Flashcards

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Excel file of flashcard project aligned with The List for IP&T 564.

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Flashcards

  1. 1. Scheduling Sequence Providing Feedback and Spacing 1. After each response, feedback is 1. Sequencing reflects a scheduled immediate. framework (e.g., Leitner system) 2. Includes knowledge-of-correct- response feedback (e.g., including 2. Presentation of each item is response accuracy verification, providing discrete and spaced. correct answers, etc.) 3. Design provides for at least one 3. Elaborative feedback is available for intersession interval of anywhere low certitude responses between one and thirty days (no "cramming"). 4. Periodic feedback relates tracked data to learner goals (e.g., learning/achievement is definable (either by designer or user, i.e. five correct iterations) 5. Results of learning session are related to learner goals.
  2. 2. Motivating and Managing Cognitive Engaging Load 1. Design captures learners' 1. Design takes advantage of interest (e.g., use simple verbal (text, narration, etc.) and unexpected events like a loud non-verbal (photographs, whistle or an upside-down word illustrations, diagrams, etc.) in a visual, etc.). input channels 2. Design avoids cognitive 2. Design stimulates learners' overload (e.g., text in close inquiry (e.g., give mentally spatial proximity to visuals to stimulating problems that engage avoid split attention cognitive a deeper level of curiosity, etc.). load concerns). 3. Design acknowledges and 3. Design maintains learners' adapts to limitations of audience attention (e.g., utilize variation). (i.e. universal design and accessibility) 4. Design makes learning 4. Design enables learner to outcomes relevant to students efficiently "chunk" facts by (e.g., connect content to learner identifying, connecting goals, interests, learning styles, (grouping), and sequencing etc.). information. 5. Design builds learner confidence (e.g., providing examples of acceptable achievement). 6. Design promotes student satisfaction (e.g., provides recognition and evidence of success, practical application, etc.).
  3. 3. Determining Prior Maximizing Academic Knowledge Learning Time (ALT) 1. Design determines learner's prior knowledge and goals 1. Design ensures all instructional (e.g., pre-assessment, activities support desired learning iterations of a Leitner system, outcomes. etc.) 2. Design facilitates open content (e.g., user-generated content, sharing of content 2. Design ensures waiting and and results, user-user or user- transitional time is minimized. population comparisons of results, etc.) 3. Design provides low prior- knowledge students with response-contingent feedback (e.g., system explains reasons for correct/incorrect responses) 4. Design provides high prior- knowledge students with topic- contingent feedback (e.g., system directs learners to find the correct response or a path to additional information).
  4. 4. Applied? Providing Feedback 1. After each response, feedback is immediate. Yes 2. Includes knowledge-of-correct- response feedback (e.g., including response accuracy verification, providing correct answers, etc.) Yes 3. Elaborative feedback is available for low certitude responses Yes 4. Periodic feedback relates tracked data to learner goals (e.g., learning/achievement is definable (either by designer or user, i.e. five correct iterations) Partly 5. Results of learning session are related to learner goals. Only slightly Scheduling Sequence and Spacing 1. Sequencing reflects a scheduled framework (e.g., Leitner system) Yes 2. Presentation of each item is discrete and spaced. Yes/No 3. Design provides for at least one intersession interval of anywhere between one and thirty days (no "cramming"). Yes Motivating and Engaging 1. Design captures learners' interest (e.g., use simple unexpected events like a loud whistle or an upside-down word in a visual, etc.). Partly 2. Design stimulates learners' inquiry (e.g., give mentally stimulating problems that engage a deeper level of curiosity, etc.). Partly
  5. 5. 3. Design maintains learners' attention (e.g., utilize variation). Hopefully 4. Design makes learning outcomes relevant to students (e.g., connect content to learner goals, interests, learning styles, etc.). Yes 5. Design builds learner confidence (e.g., providing examples of acceptable achievement). Yes 6. Design promotes student satisfaction (e.g., provides recognition and evidence of success, practical application, etc.). Yes Managing Cognitive Load 1. Design takes advantage of verbal (text, narration, etc.) and non-verbal (photographs, illustrations, diagrams, etc.) input channels Yes 2. Design avoids cognitive overload (e.g., text in close spatial proximity to visuals to avoid split attention cognitive load concerns). Yes 3. Design acknowledges and adapts to limitations of audience (i.e. universal design and accessibility) Yes 4. Design enables learner to efficiently "chunk" facts by identifying, connecting (grouping), and sequencing information. Partly Determining Prior Knowledge 1. Design determines learner's prior knowledge and goals (e.g., pre- assessment, iterations of a Leitner system, etc.) No
  6. 6. 2. Design facilitates open content (e.g., user-generated content, sharing of content and results, user-user or user- population comparisons of results, etc.) Partly 3. Design provides low prior-knowledge students with response-contingent feedback (e.g., system explains reasons for correct/incorrect responses) At times 4. Design provides high prior-knowledge students with topic-contingent feedback (e.g., system directs learners to find the correct response or a path to additional information). At times Maximizing Academic Learning Time (ALT) 1. Design ensures all instructional activities support desired learning outcomes. Yes, but… 2. Design ensures waiting and transitional time is minimized. No
  7. 7. Justification Students are instructed to give immediate feedback; whether or not it really happens immediately is not always controllable. If flashcard is added to the correct pile, student knows immediately that it was correct. Quizzee knows it's incorrect when they are given the correct answer and have to find the explanation as to why that is the correct answer. Designed for all incorrect answers on first two days of flashcard processes 1 and 2. At these times, students can-- and are expected to--access notes to find elaborative feedback. Students can follow their improvement by how many rounds they have to go through each day. Also, implementation and review activities keep them updated on progress. Before launching into the teaching activity, I would talk with the students about why knowing these terms is so important, but if a student doesn't care about having a clue in school, then it won't be related to that student's goals. That said, when I make a point of the fact that they could potentially look like doofuses if they don't learn them, then most students find that learning them is a goal. And I provide higher-level relevance for those with higher-level learning goals. The framework is not Leitner exactly, but it is specifically designed. Students separate cards into correct and incorrect piles and repeat with incorrect pile until the incorrect pile is gone. Each is discrete, but the spacing time is not controlled. Activities are spaced by days in class over a two-week period. The pictures and students' individual creativity is supposed to catch the learners' interest. Once they get used to the sentences, however, they are unlikely to continue to be entertained by the same sentences aned pictures… unless they're really, really good. The flexibility of example creations, creating more examples during flashcard process 2, and being exposed to different students' examples should all help with this.
  8. 8. Teenagers tend to get bored with repetition very quickly. That's why there are several different activities along the learning process that not only accelerate in difficulty, but hopefully change often enough that they can gain expertise and confidence while getting enough variety to keep their attention. The introduction before teaching starts and implementation activity should both help students recognize how learning the literary terms is relevant to their own learning experience. Seeing their correct pile grow and incorrect pile shrink should help build their confidence. Also, the fact that they should be speeding up each day should help. As they slowly build their versatility through the activities' progression, they should also gain confidence. If they feel they want to progress at a faster rate, they can also use their flashcards at home. The progression of activities shows them their progress and implementation gives them practical application. The flashcards utilize both words and illustrations. The illustrations are placed right underneath the sentences they represent on the flashcards. The audience will not have much technical access; this activity utilizes the students' own creativity and basic classroom supplies. Also, each student is able to choose the examples that are most relevant to him or her and draw illustrations that will best help him or her understand and remember the literary terms. It allows students to chunk the flashcards as desired, but I don't know that it particularly enables them to do so (other than when I chunk the terms for the teaching activity). First, I'm aware of what the audience in general has as prior knowledge because of years of teaching freshmen in our district and because we work with the 8th grade teachers from middle schools that feed into our high school. Second, I know that there is some overlap of prior knowledge to the new terms and I specifically want that to be the case to (1) help build confidence because they know something going in and (2) help students build the new knowledge onto the framework of knowledge they already have (boosting understanding and retention).
  9. 9. The design faciliates user-user collaboration within the class, but that's pretty much where it stops. Individual students could choose to make their specific flashcards open courseware, but it's not built into the design because that's more work than is feasible considering the constraints of the design situation. During the first two parts of the flashcard processes, yes, this is provided. During the third parts, however, only knowledge-of-correct answer feedback is given. This design was chosen to try to push students to stretch and reach higher levels. If they don't see the process getting more difficult, they are more likely to get bored and less likely to continue stretching themselves. If students get the answer correct, then yes. However, if students get it incorrect, for the first two parts of the flaschard processes they are going to be required to provide elaborative feedback. I designed it this way to try to guarantee understanding of the terms, not simply memorization of which names connect to which pictures. It's on purpose, in spite of the limitations to feedback. All designed activities support them, but it's very possible there will be time in there where students are engaged in activities that do not support learning. This is the greatest weakness of the design. While I would be monitoring to help keep students on task and productive, some groups will invariably finish before others, some will invariably be more distracted than others and consequently take longer, and having something productive for students to do if they finish early but not necessary for those that finish late is difficult (especially if it's individual work that they should be doing quietly while the others and being vocal). There's no way that I can come up with to keep the process individualized in the way it needs to be without facing these problems, however, so I'm figuring I'll live with this major weakness in order to reap the benefits of the design's strengths.

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