Autonomic Nervous System<br />
Introduction<br />Autonomic Nervous System<br />Auto (self) nom (govern)<br />We are not in control of the functions that ...
Levels of Organization <br />
ANS<br />Motor division of peripheral nervous system (PNS)<br />Controls visceral activities, goal = maintaining internal ...
Two motor division systems<br />ANS = involuntary <br />Somatic = voluntary<br />Efferent pathway (nerve impulses)<br />AN...
ANS (Comparison)<br />
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)<br />Single neuron fron CNS to effector organs<br />Heavily myelinated = rapid nerve impulse ...
Parasympathetic/Sympathetic<br />Two divisions of the ANS<br />Sympathetic ganglia lie close to the spinal cord<br />Paras...
	Norepinephrine</li></li></ul><li>Sympathetic<br />“fight-or-flight”<br />Acts in emergency situations that cause stress a...
Comparison <br />
<ul><li>The SNS is responsible for up and down regulating of many homeostatic mechanisms in living organisms
Constantly active at a basal level to maintain homeostasis
Two kinds of neurons involved in the transmission of any signal through the sympathetic system
Preganglion
Postganglion
Preganglionic fibers are located in the spinal cord (T1-L2) known as the “Thoracolumbar Division”
Postganlionic fibers extend from the ganglion to the effector organs</li></li></ul><li>Parasympathetic<br />Responsible fo...
Cranial Outflow<br />Preganglion fibers come from the cranial and sacral division<br />Oculomotor Nerves (CIII)<br />Smoot...
Sacral Outflow<br />Most of the large intestine and pelvic organs<br />Distal half of large intestine<br />Urinary bladder...
Neurotransmitters<br />
Neurotrasmitters<br />Substances released from neurons that influences the likelihood that an action potential in the pres...
Axon terminals of autonomic neurons release two neurotransmitters<br />Norepinephrine (adrenergic fibers)<br />Acetylcholi...
Receptor Type<br />Norepinephrine affects visceral effectors by first binding to adrenergic receptors in their plasma<br /...
ACh binds to cholinergic receptors<br />Nicotinic <br />Muscarinic<br />Subtypes<br />Nicotinic-1, Nicotinic-2<br />Muscar...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

ANS

1,211 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,211
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
68
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

ANS

  1. 1. Autonomic Nervous System<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Autonomic Nervous System<br />Auto (self) nom (govern)<br />We are not in control of the functions that are performed by the ANS <br />It is the involuntary nervous system<br />
  3. 3. Levels of Organization <br />
  4. 4. ANS<br />Motor division of peripheral nervous system (PNS)<br />Controls visceral activities, goal = maintaining internal homeostasis<br />
  5. 5. Two motor division systems<br />ANS = involuntary <br />Somatic = voluntary<br />Efferent pathway (nerve impulses)<br />ANS (from CNS to cardiac & smooth muscles, glands)<br />Somatic (from CNS to skeletal muscles)<br />
  6. 6. ANS (Comparison)<br />
  7. 7. Somatic Nervous System (SNS)<br />Single neuron fron CNS to effector organs<br />Heavily myelinated = rapid nerve impulse conduction<br />Ach is the main neurotransmitter<br />ANS (two-neuron chain)<br />Preganglionic neuron (in brain or spinal cord)<br />Preganglionic axon (from CNS) synapses with ganglionic neuron then,<br />Postganglionic axon extends to the effector organ<br />Preganglionic axons are lightly myelinated<br />Postganglionic axons are unmyelinated<br />
  8. 8. Parasympathetic/Sympathetic<br />Two divisions of the ANS<br />Sympathetic ganglia lie close to the spinal cord<br />Parasympathetic ganglia located near the visceral effectororgans<br />Dual Innervation<br />Parasympatheic and Sympthetic balance each other to maintain homeostasis<br />Two main neurotransmitters that are active intheANS system<br /><ul><li> Acetylcholine (Ach)
  9. 9. Norepinephrine</li></li></ul><li>Sympathetic<br />“fight-or-flight”<br />Acts in emergency situations that cause stress and require us to “fight” or “flight”<br />Located to the sympathetic chain which connects skin, blood vessels, organs in the body<br />The sympathetic chain is located in the spine and consists of ganglia<br />
  10. 10. Comparison <br />
  11. 11. <ul><li>The SNS is responsible for up and down regulating of many homeostatic mechanisms in living organisms
  12. 12. Constantly active at a basal level to maintain homeostasis
  13. 13. Two kinds of neurons involved in the transmission of any signal through the sympathetic system
  14. 14. Preganglion
  15. 15. Postganglion
  16. 16. Preganglionic fibers are located in the spinal cord (T1-L2) known as the “Thoracolumbar Division”
  17. 17. Postganlionic fibers extend from the ganglion to the effector organs</li></li></ul><li>Parasympathetic<br />Responsible for the control of involuntary body functions<br />Known as the “rest and digest system”<br />Works to counterbalance the sympathetic nervous system to maintain the body in homeostasis<br />
  18. 18. Cranial Outflow<br />Preganglion fibers come from the cranial and sacral division<br />Oculomotor Nerves (CIII)<br />Smooth muslces in the eyes (pupil constriction)<br />Facial Nerves (CVII)<br />Nasal glands<br />Lacrimal glands<br />Superior salivatory nuclei<br />Glossopharyngeal nerves (CIX)<br />Inferior salivatory nuclei<br />Vagus Nerves (CX)<br />Fibers to neck and nerve plexuses<br />
  19. 19. Sacral Outflow<br />Most of the large intestine and pelvic organs<br />Distal half of large intestine<br />Urinary bladder<br />Ureters<br />Reproductive organs<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Neurotransmitters<br />
  22. 22. Neurotrasmitters<br />Substances released from neurons that influences the likelihood that an action potential in the presynaptic terminal will result in the postsynaptic cell<br />Effects of autonomic activity lies in knowing which neurotransmitters are released by the autonomic fibers and what kind of receptors occur on the target cells<br />
  23. 23. Axon terminals of autonomic neurons release two neurotransmitters<br />Norepinephrine (adrenergic fibers)<br />Acetylcholine (cholinergic fibers)<br />Majority of sympathetic postganglionic fibers are adrenergic<br />Cholinergic fibers include<br />all preganglionic fibers of both division<br />Postganglionic fibers of parasympathetic<br />Few sympathetic postganglionic fibers<br />
  24. 24. Receptor Type<br />Norepinephrine affects visceral effectors by first binding to adrenergic receptors in their plasma<br />Adrenergic receptor types<br />Alpha ( ) <br />Beta ()βα<br />Subtypes of alpha and beta receptors include (B1, B2, B3, A1, A2)<br />
  25. 25. ACh binds to cholinergic receptors<br />Nicotinic <br />Muscarinic<br />Subtypes<br />Nicotinic-1, Nicotinic-2<br />Muscarinic-1, Muscarinic-2, Muscarinic-3<br />All Ach receptors are either nicotinic or muscarinic<br />
  26. 26. Autonomic Disorders<br />Most reflect exaggerated or deficient control of smooth muscle activity<br />Hypertension (high blood pressure)<br />Results from an overactive sympathetic vasoconstrictor response<br />Makes the heart work harder to pump blood to the body<br />Contributes to arthrosclerosis (hardening of arteries)<br />Factors that contribute to hypertension; smoking, weight, genetics, chronic kidney disease, thyroid disorders<br />
  27. 27. <ul><li>Horner’s Syndrome
  28. 28. Damage to SNS
  29. 29. Major sign is drooping of the upper eyelid
  30. 30. Due to loss of sympathetic innervation to the eye (superior tarsal muscle)
  31. 31. RaynaudsDisease (Body limits blood flow to hands and feet)</li></ul>Exaggerated vasoconstriction response<br />Provoked by exposure to cold or emotional stress<br />In severe cases, blood circulation to fingers and toes diminish leading to skin ulcers or gangrene<br />Vasodilators are used as treatment<br />
  32. 32. Autonomic neuropathy<br />Common complication of diabetes mellitus<br />Nerve damage occurs due to high blood glucose<br />Symptoms include dizziness and urinary discontinance<br />Autonomic Dysreflexia(hyperreflexia)<br />Dangerous complication of spinal cord injury<br />Uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons<br />Spinal cord injuries at T6 or higher are at rish<br />Trigger is painful stimulus to the skin or overfilling of visceral organs<br />Elevated blood pressure can lead to stroke<br />
  33. 33. Biofeedback <br />The use of instrumentation to monitor and feedback to the patient <br />Originally thought that the ANS could not be controlled voluntarily<br />Voluntary cortical control of visceral activities is possible through biofeedback<br />Physiological processes may be brought under voluntary control<br />Visual imagery<br />Diaphragmatic breathing (deep breathing to slow the stress response)<br />
  34. 34. Instrumentation used to train the patient<br />EMG (electromyography) & temperature trainer<br />Tem. Training = hand warming through visual imagery<br />Leads to to vasodilation in the blood vessels of the body<br />EMG training = method of learning used to achieve deep muscle relaxation through feedback<br />

×