Week 1 unit 3 ~ intro and theories of formative and summative assessment
Unit 3: DTLLSEnabling Learning and Assessment Week 1: Introduction to Unit Session (15) 23/03/2012 Aims of the Unit ~ to enable learners to: Assess the outcomes of learning and learner achievement Reflect, justify and evaluate own assessment practices Demonstrate knowledge and application of the minimum core specifications in context
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment 6-Week Scheme of WorkSession Objectives/learning outcomes Indicative content Assessment The learner will: 1 State the aims and outcomes of Introduction to the aims and outcomes of the unit. the unit. 1 Theories, principles and the Key concepts, theories and principles of Activity applications of formal and different types of assessment methods informal assessments and their and functions for all aspects of the role in learning and evaluation. assessment process 2 The implications of equality and The impact of equality and diversity Research, activity diversity issues in assessment for within the assessment of learning. teachers and learners Access to assessment opportunity. APEL systems and procedures. The role of assessment within evaluation and quality processes. 3 Demonstrate how to plan, design The importance of setting SMART Observation, activity and conduct formal and informal targets to enable learners’ progress to be assessment to enable learning and reviewed, monitored, evaluated, reported progression and recorded. Consider the implications of setting SMART targets within competence and non-competence based models of assessment. 4 Demonstrate how to give Theories and principles of assessment Research, lesson effective feedback to promote linked to feedback. observation learner progress and Appropriate and effective methods of achievement. giving feedback. 5 How to apply minimum core How to embed minimum core Activity specifications. specification in literacy, numeracy and ICT in context. 6 Demonstrate how to evaluate and Application of theories and principles of Journal, activity improve own assessment assessment to improve own practice and practice. inform professional development. Methods of evaluating own performance when assessing learners. 7 Complete assessment criteria See page 3, assessments 1-4 Various
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment How will you be assessed? DTLLS Unit 3 Enabling Learning and Assessment Level 4 Assignment City and Guilds instructions to What you need to do candidates1. Describe, use and evaluate two Choose 2 assessment methods that are suitable for use different assessment activities used with your group and your topics and make notes on why to check the learning of either you have chosen them, how you will use them and what individuals or a group of learners. you are using them to check. Use the 2 methods and show this in your session plan.2. Analyze the purpose of assessment Record the results. and produce a written justification of your chosen assessment methods Make notes, evaluating the methods: how well they (800 words). worked, any weaknesses, and any adjustments you would make next time. Using all the notes from above, compose a written piece of 800 words fully referenced to theory, explaining the purpose of your assessments, a full description of your methods, the results they gave you and your evaluation of the methods. Tummons J (2005) Assessing Learning in FE Exeter: Learning Matters is helpful on assessment.3. Using an extract from your Teaching Use an event or events from your teaching practice, Practice Portfolio, write and reflect cross referenced to a session plan(s) to write in detail on about how you gave feedback to a learner and what effect this has had on their performance and learning. a) How your feedback has Consider good practice in giving feedback. informed your learners’ progress and achievement; and Geoff Petty’s Teaching Today‟ or Evidence Based Teaching or www.GeoffPetty.com are particularly helpful on this. Again, use an event or events from your teaching b) How feedback from others has practice, cross referenced to a session plan(s) to write in informed your own professional detail about how feedback from others (learners, practice. colleagues, your observer) encouraged you to reflect on and change your own practice and what effect this has had. Johari’s Window may be a useful model to consider.
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment Overview of session 15Session 14 (22/03/2012)Objectives for today’s session Clarify the aims and objectives of Unit (3) ELA Clarify the assessment criteria necessary to pass unit (3) Outline the theory behind assessment of and assessment for learning Discuss the various different assessment methods used on vocational and academic programme Evaluate the effectiveness of formative and summative assessment Programme for today’s session General Introduction and overview of Unit (3) Share objectives Theory Practical application of theory Review of session / evaluation forms Takeaway tasks and further reading Takeaway tasks Write a reflective journal which addresses assessment task 1 / 2 Review at least one of the articles below and come prepared to engage in a discussion on how equality and diversity should be considered when setting assessments Start to collect evidence of the ways in which you assess your learners Additional resources / websites Formative and summative assessment http://www.edfac.unimelb.edu.au/research/resources/student_res/postscriptfiles/Ziad_ Baroudi.pdf http://amec.glp.net/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=844072&folderId=754745&n ame=DLFE-20967.pdf E&D and Assessment http://tlp.excellencegateway.org.uk/tlp/pedagogy/assets/documents/qs_equality_diver sity.pdf
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment Definitions of assessmentDefining assessment: In pairs or small groups, devise a definition of assessment.Draw upon your own experiences in the classroom Insert your definition here…
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment What the literature says… „Promoting children‟s learning is a principal aim of schools [and colleges]. Assessment lies at the heart of this process. It can provide a framework in which educational objectives may be set and pupils‟ progress charted and expressed. It can yield a basis for planning the next steps in response to children‟s needs ... it should be an integral part of the educational process, continually providing both “feedback” and “feed forward”1. It therefore needs to be incorporated systematically into teaching strategies and practices at all levels.’ „Overall, the purpose of assessment is to improve standards, not merely to measure them. Although the quality of formative assessment has improved perceptibly, it continues to be a weakness in many schools.‟2 “Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning.” 3 Brown et al. (1994) make the following observation: There is increasing acceptance that it [assessment] is at least in part to do with preparation for later life and work beyond academia. This recognition has brought with it a gathering momentum for a shift in emphasis from the acquisition of knowledge to the acquisition of skills, from product to process, from grading to competence. 4Key terminology linked to the definitions of assessment1 National Curriculum Task Group on Assessment and Testing (TGAT): A Report, 1988)2 Review of Secondary Education in England, 1993 – 1997, OFSTED 1998, Section 5.63 Palomba, C.A. & Banta, T.W. Assessment Essentials: Planning, Implementing, and Improving Assessment in Higher Education.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999, p. 44 Brown, S., Rust, C. and Gibbs, G. (1994) Strategies for Diversifying Assessment, Oxford Centre for Staff Development, Oxford
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment Methods of assessment There are a wealth of assessment methods used to assess learner’s achievement and progress. But the question is which one to choose? The primary goal is to choose a method that most effectively assesses the objectives of the unit of study, for instance, Pass criteria, examination questions or practical assessments. In addition, the assessment task should be aligned to the wider objectives of the curriculum, including the development of critical thinking skills and employability. When designing an assessment you will need one eye on the immediate task, but also, the broader aim of the program. You should think particularly carefully about the qualities or abilities you are trying to engender5.5 Lee Dunn, 27 June 2002. First published in 2000 on the OCSLD website at: http://www.brookes.ac.uk/ services/ocsd/2_learntch/
In groups, devise a list of 10 assessment methods that you use to assess your learnersprogress. Fill in the right hand box that indicates why you have chosen to assess thelearners in that way. Assessment method Why have you chosen this method of assessment1 Questioning techniques Consolidate knowledge / check understanding / support / stretch and challenge / build confidence / inclusion / differentiation /2345678910
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment Effects on learner outcomesLearner progress can be influenced by a number of factors including methods of assessment, theenvironment and internal motivation. Rank from 1 to 10 which of the following strategies is likely tohave the biggest impact upon learner progress. No 1 is the one that will have the greatest effect.Walberg, H. Improving the productivity of America’s schools 6Strategy Rank (1-10) DiscussionAssigned homeworkHome interventionsInstructional timeGraded homeworkClass moraleHigher-order questionsPersonalized instructionCooperative learningCues and feedbackReinforcement6 Source: Data from Herbert Walberg, “Improving the Productivity of America’s Schools,” EducationalLeadership, 41, no. 8 (1984): 24. (Borg & Meredith, 1989)
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment Types of assessment method Most of us are familiar with the terms formative and summative assessment. We assess our learners in a variety of ways but not always with the desired effect. We can sometimes assess for assessment sake and as a consequence, learner progress may not be as swift as we would like. Formative and summative assessments are a critical part of planning for learning and are central to writing an effective scheme of work (c.f., session 5 from Hazel Budd)In this short section we will: Define formative and summative assessment Evaluate the differences between the two Review the effectiveness of various types of assessment Analyse the difference between assessment and evaluationDefine formative and summative assessments Formative Summative Differences between the two
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment Types of assessment method (2)Formative Assessment Formative assessment is often done at the beginning or during a program, thus providing the opportunity for immediate evidence for student learning in a particular course or at a particular point in a program. Classroom assessment is one of the most common formative assessment techniques. The purpose of this technique is to improve quality of student learning and should not be evaluative or involve grading students. This can also lead to curricular modifications when specific courses have not met the student learning outcomes. Classroom assessment can also provide important program information when multiple sections of a course are taught because it enables programs to examine if the learning goals and objectives are met in all sections of the course. It also can improve instructional quality by engaging the faculty in the design and practice of the course goals and objectives and the course impact on the program.Summative Assessment7 Summative assessment is comprehensive in nature, provides accountability and is used to check the level of learning at the end of the program. For example, if upon completion of a program students will have the knowledge to pass an accreditation test, taking the test would be summative in nature since it is based on the cumulative learning experience. Program goals and objectives often reflect the cumulative nature of the learning that takes place in a program. Thus the program would conduct summative assessment at the end of the program to ensure students have met the program goals and objectives. Attention should be given to using various methods and measures in order to have a comprehensive plan. Ultimately, the foundation for an assessment plan is to collect summative assessment data and this type of data can stand-alone. Formative assessment data, however, can contribute to a comprehensive assessment plan by enabling faculty to identify particular points in a program to assess learning (i.e., entry into a program, before or after an internship experience, impact of specific courses, etc.) and monitor the progress being made towards achieving learning outcomes.Thinking point When assessment at the classroom level balances formative and summative assessment, a clear picture emerges of where a student is relative to learning targets and standards. Students should be able to share information about their own learning. To what extent to you encourage your learners to reflect upon their own progress?7 Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers (2nd ed.). SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment Application of assessments methods (3)Review various types of assessment method (formative and summative)1) Decide whether the assessment it is formative (f), summative (s) or both (b)2) Evaluative how effective the assessment method is with your own learners where 10 is mosteffective and 1 the leastType of assessment F S B (1-10)Question and Answer in the lessonPresentation (may be peer-assessed and/or tutor-assessed)Final examinationPortfolioExhibitionShort Tests and QuizzesPractical assessmentOral examinationsInterviewOpen Book or Take-Away examHomework ExercisesObservation of PerformanceMultiple Choice Test in controlled conditions (paper-based)Skills Assessment using Formal Assessment CriteriaSeen exam paper in controlled conditionsAssignmentsProjectsUnseen Examination in controlled conditionsExercises with Short, Extended or Multiple-choice AnswersSimulations, Business GamesOther
Merits and de-merits of formative and summative assessment "You have to begin to weigh formative versus summative assessment." Rick Wormeli, author of Fair Isnt Always Equal and Differentiation, explains the difference between the two and how formative assessment helps you offer better feedback to your students. Insert your notes here… Discussion notes
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment Evaluate the effectiveness of assessmentPlease evaluate the extent to which your assessment methods do, or do not, promotethe following skills:Learning objectives Do your assessment methods promote thisSkill area skill? Yes/No/A little/OtherKnowledge of principles or theoriesAnalytical skillsProblem solving under pressure, breadth and depth of understanding ofcomplex problemsWritten communication skillsWriting well-presented and structured reports and essaysInterpersonal skillsAbility to work with others, demonstrating management and leadership skillsIT skillsSkill in using basic computer packages – word processing, spreadsheets,PowerPoint; using the web to research informationIndependenceAutonomy, self-reliance, self-motivationFlexibility and resourcefulnessAbility to respond to unusual and unpredictable circumstancesStrategic thinking skillsAbility to determine own strategy and direction, self-knowledge and self-monitoring of effectivenessResearch skillsFinding out, using libraries, finding sources of informationOrganisation skillsManaging time and deadlines – organising materialPractical skillsThe development of practical skills linked to the workplaceThinking point Returning to your original definition of assessment, to what extent do you actively promote the wider skills development of your learners. Are you driven by success rates, targets, MAGs, CAGs or value added?
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment Types of assessment method (4)Analyse the difference between assessment and evaluation Assessment is a process used to improve a performance or outcome. Evaluation is a process used to determine the quality of a performance or outcome and to make decisions based on the quality. Both processes can be formative (undertaken while an educational process is ongoing) or summative (taken at the conclusion of an educational process). Before starting either assessment or evaluation it is essential for instructors to clarify the purpose of the process. It is then critical to communicate this purpose to everyone involved and to establish whether this will be conducted as assessment or evaluation. Interested in learning more, click on the QR code of follow the link below http://q.cx/3NLYF
Reflection (1) Black and William (1998) recommend: "Frequent short tests are better than infrequent long ones." Do you agree? Why or why not?Reflection (2) How will I share What will I do my new skills next? What will be the How will I do impact on the it? learner When will I do it?Next week Equality and diversity and links with assessment
Further reading for next week: Here are two excellent articles of formative and summative assessmentsPost-Script: Postgraduate Journal of Education Research, Vol. 8(1), August 2007, pp. 37-48To assess follow this linkhttp://www.edfac.unimelb.edu.au/research/resources/student_res/postscriptfiles/Ziad_Baroudi.pdfFormative and summative assessmenthttp://amec.glp.net/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=844072&folderId=754745&name=DLFE-20967.pdfFurther reading for next week: Links between E&D and assessmentLSIS (2009): Ten pedagogy approaches – equality and diversity quick start guidehttp://tlp.excellencegateway.org.uk/tlp/pedagogy/assets/documents/qs_equality_diversity.pdf
Unit 3: DTLLS Enabling Learning and Assessment Effects on learner outcomes (answers)Learner progress can be influenced by a number of factors including methods of assessment, theenvironment and internal motivation. Rank from 1 to 10 which of the following strategies is likely tohave the biggest impact upon learner progress. No 1 is the one that will have the greatest effect.Walberg, H. Improving the productivity of America’s schools 8Strategy Rank (1-10) DiscussionAssigned homework 10Home interventions 7Instructional time 8Graded homework 3Class morale 5Higher-order questions 9Personalized instruction 6Cooperative learning 4Cues and feedback 2Reinforcement 18 Source: Data from Herbert Walberg, “Improving the Productivity of America’s Schools,” Educational Leadership, 41, no. 8(1984): 24. (Borg & Meredith, 1989)