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Using gamification to generate citizen input for public transport planning

Presentation at the 2016 ePart conference in Guimaraes, Portugal. Research in progress presenting a case study of a smart cities app, and discussing how the data can be used for increased citizen participation.

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Using gamification to generate
citizen input for public transport
planning
Marius Rohde Johannessen
Ass. professor
School of business
9/7/2016 2016 eGov/ePart conference 1
• Example of so-called «smart» initiative
– Trafpoint – a digital ecosystem for smart urban transport planning
• Stealth democracy – How user-generated data can provide input for decision-makers
Key issues
9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 2
Background and motivation
• 50% + of world population in urban areas
• Cities take up 2% of the world’s space
• …and 80% of the energy
• Air pollution, energy, infrasttructure etc
• People will not stop moving to cities, so we
need to make cities smarter and more
sustainable
9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 3
Smart cities
• A label/statement/hype(?) that attempts to collect current technological and social matters
– IoT, urban plannling, sustainability, networks, participation…
• Objectives: Using ICT and networked technologies to:
– Improve environmental quality in urban spaces
– Optimize energy consumption
– Increase quality of life
– Deliver better public and private services
(Dameri and Coccia, 2013)
9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 4
Smart cities – ICT for
sustainability and growth
• Creating network effects between systems
– Economic, environment, social
• Wicked problems: Require collaboration
between a range of actors, disciplines etc
• Requires: Human and social capital (know how
and know who), willingness to change,
human-centered development
9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 5
(human) sensors – Smart City Lego
• Sensors are everywhere – smartphones, watches, Raspberry PI, Arduino...
• And they’re cheap, off-the-shelf, and possible to adapt to just about everything
• «Human» sensors
– Smartphones are full of sensors
• Accelerometer, camera, microphone, GPS, light, temperature, heart rate, barometer etc
– Coupled with 4G, these sensors provide massive amounts of data
– But we need people to actively use them, install apps and send data
9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 6

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Using gamification to generate citizen input for public transport planning

  • 1. Using gamification to generate citizen input for public transport planning Marius Rohde Johannessen Ass. professor School of business 9/7/2016 2016 eGov/ePart conference 1
  • 2. • Example of so-called «smart» initiative – Trafpoint – a digital ecosystem for smart urban transport planning • Stealth democracy – How user-generated data can provide input for decision-makers Key issues 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 2
  • 3. Background and motivation • 50% + of world population in urban areas • Cities take up 2% of the world’s space • …and 80% of the energy • Air pollution, energy, infrasttructure etc • People will not stop moving to cities, so we need to make cities smarter and more sustainable 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 3
  • 4. Smart cities • A label/statement/hype(?) that attempts to collect current technological and social matters – IoT, urban plannling, sustainability, networks, participation… • Objectives: Using ICT and networked technologies to: – Improve environmental quality in urban spaces – Optimize energy consumption – Increase quality of life – Deliver better public and private services (Dameri and Coccia, 2013) 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 4
  • 5. Smart cities – ICT for sustainability and growth • Creating network effects between systems – Economic, environment, social • Wicked problems: Require collaboration between a range of actors, disciplines etc • Requires: Human and social capital (know how and know who), willingness to change, human-centered development 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 5
  • 6. (human) sensors – Smart City Lego • Sensors are everywhere – smartphones, watches, Raspberry PI, Arduino... • And they’re cheap, off-the-shelf, and possible to adapt to just about everything • «Human» sensors – Smartphones are full of sensors • Accelerometer, camera, microphone, GPS, light, temperature, heart rate, barometer etc – Coupled with 4G, these sensors provide massive amounts of data – But we need people to actively use them, install apps and send data 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 6
  • 7. Research approach • Purpose: Examine how sensor-based apps can be important tools for smart cities, and discuss if these apps can be called participatory • Time: November 2015, February 2016 • Data: – (E-mail) interview, Workshop observation, Documents (legal, policy, planning) • Analysis: – Gil-Garcia (et al, 2015) Smart City framework – Theoretical frame: Stealth/implicit democracy 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 7
  • 8. One example - Trafpoint • Response to county-level innovation challenge: «“how can we get more people to travel by public transport, in a region where most people prefer to travel by car?” • Consortium with members from business, tech industry and university – Business development, app development, supported by micro/nanotech research 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 8
  • 9. Trafpoint elements • Mobile app – Beacon/BT – registers people coming and going. – Users build their environment profile based on miles travelled, and can share this in social media, encouraging others to go green • Automatic registration of people – Video/motion-detection. Automatic registration of people entering and leaving – Captures those without the app, bit provides less data • Analytics and presentation with focus on transport planning – Currently: daily statistics for each bus stop. Travel patterns. – Virtual stops: Registers if people exit other places than regular stops 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 9
  • 10. Trafpoint 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 10 Data input Mobile app Beacon Video Road authority DB Google maps Back end Cloud servers Hadoop DB Analytics engine Front end Auto-generated reports User-generated reports Map view End-user "game" profile
  • 11. Trafpoint - gamification • «The use of game-design elements in non-game contexts» (Deterding, 2011) – Important for user-experience and engagement • Important when developing the app – A way of getting more people to install it, thereby creating more data – And encouraging people to use the bus more often • Points system (more points for travelling often by bus) • Leaderboard • Social media integration and competition 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 11
  • 12. Trafpoint – status and challenges • Status at time of writing: – Looking for partners to move out of pilot stage. Discussions with county and others – Tech just as interesting for private sector, as people flow is important in malls, airports etc • Challenges: – Private sector funding can be a hindrance to further development – How many apps do we want to carry on our phones? • For cities, many intersting applications of sensors/smartphones/people. Transport, environmental monitoring, fixmystreet, birdwatching etc etc – Should government take control and create one app to rule them all? 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 12
  • 13. Ehm, ok… So why and how is this eParticipation? 9/7/2016 13
  • 14. Back to basics – What is eParticipation? • Actors: – Citizens and government • Activities: – Consultation (provides data to decision-makers) – Activism (promotes green transport) • Effects: – Civic engagement 9/7/2016 Sæbø, Rose, Flak (2008), Medaglia (2012) 14
  • 15. Theoretical implications: stealth democracy Stealth democracy •People don’t care about politics and dont want to be involved. •But they will volunteer their time as long as it is easy and of value to them Passive crowdsourcing •Make things easy enough, and fun, and people will participate Implicit participation •Participation with little or no effort, but provinding valuable data 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 15
  • 16. Future work • Theoretical development copuling stealth democracy, crowdsourcing and human sensors • Because: Citizen involvement is essential if we are to acheive a more sustainable world • Get more data – Currently a lot of potential, little real world application – IoT and related technologies are still being tried and tested, and no one really knows what will happen 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 16
  • 17. Summary 9/7/2016 17 Mobile Apps •Using built-in sensors to support Implicit participation •Provides input to decision makers through Analytics •Using Gamification •To attract users and facilitate Green smart cities
  • 18. Thank you for listening 9/7/2016 <Title of presentation> 18 mj@hbv.no Twitter: @mariusjoh

Editor's Notes

  1. Bruker Trafpoint som case for å illustrere et poeng: Stealt democracy – (Hibbing & Theiss-Morse): Controversial claim. People don’t care about politics and dont want to be involved. But they will volunteer their time as long as it is easy and of value to them
  2. 1: Doran&Daniel, 2014) 2: Allwinkle and Cruikshank, 2011 3: Angelidou, 2015
  3. Lego: Because sensor input can be used for just about anything. Just as Lego. But if you just leave them lying around you step on them and get hurt Siste punkt: Or we could of course go for full mass-surveillance, but let’s try to avoid the 1984 scenario… Lets instead try to get them to use their smartphone sensors for the publc good, for example by providing data on public transport Nevn eks: Studenter fra Romania som har brukt noen enkle Arduino-sensorer for å lage instrumenter som måler luftkvalitet, støy mm.
  4. Over time, can be used for prediction. Ie when should we have more buses/larger buses. Where do people change buses, should we create a new route?
  5. Same psychology applies to f.x step counters. Workplaces have step challenges and employees move around more. Cycle to work-challenges etc.
  6. Consultation: Increased use of public transport is a national and local objective. All growth in transportation should be walking, cycling and public transport. So data about how people travel is in that regard valuable for politicians Activism: While not a «hard» form of activism, the sharing and game aspects encourages people to share their green travel. This makes them advocates Civic engagement: Not measurable as of now, but if fully implemented and used, could become a thing. Not pokemon-sized, but still…
  7. Stealth democracy People don’t care about politics and dont want to be involved. But they will volunteer their time as long as it is easy and of value to them ‘ Passive crowdsourcing Make things easy enough, and fun, and people will participate Implicit participation Participation with little or no effort, but provinding valuable data