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Presentation for Chapter 2. "The Human Brain" by Mariya Demidovich

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  1. 1. The Human Brain<br />MariyaDemidovich<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />The brain is the largest organ in the body.<br />Part of the central nervous system along with the spinal cord.<br />Regulates various internal and external body functions<br /><br />
  3. 3. Anatomy of the Brain<br />Hypothalamus: controls and regulates multiple body systems. Regulates the release of hormones to the pituitary gland.<br />Pituitary Gland: secretes and regulates many necessary hormones.<br />Brain Stem: communicates between spinal cord and brain.<br />Spinal Cord: carries impulses from the brain to the rest of the body.<br />Cerebellum: coordinates voluntary body movements.<br />Pineal Gland: secretes the hormone melatonin which regulates the sleep cycle<br /><br />Cerebrum: the biggest and oldest part of the brain. Major center for integration of higher brain function<br />
  4. 4. Cerebrum<br />Frontal Lobe:<br />-Motor Function<br />-Personality<br />-Speech<br />Temporal Lobe:<br />-Hearing<br />-Smell<br />Occipital Lobe: <br />-Vision<br />Temporal Lobe:<br />-Hearing <br />-Smell<br /><br />
  5. 5. How Do We Know So Much about the Brain?<br />Electroencephalography (EEG)<br />-Records the brain’s activity by using electrodes.<br />-Often used in “sleep studies” to help understand any sleep problems that a patient is having.<br />Positron-Emission Tomography (PET)<br />-detects areas of intense chemically active tissue<br />-Can measure oxygen and glucose uptake, blood flow, etc.<br />-Measures metabolic activity of the tissue<br />-Helps doctors detect tumors in the brain<br />Magnetoencephalography (MEG)<br />-Maps brain activity by using magnetic fields and the brain’s own electrical currents.<br />-Helps doctors identify various disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis.<br />
  6. 6. Common Brain Disorders<br />-Alzheimer’s disease: mental disorders usually affecting older adults. Mainly consists of dementia and loss of memory<br />-Schizophrenia: mental disorder that involves a misconception of reality marked by hallucinations and delusions.<br />-Cerebral Palsy (CP): brain damage that was usually a result of some trauma that occurred during birth<br />
  7. 7. Various Treatments<br />Drug Therapy<br />Using various pharmaceuticals to treat mental disorders.<br />Some general categories are antidepressants, anti-anxiety and stimulants.<br />Cognitive-Behavior Therapy<br />Psychoanalytical therapy that uses a systematic approach to solve various psychotic disorders<br />
  8. 8. Resources<br />Campbell, Reece. Biology. 6th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002: 1040-1053.<br />Fremgen, Frucht. Medical Terminology: A Living Language. 4th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2009: 386-408.<br />Wright, Jesse H. “Cognitive-Behavior Therapy.” Review of Psychiatry. 23.3 (2004): 1-15.<br />