New and improved meningitis


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New and improved meningitis

  1. 1. Meningitis By: Marissa O’Connell
  2. 2. What is Meningitis? <ul><li>Meningitis is swelling and inflammation of the membranes and linings that protect and surround the spinal cord and the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Because meningitis affects the outer layer of the spine, it is sometimes known as “spinal meningitis.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Facts and History <ul><li>Meningitis goes all the way back to one hundred years ago. </li></ul>In the Early 20 th century, the outbreaks of meningitis left destruction to our world by killing around eighty percent of the people that had become contaminated. It wasn’t till 1978 when we put a stop to meningitis infections, and came up with a vaccination.
  4. 4. The Facts and History <ul><li>The virus than spread from family to family throughout the village. Thirty-three lives were taken. </li></ul>Meningitis began in 1805. A family in Geneva was the first that was taken over by meningitis. According to author William Pepper, this was the first documented case in history that was recorded of meningitis. Geneva
  5. 5. Facts and History <ul><li>Meningitis then made its way across the ocean and into the United States in 1806. </li></ul>The first documented case of meningitis in America was found in a tiny community in Medford, Massachusetts. When meningitis hit Medford, Massachusetts, it caused so much attention that a group of three physicians from the State Medical Society were sent to investigate the virus. After meningitis hit America, it than continued to spread all over. Medford, Massachusetts
  6. 6. Facts and History <ul><li>In 1944, the first antibiotic that was ever used to fight against meningitis was penicillin. </li></ul>The penicillin was not that effective though. It wasn’t till 1978 when we came up with a vaccine that stopped meningitis.
  7. 7. Two Main Types <ul><li>Two types of meningitis. The first one is viral meningitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Viral Meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly common </li></ul><ul><li>Generally does not create severe illness </li></ul><ul><li>In some serious cases, it can cause prolonged seizures and fevers </li></ul>
  8. 8. Two Main Types <ul><li>The other type of meningitis is bacterial. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial Meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>Very serious type of meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>Not as common </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be treated as soon as possible to prevent brain damage and death </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation of the brain. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Etiology/Causes of Meningitis <ul><li>Viral Meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>More common in the late summer and early fall Can be caused by many different viruses. These viruses can be transmitted through: sneezing, coughing, or poor hygiene. Also other types of viruses can be transmitted through sewage, and polluted waters </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>sneezing coughing Poor hygiene Polluted waters
  10. 10. Etiology/Causes of Meningitis <ul><li>Viral Meningitis </li></ul>Viral meningitis can also follow and develop after you have had the chicken pox or mumps. There are some cases of viral meningitis that are caused from mosquito-born viruses. Chicken Pox Mumps
  11. 11. Etiology/Causes of Meningitis <ul><li>Bacterial Meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>More common in the late winter to early spring </li></ul><ul><li>There are various types of bacterial meningitis, but the two types that signify the majority of the bacterial meningitis are called Meningococcal and Pneumococcal. </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria is usually caused from the back of the throat or nose, or in the upper respiratory track. They can be spread among people from: </li></ul><ul><li>Kissing~ Coughing~ Sneezing </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria can not be outside the body for a long period of time. Because they can only survive in the body, this illness can not be received from: </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming pools~ Water supplies~ A building with air-conditioning system </li></ul>
  12. 12. Symptoms <ul><li>Viral meningitis and bacterial meningitis have similar symptoms. </li></ul>Bacterial Meningitis can usually come and show abruptly. Viral meningitis can emerge unexpectedly or develop over a period of days.
  13. 13. Symptoms <ul><li>~For both forms of meningitis in older children and adults, the general symptoms include: </li></ul><ul><li>fever </li></ul><ul><li>severe and constant headaches </li></ul><ul><li>stiff and painful neck (particularly when trying to touch your chin to your chest) </li></ul><ul><li>vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>confusion and low level of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>eye sensitivity and eye pain caused from bright lights </li></ul><ul><li>skin rashes </li></ul><ul><li>dizzy spells. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Symptoms <ul><li>~Symptoms that show in infants and young children: </li></ul><ul><li>whimpering and crying in a very high-pitched manner </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty in waking and very sluggish when awake </li></ul><ul><li>fussiness when being cuddled or held </li></ul><ul><li>arching the back and retracting the neck </li></ul><ul><li>staring blankly at their environment </li></ul><ul><li>having high fever and cold feet and hands </li></ul><ul><li>refusing food </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>appearing pale or blotchy </li></ul><ul><li>having a cough </li></ul><ul><li>having trouble breathing. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Treatments <ul><li>Before the doctors know if they have bacterial meningitis or viral, they put their patients on intravenous antibiotics. </li></ul>With anyone who has a risk or a possibility of containing meningitis, the doctors isolate their patients right away. If the outcome turns out to be viral meningitis, they are taken off of the antibiotic treatment because it has no effect on it.
  16. 16. Treatments of Viral Meningitis <ul><li>Viral meningitis usually only needs home treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Home treatment includes resting! Resting is a huge healing process </li></ul><ul><li>Resting does not only mean sleep, it also means doing silent activities </li></ul>
  17. 17. Treatments of Viral Meningitis <ul><li>Some of those activities include: reading books, watching videos, playing bored games, listening to music, and just taking it easy on your body. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Treatments for Viral Meningitis <ul><li>Home treatment also includes taking care of your fever. </li></ul>Sometimes all you need to take care of a fever is by using a cool washcloth and placing it on the forehead. Cold baths help as well. Tylenol and Advil help as well.
  19. 19. Treatments for Viral Meningitis <ul><li>~Home treatment also includes: </li></ul><ul><li>liquids (water, juices, teas, etc. </li></ul>Home treatment is necessary to cure viral meningitis. Although, throughout this treatment, you have to watch for complications during the illness. One of the main complications includes hearing loss, seizures, and a fever that’s longer lasting than anticipated. If these complications occur, they than may need to be treated in the hospital.
  20. 20. Treatments for severe Viral and Bacterial Meningitis <ul><li>Severe viral meningitis and bacterial meningitis need treatment from the hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>For bacterial meningitis, antibiotics are used. They are usually given through the vein. </li></ul><ul><li>If any type of meningitis is creating pressure within the brain, corticosteroid medicines will be given to adults or elder children. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Treatments for severe Viral and Bacterial Meningitis <ul><li>~To treat fevers, you are given medicine such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Tylenol </li></ul><ul><li>Fluids </li></ul><ul><li>room ventilation. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have a severe fever, you may also need a device like a cooling pad placed on your bed along with all of the other fever treatments. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Treatments for Severe Viral and Bacterial Meningitis <ul><li>~If your main symptoms are seizures, your environment will be kept very: </li></ul><ul><li>silent and calm. </li></ul><ul><li>~You will than receive medicines that include: </li></ul><ul><li>Phenobarbital or Dilantin. </li></ul><ul><li>~If you are having trouble breathing, you will than receive oxygen therapy. Oxygen therapy increases the amount of oxygen you are receiving. The oxygen may be received by a hood or a tent. Than, there is a face mask that is positioned over the mouth and nose. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Treatments for Severe Viral and Bacterial Meningitis <ul><li>On top of all of these treatments, numerous blood tests are received to the patient to measure essential body chemicals (such as sodium and blood sugar). </li></ul>Someone with a severe case of meningitis might need to be treated in the intensive care unit of the hospital (ICU). What will happen there is that the doctors will keep a close eye on the person, and they will provide them with care if required.
  24. 24. Recoveries/Prognosis <ul><li>With viral meningitis, usually nearly all people recover. </li></ul><ul><li>For bacterial meningitis, nearly 70 to 80 percent recover. </li></ul><ul><li>The patients recovery can change the outcome of the recovery, depending on age and the health. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Recoveries/Prognosis <ul><li>People normally make a complete recovery, although, meningitis that usually is the bacterial form, can cause after effects. Some of these after effects are permanent and physically disabling. Some other after effects includes distressing the individual emotionally. </li></ul>
  26. 26. After Effects of Older Children and Adults <ul><li>Children who are older and adults may go through: </li></ul><ul><li>Tiredness </li></ul><ul><li>Laziness </li></ul><ul><li>Sluggishness </li></ul><ul><li>recurring headaches </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty in concentration </li></ul><ul><li>memory loss </li></ul><ul><li>Clumsiness </li></ul><ul><li>balance problems </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>mood swings </li></ul><ul><li>learning difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>hearing loss </li></ul><ul><li>brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>change in eyesight. </li></ul>
  27. 27. After Effects of Infants and Young Children <ul><li>~Some minor after effects from meningitis in infants and young children include: </li></ul><ul><li>babyish behavior </li></ul><ul><li>forgetting recently learned skills </li></ul><ul><li>temper tantrums </li></ul><ul><li>reverting to bed-wetting </li></ul><ul><li>insomnia </li></ul>
  28. 28. Prevention <ul><li>Get the vaccine! </li></ul>Wash hands regularly! Reheating chilled foods before use! Avoid people who have it!
  29. 29. Prevention <ul><li>Avoid insects by using insect repellent. Avoid rodents by keeping an eye out, and get ride of them right away if you find or suspect them. </li></ul>Avoid insects and rodents that can carry organisms that may create meningitis. Those insects and rodents include: mosquitoes, ticks, mice, and rats.
  30. 30. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Get the Facts About Meningitis.&quot; VOICES OF MENINGITIS™ . Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Jewell, Eleanor. &quot;When Was Meningitis First Discovered? |; EHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Trusted Advice for the Curious Life | . Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Meningitis, What Is Meningitis?&quot; Illinois Department of Public Health Home Page . Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Meningitis- What Is Meningitis? - Meningitis Overview.&quot; WebMD Children's Health Center - Kids Health and Safety Information for a Healthy Child . Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Meningitis.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 01 May 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff, Mayo Clinic. &quot;Meningitis -; Mayo Clinic . Web. 01 May 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What Causes Meningitis?&quot; EhealthMD . Web. 18 Apr. 2011. <>. </li></ul>