Wireless electrical power transmission using atmospheric conduction method
Wireless Electrical Power TransmissionUsing Atmospheric Conduction Method: A ProposalAn Undergraduate Thesis Proposal ToThe Faculty of the College of EngineeringJose Rizal Memorial State UniversityThe Premier University in Zamboanga del NorteMain Campus, Dapitan CityIn Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the CourseRES 32 (Research Methods) Leading to the Degree ofBachelor of Science in Electrical EngineeringMark Anthony B. EnoyRaymonjean S. CanoyAngelie M. MoroscalloJaymar P. DelgueraFourth Christian H. CagbabanuaMarch 2013
iiRepublic of the PhilippinesJose Rizal Memorial State UniversityThe Premier University in Zamboanga del NorteMain Campus, Dapitan CityAPPROVAL SHEETThis research study entitled “Wireless Electrical Power Transmission UsingAtmospheric Conduction Method: a Proposal”, prepared and submitted by Mark Anthony B.Enoy, Raymonjean S. Canoy, Angelie M. Moroscallo, Jaymar P. Delguera and Fourth ChristianH. Cagbabanua has been examined and recommended for oral examination.ENGR. KARRLOU C. RODAAdviserApproved by the Committee on oral Examination with a grade of _____.PANEL OF EXAMINERSENGR. ELENO MONDIJARChairmanENGR. KARRLOU C. RODA ED NEIL O. MARATASPanel Member Panel MemberAccepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the course RES 32(Research Methods) leading to the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering.ENGR. QUILIANO E. LASCO, MATDean, College of Engineering
iiiRepublic of the PhilippinesJose Rizal Memorial State UniversityThe Premier University in Zamboanga del NorteMain Campus, Dapitan CityCERTIFICATIONThis is to certify that Mark Anthony B. Enoy, Raymonjean S. Canoy, Angelie M. Moroscallo,Jaymar P. Delguera and Fourth Christian H. Cagbabanua are taking RES 32 (Research Methods)for Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering during the second semester, SchoolYear 2012 – 2013.ED NEIL O. MARATASResearch InstructorThis research study entitled “Wireless Electrical Power Transmission UsingAtmospheric Conduction Method: a Proposal”, prepared and submitted by Mark Anthony B.Enoy, Raymonjean S. Canoy, Angelie M. Moroscallo, Jaymar P. Delguera and Fourth ChristianH. Cagbabanua has been examined and recommended for oral examination on March_, 2013.ENGR. KARRLOU C. RODAResearch Adviser
ivRepublic of the PhilippinesJose Rizal Memorial State UniversityThe Premier University in Zamboanga del NorteMain Campus, Dapitan CityCERTIFICATIONThis is to certify that this thesis “Wireless Electrical Power Transmission UsingAtmospheric Conduction Method: a Proposal” prepared and submitted by Mark Anthony B.Enoy, Raymonjean S. Canoy, Angelie M. Moroscallo, Jaymar P. Delguera and Fourth ChristianH. Cagbabanua in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the course RES 32 (ResearchMethods) leading to the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering has beenreviewed, edited and is recommend for approval.KAREN J. MANCERAEnglish Critic
vRepublic of the PhilippinesJose Rizal Memorial State UniversityThe Premier University in Zamboanga del NorteMain Campus, Dapitan CityACCEPTANCE SHEETThis research study entitled “Wireless Electrical Power Transmission Using AtmosphericConduction Method: a Proposal”, prepared and submitted by Mark Anthony B. Enoy,Raymonjean S. Canoy, Angelie M. Moroscallo, Jaymar P. Delguera and Fourth Christian H.Cagbabanua in partial fulfillment of the requirements in RES 32 (Research Methods) is herebyACCEPTED.ED NEIL O. MARATASResearch Coordinator, College of Arts and SciencesAccepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the course RES 32 (ResearchMethods) leading to the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering.ENGR. QUILIANO E. LASCO, MATDean, College of Engineering
viACKNOWLEDGEMENTWith such honor and pride, we express our heartfelt and warm thanks to thosemomentous and significant persons in our lives who have given a large extent in the achievementof this undertaking:To our instructor in Research Methods, Mr. Ed Neil Maratas, for his patience and for hisvaluable knowledge shared for us to be able to make this paper;To Engr. Karrlou Roda and Engr. Eleno Mondijar who assisted us in developing ourresearch study and provided us pieces of advice , insights, information, recommendation andideas in making this work more successful;To all the websites that we visited and had provided us the information for the study;To our beloved parents, brothers and sisters, and relatives, who, despite of all theadversity and odds in life, give their moral, spiritual and financial support;To the author of different references that were utilized in the development of this researchstudy;Above all, to our Almighty God in heaven who guides us always, enlightens our mindand gives us strength and wisdom, to think of better ideas and gain clear understanding withregards to the research study.The Researchers
viiDEDICATIONWe would like to dedicate this tiresome work to our beloved parents, brothers and sisters,and relatives, who gave their moral, spiritual and financial support to us. To our instructor inthis subject who has been very kind to us. To our friends and classmates who help us in thedifficulties that we had encountered in doing this work, and to our mentors who inspired us tocontinue excavating our buried future and hope.Also, we highly dedicate this work to our Alma mater, Jose Rizal Memorial StateUniversity, the Premier State University in Zamboanga del Norte, Main Campus, Dapitan City,which molded us to become holistic individuals.Most especially, we dedicate this work to our Almighty God, who gave us His love,wisdom and blessing in making this study.The Researchers
viiiTABLE OF CONTENTSPAGETITLE PAGE iAPPROVAL SHEET iiCERTIFICATION iiiCERTIFICATION ivACCEPTANCE SHEET vACKNOWLEDGEMENT viDEDICATION viiCHAPTER IThe Problem and Its ScopeIntroduction 1Conceptual Framework 3The Schema of the Study 6Statement of the problem 7Significance of the Study 7Scope and Limitation of the Study 7Definition of Terms 8
ixCHAPTER IIResearch MethodologyMethod Used 10Project Development process 10APPENDICESA. BibliographyB. Letter to the DeanC. Letter to the RespondentsD. Curriculum VitaeLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1 A Tesla Coil lighting up a fluorescent bulb wirelessly 5Figure 2 The Schema of the Study 6Figure 3 Block Diagram of a Tesla Coil 17Figure 4 Typical Tesla Coil Schematic 18Figure 5 Alternative Tesla Coil Configuration 18Figure 6 Project Development Process of the Study 19Figure 7 Tesla Coil with basic parts 20Figure 8 Secondary and Primary Coils 20LIST OF TABLESTable 1. ESTIMATED COST OF TESLA COIL 21CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Chapter 1THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPEIntroductionNikola Tesla“Invention is the most important product of mans creative brain. The ultimate purpose isthe complete mastery of mind over the material world, the harnessing of human nature to humanneeds.” Nikola Tesla, My Inventions (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943)The simple but very valuable discovery of electrical power is considered one of thegreatest of all times. Every day we use electrical power to cook our food, power electronicdevices such as cell phones, computers, lights and refrigerators. It had become an integral part ofour daily lives and perhaps without it we feel we could not survive for less than a day or so. Itsdiscovery didn’t just open a window of light but a door of ideas for future generations. Itsundeniable importance and usefulness brought us to where we are today.As years go on, people have developed certain systems which would improve the qualityof electrical power. Alternating current or direct current, the main aim is to increase theefficiency and lower the cost of electricity. An important aspect of efficient electricity is itstransmission to the load. However one of the major issues in power system are the losses thatoccur during the transmission and distribution of electrical power. As the demand increases dayby day, the power generation increases and the power loss is also increased. The percentage ofloss of power during transmission and distribution is approximated as 26%. The main reason forpower loss during transmission and distribution is the resistance of wires used for grid. Theefficiency of power transmission can be improved to certain level by using high strength
2composite over head conductors and underground cables that use high temperature superconductor. But, the transmission is still inefficient. According to the World Resources Institute(WRI), India’s electricity grid has the highest transmission and distribution losses in the world –a whopping 27%. Numbers published by various Indian government agencies put that number at30%, 40% and greater than 40%. In the Philippines Electric power transmission and distributionlosses in Philippines was 12.11% as of 2009. Its highest value over the past 38 years was 19.16%in 1987, while its lowest value was 1.70% in 1980. This is attributed to technical losses (grid’sinefficiencies) and theft. Any problem can be solved by state–of-the-art technology. The abovediscussed problem can be solved by choosing an alternative option for power transmission whichcould provide much higher efficiency; low transmissions cost and avoid power theft.In order to avoid these disadvantages, many engineers, scientist and inventors joined inthe ultimate search of achieving high quality power transmission using wireless technology. Inmodern times the idea of wireless power transfer would also cancel out the inconvenience ofhaving too many wires sharing a limited amount of power sockets. Almost all people have thesame experience of lacking enough sockets for their electronic devices. Thus by creating awireless power transfer system, it would help clean up the clutter of wires around power socketsmaking the space more tidy and organized. Among many methods of Wireless Electrical PowerTransmission (WEPT) such as resonant inductive coupling method, electrostatic inductionmethod, microwaves method, LASER method, one of the most promising, amazing and may bethe righteous alternative for efficient power transmission is using Atmospheric Conductionmethod. With these, all the issues concerning power system losses will be avoided. And also inthe near future electrical devices would be more convenient to use because of its high portabilityfeatures.
3Conceptual/Theoretical FrameworkIn the late 19th century, shortly after the introduction of AC power, Nikola Tesla ( aninventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist best known for hiscontributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electrical supply system andoften called the greatest US electrical engineer during his time) began the development of asystem for the global transmission of electrical energy without interconnecting wires. NikolaTesla devoted much effort to develop a system for transferring large amount of power overconsiderable distance. His main goal was to bypass the electrical-wire grid, but for a number offinancial and technical difficulties, this project was never completed. His invention, however,required large scale construction of 200 ft tall masts. He developed various methods that can beused for his wireless power transmission and have been given great credits and patents for it.Tesla preferred to use the passage of current through the atmosphere and other natural medium.As shown in Figure 3b, After a Tesla Coil is powered up it charges the primary tankcapacitor C1. After it fully charges it discharges causing the spark gap to be ionized and fires.The electric charge in C1 dumps into the L1, and then back into C1, and then back into L1. Thisis called resonance. The primary tank capacitor (C1) and primary coil (L1) make up what iscalled a resonator. They are changing an electric field (C1 = volts) into a magnetic field (L1 =Gauss), and back again, at a rate (frequency) determined by the value of [(C1 capacitance) x (L1inductance)]. The secondary coil (L2) picks up some energy from L1 each time L1charges up.This process of transmitting energy from L1to L2 is known as resonant inductive coupling. Theoutput terminal or discharged terminal (C2) gets an electrical charge from L2 each time L2discharges. L2 and C2 resonate at the frequency determined by [(L2) x (C2)]. The magichappens when L1xC1=L2xC2, or both resonators resonate at the same rate (this is made to
4happen by adjusting the tap on L1). When both resonators are at the same rate, the energy in L2builds by a little bit from L1 on each cycle. This is called resonant rise. The output terminalvoltage gets higher on each cycle, until the voltage gets too high to hold, and then shoots into theair producing electrical arcs.As shown in Figure 1, after discharging multiple amounts of electrical energy (in theorder of thousands of volts per inch) in the discharge terminal the Tesla coil creates a very strongelectric field causing the air around the terminal to break down into positive ions and electrons –the air then becomes ionized. These ions are now separated and become farther apart than theywere in their original atomic structure. This separation gives electrons the freedom to move moreeasily than they could before, making the air around the terminal an ionized air or plasmamaking it a better conductive medium than before. These electrons have excellent mobility, andsince the air around the discharge terminal is ionized, electrical current is allowed to flowthrough the ground just like lightning do and if a fluorescent light bulb is held near it, the TeslaCoil pushes electrons through the light fluorescent bulb making it light up. This is the same waylights in our houses work, except in our houses, electricity comes through a wire instead ofthrough the air.Figure 2, The Schema of the Study on the next page illustrates the requirements inbuilding a Tesla coil for demonstrating wireless electrical power transmission.The first table represents the relevant problem/input of the study, which are High cost ofwires today, Copper losses on the transmission and distribution of electrical power, High cost onGrid maintenance and Danger of faulty wirings. These are the major reasons that challenge theresearchers to build a Tesla coil for demonstrating wireless electrical power transmission that inthe near future if develop would benefit the people and finally achieve a wire free world.
5The second table represents the solution of the study, which is by building the Tesla coilfor demonstrating wireless electrical power transmission as an alternative way of transmittingpower to any load and avoids using man-made conductors. These are also the ideas used by theresearchers to acquire the desired result. The requirement is divided into two parts. First is theproject description which involves the data gathering, requirement analysis, and designing whichconsist of the block diagram, Architectural layout and System preparation. On the other hand, thesystem preparations divided into three parts namely hardware requirements, wiring, and systemprocedure. These hardware materials are made by past inventors and collected to become onesystem.The third table represents the output of the study which is the Tesla coil. And the lasttable presents the contribution and benefit of the study to the respondents. Through this projectproposal, Tesla coil can provide clear demonstration on wireless electrical power transmissionand maybe in the future would lead readers to new discoveries and inventions.Figure.1 - A Tesla Coil lighting up a fluorescent bulb wirelessly
6Relevant Problem/input Increasing demand ofwireless technology High cost of wirestoday Copper losses on thetransmission anddistribution of electricalpower High cost on Gridmaintenance Danger of faultywiringsOutputTesla coil or electricalresonant transformer circuitFigure 2. The Schema of the StudySolution/ProcessPROJECT DESCRIPTION: Data gathering Requirement analysis Designing Block diagram Architectural layout System Preparation- Hardware Requirements- Wiring- System procedureHardware Requirements: Larger number of Magnetic wire forPrimary Coil winding Smaller number of Magnetic wire forsecondary coil winding Transformer:- NST (Neon SignTransformers) or- MOT (Microwave ovenTransformer) High voltage Capacitors PVC Pipe Aluminum Toroid (Top Load) Spark Gap Miscellaneous Parts (like wire, casingetc.)Contribution/ benefits May result in lowercost on wires asconductors May eliminate copperlosses on thetransmission anddistribution ofelectrical power low cost on powerGrid maintenance
7Statement of the ProblemThe objective of this research is to provide and illustrate an alternative way on WirelessElectrical Power Transmission which is using Atmospheric Conduction method which wouldhelp in the future development of wireless power transmission.This study seeks to answer the following questions:1. What is atmospheric conduction method?2. What is a Tesla coil and how does it work?3. How can atmospheric conduction method which is demonstrated by a Tesla coiltransmit electrical power without any wires or conductors to a load?4. What are the principles that govern the operation of a Tesla coil?5. How to build a Tesla coil?6. What are the possible usages of wireless electrical power transmission usingAtmospheric Conduction method in the future?Significance of the studyThe study of WEPT is beneficial to aspiring engineers and inventor who in the nearfuture will enhance and improve this research about WEPT into a more useful way as to reducecost on wires as conductors, decrease losses on the transmission and distribution of electricalpower and lower the cost on Grid maintenance.Scope and Limitation of the StudyThis study will be conducted in Jose Rizal Memorial State University, Main Campus,Dapitan City during school year 2012-2013.The Tesla Coil limits its function in ionizing air with respect to its power supply, whichmeans that the area it can ionize depends upon the power and voltage it takes to operate.
8Definition of TermsThe following terms are organized for further understanding.Wireless power transmission - is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source toan electrical load without man-made conductors. Wireless transmission is useful in cases whereinterconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible.Atmospheric Conduction Method – is a wireless power transmission method wherein theatmosphere is being used as the transmission medium by ionizing it.Tesla coil - is an electrical resonant transformer circuit invented by Nikola Tesla around 1891. Itis used to produce high-voltage, low-current, high frequency - alternating-current electricity. Themost common form of wireless power transmission is carried out using direct induction followedby resonant magnetic induction.Electromagnetic induction- is the production of a potential difference (voltage) acrossa conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field.Resonant inductive coupling - is the near field wireless transmission of electricalenergy between two coils that are tuned to resonate at the same frequency. The equipment to dothis is sometimes called a resonant or resonance transformer.Circuit Breaker- is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electricalcircuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit.Capacitor- is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electricfield. The ability of an object to hold an electrical charge is known as Capacitance.Electrical ballast is a device intended to limit the amount of current in an electric circuit. Ballastprovides a positive resistance or reactance that limits the current. The ballast provides for theproper operation of the negative-resistance device by limiting current.
9NST (Neon Sign Transformers) - is a transformer made for the purpose of powering a neonsign. They convert line voltage from the 120-347 V range up to high voltages, usually in therange of 2 to 15 kV. Most of these transformers generate between 30-120 mA.NST (Neon Sign Transformers) MOT (Microwave oven Transformer)MOT (Microwave oven Transformer) - High power transformer found in a microwave oventhat steps up wall voltage to around 2 kV AC, at power usually between 900 W and 1700 W.Spark gap - is basically a high power switch that consists of an arrangement oftwo conductor separated by a gap.Magnet wire or enameled wire- is a copper or aluminum wire coated with a very thin layerof insulation. It is used in the construction of transformers, inductors, motors, speakers, hard diskhead actuators, potentiometers, electromagnets, and other applications which require tight coilsof wire.Resonant frequency - is a natural frequency of vibration determined by the physical parametersof the vibrating object. Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum, evensmall periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude oscillations, because the systemstores vibrational energy.
10CHAPTER 2RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThis chapter presents the methodology of the study. This involves the discussion of theresearch methods, factors that contribute to the development of the project, which consist theproject development process.Research MethodThis study will adopt the constructive method, the most common engineering researchmethod. This involves evaluating the “construction” being developed analytically against somepredefined criteria of performing some benchmark tests with the prototype. Construct refers tothe new contributions being developed. This type of approach demands a form of validation thatdoes not need to be quite as empirically based as in the other type of research like exploratoryresearch.Project Development ProcessThis process includes different steps that can vary depending on the preconditions.During the study the developer will have to decide after each step if it is worth to continue or it isbetter to end the project at an early stage.Data Gathering. In order to gather more data and information about the wireless electricalpower transmission, researchers made a research with the different studies of wireless electricalpower transmission in the internet and conducted and sought additional information and ideasfrom the instructors and personnel of the institution which can help in developing the system.
11Requirements Analysis. After getting all the requirements, the researcher analyzed all therequirements and the possible outcomes of the proposed system, and then proceeds on theimplementation of the system.Designing. It involves the preparation of the abstract representation of the system. It isconcerned in making the architectural layout and the system preparation to meet therequirements. Figure 7 shows a Tesla coil with its basic parts. System Preparation. This involves the preparation of the abstract representation of thesystem.A. Hardware Requirements Larger number of Magnetic wire for Primary winding Smaller number of Magnetic wire for Secondary winding Transformer: power supply of the Tesla coil- NST (Neon Sign Transformers) or MOT (Microwave oven Transformer) High voltage Capacitors PVC Pipe Aluminum Toroid (Top Load) Spark Gap Miscellaneous Parts (like wire, casing etc.)B. WiringThese steps involve the wiring connection of the proposed Tesla coil for wireless powertransmission as shown in figure 2.
12C. System ProcedureTo build a Tesla Coil follow the general schematic diagram shown in figure 4.In our casewe use the alternative Tesla coil Circuit configuration shown in figure 5. The single phase powersource is connected to a double pull double throw switch that will serve as the main switch (notshown in the diagram) and then connected into a high voltage Transformer preferably aMicrowave oven Transformer (MOT) in order to achieve a step-up voltage of over 2000V AC topower our Tesla Coil. A capacitor tank is then connected parallel to the transformer. In serieswith the transformer is the Spark Gap then the primary coil then all the way around. Now to startthe secondary resonant circuit, make the secondary coil by winding a reasonable size of wirearound a PVC pipe and evenly insulating it with a clear gloss polyurethane varnish. Connect theother end directly to the ground while the other end to the toroid shape discharge terminal. Thesecondary is then placed in the middle part of the primary coil as shown in figure 8. Tesla Coilconstruction softwares are available in the internet as guide for the construction of Tesla coil.(Example: Tesla Cad).There are many things to consider in building a Tesla coil as shown in figure 1. Thefactors to consider are as follows:1. Safety. Safety should be your first concern in dealing with electrical related activities. Youshould follow the local electrical code in every work you do. That being said, sometypical wire sizes, overload, and short circuit protection methods must be observed beforeyou get started. Also, the metal case of the transformer should be grounded properly. Thissafety ground normally does not conduct any electricity. It is present in case a current
13carrying conductor accidentally touches the metal case. This provides a low resistancepath for the electricity to flow instead of going through your body to earth ground. In aTesla coil, such high voltages are very dangerous, but the Tesla coil makes very highfrequency electricity. This means the coil turns on and off very quickly so the electricityflows on the outside of your skin instead of through your body.2. Selecting the High voltage transformer. Selecting the high voltage transformer is the first step. Basically you can choose which ofthe schematic diagrams that you should follow. If figure 4 is used, this design is favoredwhen a relatively fragile Neon Sign Transformer (NST) usually in the range of 2 to 15 kVat 8-120 mA is used because NST are specially designed to take short circuits. Otherwiseif figure 5 is used, a core type high voltage transformer should have at least 2000 voltwhich is commonly found in microwave ovens should be used in the system. A currentlimiter such as ballast would be best to use. This transformer must be capable ofwithstanding high voltages at high frequencies. You can add a voltage doubler ormultiplier to achieve higher voltage output.3. Primary Capacitors/ Tank capacitors The Primary Capacitors / tank capacitor used in a Tesla Coil primary circuit is exposed topossibly the most severe conditions that any capacitor is expected to withstand. Itreceives and stores the electrical charges from the power supply. A typical tank capacitorwill be charged to maybe 2000V- 20kV in a few milliseconds, and then fully dischargedinto a few feet of copper tube in a few microseconds. This gives rise to incredibly highpeak currents, rapid voltage reversals, and high dielectric stress. The whole processrepeats over and over again several hundred times per second.
144. Spark Gap Is responsible for initiating the discharge of the tank capacitor into the primary windingof the Tesla Coil. It turns-on when sufficient voltage exists across the spark gap. The airin the gap ionizes and begins to conduct electricity like a closed switch. The spark gapturns-off when the current flowing through it drops to a low level, and the air gap regainsits insulating properties.5. Primary Coil Winding The primary coil is used with the primary capacitor to create the primary LC circuit. Theprimary coil is also responsible for transferring power to the secondary coil. It accepts thedump electrical charges from the Primary Capacitor. It has lesser number of turnscompared to the secondary coil but larger gauge in terms of wire size. The wire that iscommonly used in this winding is 5mm dia. multi stranded copper cable6. Secondary Coil Winding The secondary coil is responsible for generating the veryhigh voltages and must be constructed with care in order toavoid failures. The coil can be split into four functionalareas, the form, the wire, the insulation and the connections.It accepts dump electrical energies from the Primary coilwinding. The wire that is commonly used in this winding is alot smaller compared to the primary winding usually AWG # 18 and above, however withmore number of turns. The secondary coil should generally have at least 400 turns ofmagnetic wire. The secondary coil is usually wound into a PVC pipe. PVC is ideal
15because they are good electrical insulators. As well as being a good insulator it ispreferable that the materials DF (dissipation factor) is low.7. Top Load / Discharge Terminal Act as the output terminal for the streamer discharges, and a capacitive load for thesecondary coil. It also acts as a capacitor in the secondary circuit. Usually it is in toroid orspherical shape made up of aluminum. A sphere will have evenly distributed fieldstrength over its entire surface while with a toroid; the field strength will increase aroundits radius. The arcs will break out where field strength is greatest.8. PVC Pipe It is where you will wind your Secondary coil. As the name implies made up of polyvinylchloride (PVC) that is commonly used for plumbing purposes.9. Size of the wire It is very important to choose the wire size based on the voltage and current that will flowin the wire. Wire should also be very well insulated to avoid further accidents to happen.Secondary Coil Form DimensionsForm Diameter Aspect Ratio Coil length3 inches 6 to 1 18 inches4 inches 5 to 1 20 inches6 inches 4 to 1 24 inches8 inches 3 to 1 24 inchesPower vs. Secondary DiameterPower Range Secondary Diameterless than 500W 3 to 4 inch500W to 1500W 4 to 6 inch1500W to 3KW 6 to 10 inch3KW and above 10 inch and above
1610. ComputationsResonant Circuit FormulaF = frequency in hertzL = inductance in henrysC = capacitance in faradsHelical CoilLh = (N x R)^2 / (9 x R + 10 x H)Where:Lh = Inductance in micro-HenriesN = number of turnsR = Radius in inchesH=Height in incFlat spiralLf = (N x R)^2 / (8 x R + 11 x W)Where:Lf = Inductance in micro-HenryN = number of turnsR = Average radius in inchesW = Width in inchesToroid CapacitanceC = capacitance in picofaradsD1 = outside diameter of toroid in inchesD2 = diameter of cross section of toroid ininchesVpk =Vin * sqrt( sqrt (Ls/Cs) / sqrt(Lp/Cp) )Vo = Vp SQRT(Ls/Lp)Secondary Coil DimensionsT = AHL = length of wire in feetD = outer diameter of coil form in inchesH = height of windings in inchesA = number of turns per inchT = total number of turnsB = thickness of wire in inches
17Figure 3. Block Diagram of a Tesla CoilAC PowerHigh VoltageStep-upTransformerSpark GapPrimaryCapacitorPrimaryWindingSecondaryWindingTop-load or dischargeterminalElectricaldischarges
18Figure 3 on the preceding page represents the block diagram of a Tesla coil. The firstbox represents the main AC electrical power source which will be the source our primaryvoltage. The second box is the High Voltage Low Current Step-up Transformer which isresponsible of stepping up the voltage from low transmission line to be used as power supply tothe Tesla coil.Figure 4.Typical Tesla Coil SchematicThis example circuit is designed to be driven by alternating currents. Here the spark gapshorts the high frequency across the first transformer. An inductance, not shown, protects thetransformer. This design is favored when a relatively fragile Neon Sign Transformer (NST) isused.Figure 5.Alternative Tesla Coil ConfigurationThis circuit also is driven by alternating current. However, here the AC supply transformer mustbe capable of withstanding high voltages at high frequencies.
19DataGatheringRequirementAnalysisDesigningFigure 6. Project Development Process of the StudyVerify
20Figure 6 on the preceding page shows the project development process of the study. Itrepresents the step by step process to make the desired study possible. It starts with datagathering wherein all the necessary data or equipment needed in the study is being realized tomake the desired output possible. Then it is verified and goes back to data gathering. It will thenbe followed by requirements analysis on the next oval shape object wherein the researchersanalyze all the requirements as well as the possible outcome of the study and then verify it again.Next is to go back to the requirements analysis before going to the final stage which is designing.It involves the preparation of the abstract representation of the system. It is concerned in makingthe architectural layout and station preparation to meet the requirements and then verifying ifindeed it meets the said requirements.Figure 8 - Secondary and Primary CoilsFigure 7 - Tesla Coil with basic parts
21Table 1. ESTIMATED COST OF TESLA COIL CONSTRUCTION MATERIALSHARDWARE TOTAL COSTMagnetic wire for Primary Coil winding P400Magnetic wire for secondary coil winding P200Transformer P5,000High voltage Capacitors P500PVC Pipe P100Aluminum Toroid (Top Load) P100Spark Gap P100Electrical Ballast P200Miscellaneous Parts (like wire, casing etc.) P500TOTAL ESTIMATED COST P7,100
23Appendix BRepublic of the PhilippinesJose Rizal Memorial State UniversityThe Premier University in Zamboanga del NorteMain Campus, Dapitan CityLETTER TO THE DEANMarch 19, 2013ENGR. QUILIANO E. LASCOCOE DeanThis InstitutionSir:Greetings!The undersigned are the fourth year Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering studentspresently enrolled in the subject RES 32, Research Method of College of Engineering. One ofthe requirements in this course is to come up with the research study. Ours is entitled “WirelessElectrical Power Transmission Using Atmospheric Conduction Method: a Proposal”.In this connection, we are requesting your good office to allow us to conduct a research studyand to distribute questionnaires to the college instructors and students as our respondents.We are hoping for your favorable action and response to this request of approval.Very truly yours,The ResearchersNoted by:ED NEIL O. MARATASResearch InstructorApproved/ Disapproved:ENGR. QUILIANO E. LASCO, MATDean, College of Engineering
24Appendix CRepublic of the PhilippinesJose Rizal Memorial State UniversityThe Premier University in Zamboanga del NorteMain Campus, Dapitan CityLETTER TO THE RESPONDENTSMarch 19, 2013Dear Respondents,The undersigned and his members are fourth year Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineeringwho are conducting a research proposal entitled “Wireless Electrical Power TransmissionUsing Atmospheric Conduction Method: a Proposal” of Jose Rizal Memorial StateUniversity, The Premier State University in Zamboanga del Norte, Main Campus, Dapitan City.In this regard, your consideration and cooperation answering our research questionnairetruthfully will be of great help.In behalf of the group, I am hoping for your favorable action and response to this request.Sincerely yours,Mark Anthony B. EnoyGroup LeaderNoted by:ED NEIL O. MARATASResearch Instructor
25Curriculum VitaeNAME : Mark Anthony B. EnoyADDRESS : Sicayab, Dipolog CityDATE OF BIRTH: September 8, 1992PLACE OF BIRTH : Dapitan CityCIVIL STATUS : SingleAGE : 20GENDER : MaleCITIZENSHIP: FilipinoPARENTS :FATHER : Crisanto S. EnoyMOTHER : Victoria B. EnoyEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:SCHOOL LEVEL NAME OF SCHOOL YEAR GRADUATEDELEMENTARY Dipolog Pilot Demonstration School 2005SECONDARY Sicayab National High School 2009TERTIARY Jose Rizal Memorial State UniversityBachelor of Science in Electrical EngineeringI hereby declare that this curriculum vita has been accomplished by me and the aboveinformation is certified true and correct.MARK ANTHONY B. ENOYName and Signature
26Curriculum VitaeNAME : Jaymar P. DelgueraADDRESS : Siay Zamboanga SibugayDATE OF BIRTH: September 24, 1992PLACE OF BIRTH : Siay Zamboanga SibugayCIVIL STATUS : SingleAGE : 20GENDER : MaleCITIZENSHIP: FilipinoPARENTS :FATHER :MOTHER : Violeta P. DelgueraEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:SCHOOL LEVEL NAME OF SCHOOL YEAR GRADUATEDELEMENTARY: Siay Central Elementary School 2005SECONDARY : Siay National High School 2009TERTIARY: Jose Rizal Memorial State UniversityBachelor of Science in Electrical EngineeringI hereby declare that this curriculum vita has been accomplished by me and the aboveinformation is certified true and correct.JAYMAR P. DELGUERAName and Signature
27Curriculum VitaeNAME : Angelie M. MoroscalloADDRESS : Olingan, Dipolog CityDATE OF BIRTH: May 8, 1993PLACE OF BIRTH : Olingan, Dipolog CityCIVIL STATUS : SingleAGE : 19GENDER : FemaleCITIZENSHIP: FilipinoPARENTS :FATHER : Arcadio S. Moroscallo Jr.MOTHER : Antonieta M. MoroscalloEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:SCHOOL LEVEL NAME OF SCHOOL YEAR GRADUATEDELEMENTARY: Olingan South Elementary School 2005SECONDARY : Alberto Q. Ubay Memorial Agro-Tech 2009Science High SchoolTERTIARY: Jose Rizal Memorial State UniversityBachelor of Science in Electrical EngineeringI hereby declare that this curriculum vita has been accomplished by me and the aboveinformation is certified true and correct.ANGELIE M. MOROSCALLOName and Signature
28Curriculum VitaeNAME : Raymonjean S. CanoyADDRESS : Jose Dalman,Z.NDATE OF BIRTH: May 12,1991PLACE OF BIRTH : Jose Dalman,Z.NCIVIL STATUS : SingleAGE : 21GENDER : MaleCITIZENSHIP: FilipinoPARENTSFATHER : Edmond Z. CanoyMOTHER : Rosemarie S. CanoyEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:SCHOOL LEVEL NAME OF SCHOOL YEAR GRADUATEDELEMENTARY : Siparok Elementary School 2004SECONDARY : BAMNHS 2008TERTIARY: Jose Rizal Memorial State UniversityBachelor of Science in Electrical EngineeringI hereby declare that this curriculum vita has been accomplished by me and the aboveinformation is certified true and correct.RAYMONJEAN S. CANOYName and Signature
29Curriculum VitaeNAME : Fourth Christian H. CagbabanuaADDRESS : Cawa-cawa DapitanDATE OF BIRTH: December 26, 1991PLACE OF BIRTH : Cawa-cawa DapitanCIVIL STATUS : SingleAGE : 21GENDER : MaleCITIZENSHIP: FilipinoPARENTSFATHER : Ananias G. CagbabanuaMOTHER : Bernadita H. CagbabanuaEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:SCHOOL LEVEL NAME OF SCHOOL YEAR GRADUATEDELEMENTARY : Dapitan Central School 2004SECONDARY : RMI Dapitan 2008TERTIARY: Jose Rizal Memorial State UniversityBachelor of Science in Electrical EngineeringI hereby declare that this curriculum vita has been accomplished by me and the aboveinformation is certified true and correct.FOURTH CHRISTIAN H. CAGBABANUAName and Signature