional)1. Wash cucumbers carefully. Trim 1⁄16 inch from the blossom end and discard. But leave 1⁄4-inch stem attached.2. Prepare brine by dissolving 3⁄4 cups salt in 2 gallons water. Pour over cucumbers, cover and let stand 12 hours. Drain.3. Prepare pickling solution of vinegar, 1⁄ 2 cup salt, sugar and 2 quarts water in a large saucepan. Add mixed pickling spices tied in a clean cheese- cloth bag. Heat to boiling. Remove the spice bag.HOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 21
  24. 24. FRESH PACK & QUICK PROCESS RECIPESDill pickles, reduced sodium Quick sweet pickles4 lbs. pickling cucumbers, 1 gallon pickling cucumbers, 3 to 5 inches long 3 to 4 inches long (about 8 lbs.)6 cups vinegar (5% acetic acid) 1⁄ 3 cup canning and pickling salt6 cups sugar Crushed or cubed ice2 tbsp. canning and pickling salt 1 cup pickling lime (optional, for firmer11⁄2 tsp. celery seed pickles — see variation, next page)11⁄2 tsp. mustard seed Pickling solution: 41⁄2 cups sugar2 large onions, peeled and thinly sliced 31⁄2 cups vinegar (5% acetic acid)8 fresh dill heads 2 tsp. celery seed1. Wash cucumbers carefully. Trim 1⁄ 16 inch from the blossom end and 1 tbsp. whole allspice discard. Cut cucumbers into 2 tbsp. mustard seed 1⁄ 4-inch slices. 1. Gently wash cucumbers. Trim 1⁄16 inch2. Combine vinegar, sugar, salt, celery from the blossom and discard. But seeds and mustard seeds in a large leave 1⁄4-inch stem attached. Slice saucepan. Bring mixture to a boil. cucumbers, or cut into strips.3. Place 2 slices onion and 1⁄2 dill head 2. Place cucumbers in a bowl and on the bottom of each clean, hot pint sprinkle with 1⁄3 cup salt. Cover with 2 jar. Fill jars with cucumber slices, inches of cubed or crushed ice. leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. Add 1 slice Refrigerate 3 to 4 hours. Add more ice onion and 1⁄2 dill head on top. Pour as needed. Drain well. hot pickling solution over cucumber 3. Combine sugar, vinegar, celery seed, slices, leaving 1⁄4-inch headspace. allspice and mustard seed in a 6-quart Remove bubbles with a rubber kettle to make the pickling solution. spatula. Wipe jar rims with a clean, Heat to a boil. damp cloth.4. Cap jars with pretreated lids. Adjust lids.5. Process in a boiling water canner: 15 minutes for pints.* *Adjust time for elevation; see mapYield: 8 pints on page 13. o22 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  25. 25. FRESH PACK & QUICK PROCESS RECIPES4. Hot pack — Add cucumbers to Variation for firmer pickles: Wash pickling solution and heat slowly until cucumbers. Trim 1⁄16 inch from the vinegar solution returns to a boil. Stir blossom end and discard. But leave 1⁄4- occasionally to make sure the mixture inch stem attached. Cut cucumbers into heats evenly. Fill hot, sterilized pint or slices or strips. Mix 1 cup pickling lime quart jars (see page 12) with and 1⁄3 cup salt in 1 gallon water in a 2- cucumber slices or strips, leaving 1⁄2- to 3-gallon crock or enamelware con- inch headspace. Cover with boiling tainer. Caution: Avoid inhaling lime dust hot pickling solution, leaving 1⁄2-inch while mixing the lime-water solution. headspace. Remove bubbles with a Soak cucumber slices or strips in lime rubber spatula. Wipe jar rims with a water solution for 12 to 24 hours, stirring clean, damp cloth. Cap jars with pre- occasionally. Remove from lime solution. treated lids. Adjust lids. Rinse, and soak for 1 hour in fresh cold Process in a boiling water canner: water. Repeat the rinsing and resoaking 5 minutes for pints or quarts.* two more times. Handle carefully, Or: because slices or strips will be brittle. Raw pack — Fill clean, hot pint or Drain well. Pack jars and process as quart jars with drained cucumber directed for hot or raw pack. slices or strips, leaving 1⁄2-inch head- Yield: 7 to 9 pints space. Cover with boiling hot pickling solution, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. Remove bubbles with a rubber o spatula. Wipe jar rims with a clean, damp cloth. Cap jars with pretreated lids. Adjust lids. Process in a boiling water canner: 10 minutes for pints, 15 minutes for quarts.* Or use low-temperature pasteurization (see page 14).Note: After processing and cooling, storejars for 4 or 5 weeks to develop full flavor.HOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 23
  26. 26. FRESH PACK & QUICK PROCESS RECIPESSweet 4-day gherkins or Day 3chunk pickles Morning: Drain. For gherkins (small cucumbers),5 quarts whole small cucumbers, prick cucumbers in several places with a 11⁄2 to 3 inches long (7 lbs.) or table fork. Cut medium cucumbers in medium cucumbers (7 to 8 lbs.) chunks or slices 1⁄2-inch thick. Return1⁄ 2 cup canning and pickling salt whole cucumbers or slices to container. Make pickling solution of 3 cups sugarPickling solution: and 3 cups vinegar. Add turmeric and8 cups sugar other spices. Heat to boiling and pour6 cups vinegar (5% acetic acid) over cucumbers. Cucumbers may be only3⁄ 4 tsp. turmeric partially covered at this point. Afternoon (6 to 8 hours later):2 tsp. celery seed Drain cucumbers, reserving pickling2 tbsp. whole mixed pickling spice solution. Return cucumbers to container.2 sticks cinnamon Add 2 cups sugar and 2 cups vinegar to the reserved pickling solution. Heat to aDay 1 boil, and pour over pickles.Morning:Wash cucumbers thoroughly and remove Day 4all blossoms; drain. Trim 1⁄16 inch from Morning:the blossom end and discard. But leave Drain cucumbers, reserving pickling1⁄ 4-inch stem attached. Place cucumbers solution. Return cucumbers to container.in a large container and add boiling Add 2 cups sugar and 1 cup vinegar towater to cover. Let stand, covered, at the reserved pickling solution. Heat to aroom temperature (65° to 75° F). boil, and pour over pickles.Afternoon (6 to 8 hours later): Afternoon (6 to 8 hours later):Drain cucumbers and return to container. Drain cucumbers, collecting picklingSprinkle with 1⁄4 cup salt and cover with solution in a large saucepan. Add remain-fresh boiling water. Let stand, covered, at ing 1 cup sugar to pickling solution. Heatroom temperature. to a boil. Pack cucumbers into clean, hot pint jars and cover with boiling picklingDay 2 solution, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace.Afternoon: Wipe jar rims with a clean, damp cloth.Drain cucumbers and return to container. Cap jars with pretreated lids. Adjust lids.Sprinkle with 1⁄4 cup salt and cover withfresh boiling water. Let stand, covered, at Process in a boiling water canner:room temperature. 5 minutes for pints* or use low-temper- ature pasteurization (see page 14). Yield: 9 to 10 pints24 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  27. 27. FRESH PACK & QUICK PROCESS RECIPESSweet 14-day cucumber Days 3 and 5or cauliflower pickles Drain off brine and discard. Rinse vegeta-4 to 6 quarts whole pickling cucumbers, bles. Remove any scum that has formed. 2 to 5 inches long (4 lbs.) or fresh Scald the container, cover, and dish or plate used to weigh down vegetables. cauliflower, separated into flowerets Return vegetables to container. Add 1⁄4 (4 lbs.) cup salt to 2 quarts fresh water in a3⁄ 4 cup canning and pickling salt, saucepan. Bring to a boil. Pour over veg- separated (1⁄4 cup on each of the 1st, etables. Replace cover and weight. Cover 3rd and 5th days) with a clean towel. Allow to stand for 2 days at 70° F. Repeat.Pickling solution:2 tsp. celery seed Day 7 Drain brine and discard. Rinse vegetables.2 tbsp. mixed pickling spices Scald containers, cover and weight.51⁄2 cups sugar Important: Slice cucumbers now, either4 cups vinegar (5% acetic acid) lengthwise or crosswise, to prevent shriveling.Day 1Wash cucumbers carefully. Trim 1⁄16 inch Return vegetables to container.from the blossom end and discard. But Place celery seed and pickling spices in aleave 1⁄4-inch stem attached. Wash cauli- small cheesecloth bag. Combine 2 cupsflower well. Pack carefully washed whole sugar and 4 cups vinegar in a saucepan.cucumbers or cauliflower flowerets into a Add spice bag, bring to a boil, and poursuitable 1-gallon container. Add 1⁄4 cup hot pickling solution over vegetables.salt to 2 quarts water and bring to a boil. Add cover and weight. Cover with a cleanPour over cucumbers or cauliflower. towel.Weigh down vegetables with a plate to continued,keep them submerged, and cover thecontainer with a clean towel. Allow tostand for 2 days at about 70° F. *Adjust time for elevation; see map on page 13.HOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 25
  28. 28. FRESH PACK & QUICK PROCESS RECIPESDays 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 Sweet pickle slices,Drain pickling solution and spice bag and reduced-sodiumsave. Add 1⁄2 cup sugar each day todrained pickling solution, and bring to a 4 lbs. (3- to 4-inch) pickling cucumbersboil in a saucepan. Remove vegetables Brining solution:from container and rinse. Scald container, 1 qt. distilled white vinegarcover and weight daily. Return rinsed (5% acetic acid)vegetables to container, add boiledpickling solution, cover and weight. Cover 1 tbsp. canning or pickling saltwith a clean towel. 1 tbsp. mustard seedDay 14 1⁄2 cup sugarDrain pickling solution into a kettle, add1⁄ 2 cup sugar, and bring to a boil. Discard Canning syrup:spice bag. Pack vegetables into clean, hot 12⁄3 cups distilled white vinegarpint or quart jars. Cover with boiling (5% acetic acid)pickling solution, leaving 1⁄2-inch head- 3 cups sugarspace. Remove bubbles with a rubberspatula. Wipe jar rims with a clean, damp 1 tbsp. whole allspicecloth. Cap jar with pretreated lids. Adjust 21⁄4 tsp celery seedlids. Wash cucumbers and cut 1⁄16 inch offProcess in a boiling water canner: blossom end, and discard. Cut cucumbers5 minutes for pints, 10 minutes for into 1⁄4-inch slices. Combine all ingredi-quarts.* Or use low-temperature ents for canning syrup in a saucepan andpasteurization (see page 14). bring to boiling. Keep syrup hot untilYield: 8 to 10 pints used. In a large kettle, mix the ingredients o for the brining solution. Add the cut cucumbers, cover, and simmer until the cucumbers change color from bright to dull green (about 5 to 7 minutes). Drain the cucumber slices. Fill hot pint jars with *Adjust time for elevation; see map cucumber slices, and cover with hot on page 13. canning syrup leaving 1⁄2-inch head- space. Remove bubbles. Wipe jar rims and adjust lids. Process in a boiling water canner 10 minutes for pints.* Yield: About 4 to 5 pints26 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  29. 29. FRESH PACK & QUICK PROCESS RECIPESSweet pickle slices, 3. Place one cinnamon stick in each jar, ifno sugar added desired. With a slotted spoon, fill hot pickle slices into clean, hot pint jars,31⁄2 lbs. of pickling cucumbers, sliced, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. Cover with and boiling water to cover boiling hot pickling brine, leaving 1⁄2-4 cups cider vinegar (5% acetic acid) inch headspace. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims and adjust lids.3 cups Splenda® Process in a boiling water canner 101 tbsp. canning salt minutes for pints.*1 cup water Yield: About 4 or 5 pints1 tbsp. mustard seed1 tbsp. whole allspice o1 tbsp. celery seed4 one-inch cinnamon sticks1. Wash cucumbers. Slice 1⁄16 inch off the blossom ends and discard. Slice cucumbers into 1⁄4-inch thick slices. Pour boiling water over the cucumber slices and let stand 5 to 10 minutes. Drain off the hot water and pour cold water over the cucumbers. Let cold water run continuously over the cucumber slices, or change water fre- quently until cucumbers are cooled. Drain slices well.2. Mix vinegar, 1 cup water, Splenda® and all spices in a 10-quart Dutch oven or stockpot. Bring to a boil. Add drained cucumber slices carefully to the boiling liquid. Return to a boil.HOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 27
  30. 30. VEGETABLE PICKLE RECIPESArtichoke pickles Pickled asparagus2 gallons Jerusalem artichokes 10 lbs. asparagusVinegar (5% acetic acid) to cover 6 large garlic cloves2 cups canning salt 41⁄2 cups water4 tbsp. turmeric 41⁄2 cups white distilled vinegar10 to 12 medium red peppers (5% acetic acid)Pickling solution: 6 small hot peppers (optional) 1⁄2 cup canning salt1 gallon vinegar (5% acetic acid)13 cups (6 pounds) sugar 3 tsp. dill seed1⁄2 cup pickling spice (tied in spice bag) 1. Wash asparagus well, but gently, under running water. Cut stems from the2 tbsp. turmeric bottom to leave spears with tips that1. Scrub Jerusalem artichokes and cut fit into the canning jar with a little less into chunks. Pack in a food grade than 1⁄2-inch headspace. Place a plastic container, crock or glass jar. peeled, washed, garlic clove at the Cover with vinegar. Add 2 cups salt bottom of each clean, hot pint or 12- and 4 tablespoons of turmeric; mix. ounce jar, and tightly pack asparagus Soak 24 hours. into jars with the blunt ends down.2. About 30 minutes before that time is 1. In an 8-quart Dutch oven or saucepot, up, prepare pickling solution by com- combine water, vinegar, hot peppers bining 1 gallon vinegar, sugar, pickling (optional), salt and dill seed. Bring to a spice and 2 tablespoons turmeric, in a boil. Place one hot pepper (if used) in large pan. Simmer for 20 to 25 each jar over asparagus spears. Pour minutes. Remove spice bag. boiling hot pickling brine over spears,3. Drain artichokes, discarding the liquid. leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. Pack artichokes into hot pint jars, 3. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims and adding 1 medium red pepper to each adjust lids. jar. Be sure to leave 1⁄2-inch head- 4. Process in a boiling water canner 10 space. minutes for 12-ounce jars or pints.*4. Fill to within 1⁄2 inch from the top with Allow pickled asparagus to sit in hot pickling solution. Remove air processed jars for 3 to 5 days before con- bubbles. Wipe jar rims and adjust lids. sumption for best flavor development.5. Process in a boiling water canner 10 Yield: 6 wide-mouth pints minutes for pints.*Yield: 10 or 12 pint jars *Adjust time for elevation; see map on page 13.28 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  31. 31. VEGETABLE PICKLE RECIPESDilly beans Pickled three-bean salad4 quarts whole green or wax beans 11⁄2 cups green or yellow beans, (about 4 lbs.) cut and blanched (see step 1)8 fresh dill heads, or 11⁄2 tsp. dill seed or 11⁄2 cups canned red kidney beans, dill weed per jar drained8 garlic cloves (optional) 1 cup canned garbanzo beans1⁄ 4 tsp. cayenne pepper or 1 small dried (chick peas), drained hot pepper per jar (optional) 1⁄ 2 cup onion, peeled and thinly slicedPickling solution: (1 medium onion)4 cups white vinegar (5% acetic acid) 1⁄ 2 cup celery, trimmed and thinly sliced4 cups water (11⁄2 medium stalks)1⁄ 2 cup canning and pickling salt 1⁄ 2 cup green peppers, cored and sliced (1⁄2 medium pepper)1. Wash pint canning jars. Keep hot until filled. Pickling solution: 1⁄ 2 cup white vinegar (5% acetic acid)2. Wash beans thoroughly, and drain. Cut into lengths to fit pint jars. 1⁄ 4 cup bottled lemon juice3. In each hot pint jar, place dill, garlic 3⁄ 4 cup sugar and pepper, if desired. Pack beans upright, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. 11⁄4 cups water4. Prepare pickling solution of vinegar, 1⁄ 4 cup cooking oil (optional) water and salt in a saucepan, and 1⁄ 2 tsp. canning and pickling salt bring to a boil. Pour boiling hot pickling solution over beans, leaving 1. Wash fresh beans and snap off ends. 1⁄ 2-inch headspace. Remove bubbles Cut or snap into 1- to 2-inch pieces. with a rubber spatula. Wipe jar rims Blanch beans 3 minutes in boiling with a clean, damp cloth. water as follows: Place beans in5. Cap jars with pretreated lids. actively boiling water. Cover and start Adjust lids. timing the blanching process as soon as the water returns to a boil. After 36. Process in a boiling water canner: minutes, transfer beans immediately 5 minutes for pints.* to a pan of ice water and cool for 3Yield: 7 to 8 pints minutes. Drain. o continued,HOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 29
  32. 32. VEGETABLE PICKLE RECIPESPickled three-bean salad Beet picklescontinued 7 lbs. red beets (2 to 21⁄2 inches in2. Rinse kidney and garbanzo beans with diameter), sliced, or whole baby cold tap water and drain again. beets (1 to 11⁄2 inches in diameter) Prepare and measure all other vegeta- 4 to 6 onions (2 to 21⁄2 inches diameter), bles. peeled and thinly sliced (optional)3. Prepare pickling solution of vinegar, lemon juice, sugar and water, and Pickling solution: bring to a boil. Remove from heat. Add 4 cups white vinegar (5% acetic acid) oil and salt and mix well. Add beans 11⁄2 tsp. canning and pickling salt (fresh and canned), onions, celery and green pepper to pickling solution, and 2 cups water bring to a simmer. 2 cups sugar4. Cover and refrigerate 12 to 14 hours, 12 whole cloves then heat to a boil. Fill clean, hot half- pint or pint jars with hot pickled bean 2 sticks cinnamon salad, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. 1. Wash beets and trim off tops, leaving 1 Remove bubbles with a rubber inch of stem and the roots intact (to spatula. Wipe jar rims with a clean, prevent bleeding of color). Cook damp cloth. unpeeled until skins can be slipped off5. Cap jars with pretreated lids. easily and beets are tender, about 25 Adjust lids. to 30 minutes. Caution: Drain and6. Process in a boiling water canner: discard liquid. 15 minutes for pints or half-pints.* 2. Cool beets. Trim off roots and stemsYield: About 3 pints, or 5 to 6 half-pints and slip off skins. Cut into 1⁄4-inch o slices or leave baby beets whole. Peel and thinly slice onions. 3. Combine vinegar, salt, water and sugar *Adjust time for elevation; see map to make pickling solution. Tie spices in on page 13. a cheesecloth bag and add to pickling solution. Bring to a boil; add beets and onions, and simmer 5 minutes more. Remove spice bag. 3. Pack hot beets and onions into clean, hot pint jars. Pour boiling hot pickling solution over beets, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. Remove bubbles with a rubber spatula. Wipe jar rims with a clean, damp cloth.30 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  33. 33. VEGETABLE PICKLE RECIPES4. Cap jars with pretreated lids. Adjust 4. With a slotted spoon, fill hot beets and lids. onion slices into clean, hot pint jars,5. Process in a boiling water canner: leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. Cover with 30 minutes for pints or quarts.* boiling hot vinegar solution, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. Remove airYield: 7 to 8 pints bubbles. Wipe jar rims and adjust lids. oPickled beets, no sugar Process in a boiling water canner 30 minutes for pints.*added Variation: Pickled whole baby beets—7 lbs. of 2- to 21⁄2-inch diameter beets Follow the directions above but use beets that are no more than 1 to 11⁄24 to 6 onions (2- to 21⁄2-inch diameter), inches in diameter. Pack whole after if desired cooking, trimming and peeling; do not6 cups vinegar (5% acetic acid) slice.11⁄2 tsp. canning or pickling salt Yield: About 8 pints2 cups Splenda®3 cups water o2 cinnamon sticks12 whole cloves1. Trim off beet tops, leaving 1 inch of stem and roots to prevent bleeding of color. Wash thoroughly. Sort for size. Cover similar sizes together with boiling water and cook until tender (about 25 to 30 minutes). Caution: Drain and discard liquid.2. Cool beets. Trim off roots and stems and slip off skins. Slice into 1⁄4-inch slices. Peel, wash and thinly slice onions.3. Combine vinegar, salt, Splenda®, and fresh water in large Dutch oven. Tie cinnamon sticks and cloves in cheese- cloth bag and add to vinegar mixture. Bring to a boil. Add beets and onions. Simmer 5 minutes. Remove spice bag.HOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 31
  34. 34. VEGETABLE PICKLE RECIPESPickled baby carrots Cauliflower or Brussels81⁄2 cups peeled baby carrots sprouts sweet pickles51⁄2 cups white distilled vinegar 12 cups cauliflower flowerets, (5% acetic acid) 1 to 2 inch pieces, or small Brussels sprouts (about 3 quarts)1 cup water Pickling solution:2 cups sugar 4 cups white vinegar (5% acetic acid)2 tsp. canning salt 2 cups sugar8 tsp. mustard seed 2 cups onions, peeled and thinly sliced4 tsp. celery seed 1 cup sweet red peppers, cored and diced1. Wash carrots well and peel, if neces- 2 tbsp. mustard seed sary. Wash again after peeling.2. Combine vinegar, water, sugar and 1 tbsp. celery seed canning salt in an 8-quart Dutch oven 1 tsp. turmeric or stockpot. Bring to a boil and boil gently 3 minutes. Add carrots and 1 tsp. hot red pepper flakes bring back to a boil. Then reduce heat 1. Wash cauliflower flowerets or Brussels to a simmer and heat until the carrots sprouts. Remove stems and blemished are half-cooked (about 10 minutes). outer leaves, and boil in salt water — 43. Meanwhile, place 2 teaspoons teaspoons canning and pickling salt mustard seed and 1 teaspoon celery per gallon of water — 3 minutes for seed in the bottom of each clean, hot cauliflower and 4 minutes for Brussels pint jar. sprouts. Drain and cool.4. Fill hot pint jars with the hot carrots, 2. Prepare pickling solution by combin- leaving 1-inch headspace. Cover with ing vinegar, sugar, onion, diced red hot pickling liquid, leaving 1⁄2-inch pepper and spices in a large saucepan. headspace. Remove air bubbles. Wipe Bring to a boil and simmer 5 minutes. jar rims and adjust lids. Distribute onion and diced pepper5. Process in a boiling water canner, 15 among jars. minutes for pints.* 3. Fill clean, hot pint jars with cauliflowerAllow carrots to sit in processed jars for 3 pieces or Brussels sprouts and coverto 5 days before consuming for best with hot pickling solution, leaving 1⁄2-flavor development. inch headspace. Remove bubbles with a rubber spatula. Wipe jar rims with a clean, damp cloth. 4. Cap jars with pretreated lids. Adjust lids.32 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  35. 35. VEGETABLE PICKLE RECIPES5. Process in a boiling water canner: Mushrooms, marinated 10 minutes for half-pints or pints.* wholeYield: 5 to 6 pints 7 lbs small whole mushrooms oHorseradish sauce, pickled 1⁄2 cup bottled lemon juice 2 cups olive or salad oil2 cups (3⁄4 lb.) freshly grated horseradish 21⁄2 cups white vinegar (5% acetic acid)1 cup white vinegar (5% acetic acid) 1 tbsp. oregano leaves1⁄2 tsp. canning or pickling salt 1 tbsp. dried basil leaves1⁄4 tsp. powdered ascorbic acid 1 tbsp. canning or pickling saltThe pungency of fresh horseradish fades 1⁄2 cup finely chopped onionswithin 1 to 2 months, even when refriger- 1⁄4 cup diced pimientoated. Therefore, make only small quanti-ties at a time. Wash horseradish roots 2 cloves garlic, cut in quartersthoroughly and peel off brown outerskin. The peeled roots may be grated in a 25 black peppercornsfood processor or cut into small cubes Select very fresh unopened mushroomsand put through a food grinder. Combine with caps less than 11⁄4 inch in diameter.ingredients and fill into sterile jars, Wash. Cut stems, leaving 1⁄4 inchleaving 1⁄4-inch headspace. Seal jars attached to cap. Add lemon juice andtightly and store in a refrigerator. water to cover. Bring to boil. Simmer 5 minutes. Drain mushrooms. Mix olive oil,Yield: About 2 half-pints vinegar, oregano, basil, and salt in a o saucepan. Stir in onions and pimiento and heat to boiling. Place 1⁄4 garlic clove and 2-3 peppercorns in a half-pint jar. Fill hot half-pint jars with mushrooms and hot, well-mixed oil/vinegar solution, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. Remove bubbles, wipe jar rims and adjust lids. Process in a boiling water canner 20 minutes for half-pints.* Yield: About 9 half-pints*Adjust time for elevation; see mapon page 13. oHOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 33
  36. 36. VEGETABLE PICKLE RECIPESPickled onions rubber spatula. Wipe jar rims with a clean, damp cloth.4 quarts tiny pickling onions 5. Cap jars with pretreated lids.1 cup salt Adjust lids.1 gallon cold water 6. Process in a boiling water canner: 10 minutes for pints.*Pickling solution: Yield: 7 pints2 cups sugar1⁄ 4 cup mustard seed21⁄2 tbsp. prepared horseradish Peppers, marinated o2 quarts white vinegar (5% acetic acid) Bell, Hungarian, banana, or jalapeño3 or 4 garlic cloves, peeled and crushed 4 lbs. firm peppers*7 small hot red peppers 1 cup bottled lemon juice7 bay leaves 2 cups white vinegar (5% acetic acid)2 tbsp. mixed pickling spice, tied in spice 1 tbsp. oregano leaves bag (optional) 1 cup olive or salad oil1. Peel pickling onions. For easier 1⁄2 cup chopped onions peeling, cover with boiling water and 2 cloves garlic, quartered (optional) let stand 2 minutes. Drain, dip in cold water, and peel. 2 tbsp. prepared horseradish (optional)2. Combine 1 gallon cold water and 1 * Note: It is possible to adjust the inten- cup salt. Pour over onions. Let stand 12 sity with the following options: For hot to 18 hours in the refrigerator. Drain, style, use 4 lbs. jalapeño peppers. For and rinse thoroughly. Drain again. medium style, use 2 lbs. jalapeño3. While onions are draining, prepare the peppers and 2 lbs. sweet and mild pickling solution by combining peppers. For mild style, use 1 lb. jalapeno vinegar, sugar, horseradish, spices and peppers and 3 lbs. sweet and mild crushed garlic in a saucepan. Simmer peppers. 15 minutes. If you use mixed pickling Caution: Wear plastic or rubber gloves spices, tie them in a clean cheesecloth and do not touch your face while bag and add to pickling solution. handling or cutting hot peppers. If you Remove spice bag before filling jars. do not wear gloves, wash hands thor-4. Pack onions into clean, hot pint jars. oughly with soap and water before Pour boiling hot pickling solution over touching your face or eyes. onions in the jars, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. Remove bubbles with a34 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series
  37. 37. VEGETABLE PICKLE RECIPES1. Select your favorite pepper. Peppers Pickled peppers may be left whole. Large peppers may 4 quarts long red, green or yellow be quartered. Wash, slash two to four slits in each pepper, and blanch in peppers, sweet or hot (6 to 7 lbs.) boiling water or blister in order to peel 31⁄2 cups sugar tough-skinned hot peppers. 3 cups white vinegar (5% acetic acid)2. Peppers may be blistered using one of the following methods: Oven or broiler 3 cups water method: Place peppers in a hot oven 41⁄2 tsp. canning and pickling salt (400˚ F) or broiler for 6-8 minutes or 9 garlic cloves, peeled until skins blister. Range-top method: Cover hot burner, either gas or electric, 1. Wash peppers. Cut large peppers into with heavy wire mesh. Place peppers quarters, remove cores and seeds and on burner for several minutes until slice into strips. If small peppers are skins blister. left whole, slash 2 to 4 slits in each.3. Allow peppers to cool. Place in pan Caution: The oils in hot peppers can and cover with a damp cloth. This will cause burns.Wear rubber gloves when make peeling the peppers easier. After you cut these peppers. Do not touch several minutes of cooling, peel each your face, particularly near your eyes. pepper. Flatten whole peppers. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and hot water if you do handle hot peppers.4. Mix all remaining ingredients in a 2. Combine vinegar, water, sugar and salt saucepan and heat to boiling. Place 1⁄4 in a saucepan to make pickling garlic clove (optional) and 1⁄4 solution. Boil for 1 minute. Add teaspoon salt in each half pint or 1⁄2 peppers and return to a boil. teaspoon per pint. 3. Place 1 clove garlic and 1⁄2 teaspoon5. Fill hot jars with peppers, add hot, salt into each hot pint or half-pint jar. well-mixed oil/pickling solution over Add pepper strips or whole peppers to peppers, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace. jars, flattening small peppers. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims and adjust lids. 4. Pour boiling hot pickling solution over peppers, leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace.6. Process in a boiling water canner 15 Remove bubbles with a rubber minutes for pints and half-pints.* spatula. Wipe jar rims with a clean,Yield: About 9 half-pints damp cloth. o 5. Cap jars with pretreated lids. Adjust lids.*Adjust time for elevation; see map 6. Process in a boiling water canner:on page 13. 5 minutes for half-pints or pints.* Yield: 7 to 8 pintsHOMEMADE PICKLES & RELISHES 35
  38. 38. VEGETABLE PICKLE RECIPESPickled jalapeño rings 4. Wash and rinse pint canning jars; keep hot until ready to use. Prepare lids3 lbs. jalapeño peppers according to manufacturer’s directions.11⁄2 cups pickling lime 5. Place 1 tablespoon mustard seed and11⁄2 gallons water 11⁄2 teaspoons celery seed in the bottom of each clean, hot pint jar. Pack71⁄2 cups cider vinegar (5% acetic acid) drained pepper rings into the jars,13⁄4 cups water leaving 1⁄2-inch headspace.21⁄2 tbsp. canning salt 6. Bring cider vinegar, 13⁄4 cups water and canning salt to a boil over high3 tbsp. celery seed heat. Ladle boiling hot brine solution6 tbsp. mustard seed over pepper rings in jars, leaving 1⁄2-Caution: Wear plastic or rubber gloves inch headspace. Make sure pepperand do not touch your face while rings are covered with brine.handling or cutting hot peppers. If you 7. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims anddo not wear gloves, wash hands thor- adjust lids.oughly with soap and water before Process in a boiling water canner 10touching your face or eyes. minutes for pints.*1. Wash peppers well and slice into 1⁄4" Yield: About 6 pint jars thick slices (a mandoline slicer works well). Discard stem end. Mix 11⁄2 cups pickling lime with 11⁄2 gallons water in o a stainless steel, glass or food-grade plastic container. Avoid inhaling lime dust while mixing the lime-water solution. Soak pepper slices in the lime *Adjust time for elevation; see map water, in refrigerator, for 18 hours, on page 13. stirring occasionally (12 to 24 hours may be used).2. Drain lime solution from soaked pepper rings. Rinse peppers gently but thoroughly with water. Cover pepper rings with fresh cold water and soak, in refrigerator, 1 hour. Drain water from peppers.3. Repeat the rinsing, soaking and draining steps two more times. Drain thoroughly at the end.36 Wisconsin Safe Food Preservation Series