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Greenland - Part 2


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New improved, extended and corrected version in two parts - more than 500 slides. All thats fabulous about Greenland.

Published in: Travel, Technology

Greenland - Part 2

  1. 1. Greenland - Another World Part II
  2. 2. <ul><li>The East (Tunu) </li></ul><ul><li>Ittoqqortoormiit </li></ul><ul><li>Kulusuk </li></ul><ul><li>Tasiilaq </li></ul><ul><li>(Ammassalik) </li></ul><ul><li>The east coast is mostly ice blocked and sparsely populated. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Because of sea ice, Greenland’s east coast is inaccessible by sea most of the year . 90% of the pack ice in the arctic basin outlet to the open sea here. This means hundreds of miles wide continuous drifting pack ice nearly all year around. The ice barrier stretches along the east coast except for 2-3 months in late summer and autumn.
  4. 4. Scoresby Sund fjord (Kangertittivaq) Ittoqortoormitt
  5. 5. Scoresby Sund fjord , the largest in the world, stretching for 350 km, and also one of the deepest (over 1500 m), is located in eastern Greenland at 70.447972 N, 21.789562 W
  6. 6. Huge glaciers flow from the Greenland Icecap into Scoresbysund Fjord
  7. 7. <ul><li>Glacier flowing down the side of Fønfjord (Scoresby Sund) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Glacier in Øfjord near Ittoqqortoormiit The Øfjord is bordered on both sides by steep, 2.000 meter high mountains from which plunge numerous glaciers.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Dendrit glacier </li></ul><ul><li>The Dendritgletscher is one of the largest glaciers in Greenland, stretching over 55 miles. The glacier has an extensive system of medial moraines (the dark lines striping the central portions of the glacier), which are formed by debris carried into the confluence of tributary glaciers. </li></ul><ul><li>It´s located south of Scoresby Sund, in the area of the Gunnbjørn Fjeld Mountain. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Eielson Glacier in Rypefjord, Scoresby Sund
  11. 11. <ul><li>A piece of ice crashes into the Fjord from Eielson Glacier </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Iceberg in Rødefjord (Scoresby Sund) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Tundra in interior Sund </li></ul>
  14. 14. Plateau basalt along the southern coast of Scoresby Sund. The basalts result from the plate tectonic opening of the North Atlantic
  15. 16. <ul><li>Research vessel Polarstern through pack ice in Scoresby Sund </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Kapp Tobin , a “ghost town”, is the most isolated community in Greenland. The cabins are now summer houses for tourists. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Kayaking in the fjord </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Bear in Scoresby Sund. The region is known for its wildlife. The settlers prospered on the good hunting conditions of the area, which was rich in seals, walruses, narwhals, polar bears, musk oxen and arctic foxes. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Sunset in the fjord
  20. 21. <ul><li>Nordost Bugt , a small inlet, looking into Nordwest Fjord , which runs from Scoresby Sund in the East into the heart of Greenland. The inlet is filled with fairly small icebergs which have become grounded in the shallows. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Nordost Bugt in Spring. At the time of the melting ice, the small stream in the foreground would be in full flood, carrying water and pieces of ice into the fjord - here, in July, it provides a fertile soil for arctic flora .
  22. 23. Sermilik fjord A 10 km wide fjord at the east coast. At first glance, the icebergs in this fjord don’t look that large, but when you see the red helicopter in the foreground, taking off from the only piece of flat ground, you get a better idea of the grandiose scale of this landscape.
  23. 24. <ul><li>Founded in 1822, it’s the most isolated comunity in Greenland. </li></ul>Ittoqqortoormiit ( Scoresbysund ) is a town in east Greenland, near the mouth of the Scoresby Sund fjord.
  24. 25. Ittoqqortoormiit
  25. 26. <ul><li>Ittoqqortoormiit ( Scoresbysund), pop. 550 </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>A “street” to the Doctor’s house </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Harbour ice blocked </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Hunter houses </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>New housing </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Inuit by the window </li></ul>
  31. 33. The church, overlooking the fjord
  32. 36. The church was finished in 1928.
  33. 39. <ul><li>Hospital </li></ul>
  34. 40. <ul><li>Kindergarten </li></ul>
  35. 41. <ul><li>School </li></ul>
  36. 43. <ul><li>Hotel </li></ul>
  37. 44. <ul><li>Ice blocked </li></ul>
  38. 46. <ul><li>Sledge dogs sleeping </li></ul>
  39. 47. <ul><li>Sports hall </li></ul>
  40. 48. Supplies are vital to the inhabitants; from September to June, the access is blocked by pack ice – so the arrival of the first cargo ship has been waited for long.
  41. 51. <ul><li>Constable Point ( Constable Pynt ) airport and its famous Hilton “-1 star” Hotel </li></ul>
  42. 52. <ul><li>Ammassalik </li></ul><ul><li>area </li></ul><ul><li>Kulusuk </li></ul><ul><li>Tassilaq </li></ul>
  43. 53. <ul><li>The view, landing at Kulusuk small airport by noon. </li></ul>
  44. 54. Kulusuk airport , easy access from Iceland
  45. 55. Kulusuk airport and … taxi!
  46. 56. <ul><li>Kulusuk airport shuttle service (for luggage only !) … </li></ul>
  47. 57. Kulusuk (pop.300)
  48. 59. Kulusuk is situated on the East coast, at 65º N. A truly remarkable place, because of its hostile nature and the fact that it has been cut off from the rest of the world for centuries.
  49. 61. The airport provides supplies, and danish teachers and medical staff give basic assistance to the mostly inuit inhabitants. It is a rather isolated town, lacking many basic infrastructure, with the majority lacking running water .
  50. 63. Many of the villagers depend upon tourism to supplement the more traditional pursuits of hunting and fishing. Kayak and dog sledging adventures are locally organized.
  51. 66. As there is no forest in Greenland, timber houses are imported from Denmark in kit form and assembled on site .
  52. 67. The elderly villagers of Kulusuk had only emerged from a primitive stone-age existence, when the international airport was created in 1958.
  53. 69. Drying laundry ?...
  54. 70. <ul><li>Greenlandic family and their sledge. </li></ul>
  55. 71. <ul><li>Snow will soon block the view out of the window. </li></ul>
  56. 72. Kulusuk church <ul><li>The church was constructed in 1922 by the crew of a Danish sailing vessel that ran aground on the nearby coast, and with the timbers of the ship itself. </li></ul>
  57. 75. Icebreaker arrival. Boats are frequently immobilised by ice in winter.
  58. 76. Hotel Kulusuk , a fantastic location for ice adventure.
  59. 77. Kulusuk View from Kulusuk
  60. 78. <ul><li>The breathtaking Knud Rasmussen glacier, north of Kulusuk. Greenland here shows its grandeur in beauty and power. </li></ul>
  61. 79. Karale glacier, which feeds into Sermiligaq fjord near Kulusuk, almost in front of the Knud Rasmussen .
  62. 82. Karale, air view
  63. 83. Boat tours can approach Karale without danger.
  64. 85. <ul><li>With spring ice melting brings streams and flowers ! </li></ul>
  65. 86. <ul><li>From Kulusuk airport, Tasiilaq is a short flight away – or a short trip by sea, if the ice allows. </li></ul>
  66. 87. East coast airview approaching Tasiilaq
  67. 88. <ul><li>Ammassalik fjord </li></ul>
  68. 89. Tasiilaq (Ammassalik) (population 1800)
  69. 90. <ul><li>Tasiilaq is located in a fjord surrounded by high mountains, away from the open sea. Late afternoon, with view over the Kong Oscar Havn and Mount Vegasfjeld. </li></ul>
  70. 91. <ul><li>Tasiilaq was discovered in 1884 by the dane Gustav Holm on a mapping expedition along the east coast of Greenland. </li></ul>
  71. 94. <ul><li>This part of east coast has milder winters: average temperaturs are of -4º C in January 11º C in July. </li></ul>
  72. 95. House with a view on Ammassalik mountain and the fjord
  73. 99. <ul><li>The centre of Tasiilaq , The two large red buildings in the bottom left and centre are the post office and one of Tasiilaq’s two supermarkets . </li></ul>
  74. 101. <ul><li>Traditional houses are built of wood and painted in wonderful bright colours. The climate is hard on the painting and the summer storms - carrying some of the most powerful winds in the world - is like a sandblast on the houses. Than repainting is necessary for the houses not to turn all grey over a longer period. </li></ul>
  75. 102. The largest community on the east coast of Greenland, looking over its small port which is called Kong Oscars Havn, Tasiilaq receives supply ships only between June and September, because for the rest of the year the pack ice is too thick for ships to reach the port.
  76. 103. The supply ship from Arctic Line unloads at Kong Oskars Havn
  77. 104. Kong Oscars Havn and Ammassalik mountain
  78. 105. The football pitch in Tasiilaq with Ammassalik mountain in the background. Hotel Ammassalik Tasiilaq is not so isolated as other towns in Greenland: there's an hospital, ATM machines, a couple of supermarkets, a football field, a disco/bar, a tourist information center, a good hotel, a good museum, and a large variety of activities.
  79. 107. The &quot;National&quot; footwear of Greenland. These seal boots are a part of the greenlandic national suit. The black boots are for a boy, the white for a girl.
  80. 108. <ul><li>Pattern on the seal skin boots </li></ul>
  81. 109. <ul><li>Drying cod – Tasiilaq </li></ul><ul><li>In Greenland the cod is hung to dry outside for weeks. When the cod is dry and hard the locals eat it as food or they feed it to the dogs.. The dried cod tastes salty and delicious. </li></ul>
  82. 110. Sledges
  83. 111. <ul><li>Girl in Tasiilaq with her Vava. In Eastgreenland a young dog is called Vava . </li></ul>
  84. 112. <ul><li>Inuit drum dance , an art which has died out in most other regions of Greenland. </li></ul>
  85. 113. <ul><li>Teaching a young girl the art of this ancient tradition, backed by the view of the Tuno Fjord. </li></ul>
  86. 114. <ul><li>Birthday cakes, some decorated with the national flag…. </li></ul>
  87. 115. <ul><li>The old church, from 1908 – now Ammassalik museum . </li></ul>
  88. 117. Church bench decorations
  89. 118. <ul><li>Inuit baskets adorned with ivory carvings </li></ul>
  90. 119. Ivory decorated throwing sticks. These were used to propel spears better than they could be thrown.
  91. 120. <ul><li>Ivory decorated boxes </li></ul>
  92. 121. <ul><li>Peat house at Tasiilaq . In those times 15-25 people used to live here! Windows were made from intestinal skin stitched together allowing light in but no sight out. </li></ul>
  93. 122. Beware – Musk Oxen! They are frequently seen in Ammassalik area.
  94. 123. <ul><li>Furious Musk oxen attack a sledge dog in Ammassalik area. </li></ul>
  95. 124. <ul><li>Napparngummut - Tasiilaq </li></ul><ul><li>One of the poorer neighbourhoods in Tasiilaq. The families live from hunting and fishing – polar bears, seals, cod, salmon. The climate and the storms are very hard on the painting of the houses. When the earth is dry, sand and dust from stormy weather is like sandblast on the wooden houses. It’s the feared Piteraq , a cold katabatic wind. . </li></ul>
  96. 125. The fog is crawling in from the open sea to the fjord so fast that you can see it move. A beautiful scene as the low evening sunlight illuminated the houses..
  97. 126. Ammassalik mountains surround Tasiilaq
  98. 127. <ul><li>Ammassalik region shows rapid warming in the last 10 years. The east coast glaciers are among the fastest running and the fastest receding in the world. </li></ul>
  99. 128. Northern lights over Tasiilaq <ul><li>Northern lights (Nordlys) Tasiilaq </li></ul>
  100. 130. New Year in Tasiilaq. All Greenland´s main towns celebrate New Year.
  101. 131. <ul><li>The South </li></ul><ul><li>Narsaq </li></ul><ul><li>Qaqortoq </li></ul><ul><li>Here are the best patches of fertile land in Greenland. Some sheep farms, and in spring, flower valleys and melted water streams make a more easy living. </li></ul>
  102. 132. Mountain scenery in the South of Greenland
  103. 133. Narsaq
  104. 134. <ul><li>Narsaq is located in the south, in a magnificent fjord system, with high mountains and green valleys. R oughly 1700 people live in the town. </li></ul>Narsaq
  105. 135. Narsaq at 1 a.m.
  106. 136. <ul><li>Narsaq harbour, the visit of Sarfaq Ittuq ferry. </li></ul><ul><li>The town has a mild climate (-17°C in winter but 22° in summer) . </li></ul>
  107. 137. An Air Greenland S61 lands at Narsaq
  108. 138. The valley and the mountains in Narsaq’s hinterland are a paradise for those interested in geology
  109. 141. Kayaking in Narsaq fjord
  110. 142. Narsaq Museum Artifacts from the Saqqaq culture (2500-800 BC) and still earlier Dorset cultures who occupied southern Greenland before the Inuit arrived.
  111. 143. Narsaq church
  112. 144. Narsaq church was e rected in 1926-27 by master carpenter Pavia Høegh
  113. 145. Narsaq in Spring Greenland’s most fertile town, Narsaq means &quot;the plain&quot; in Greenlandic, and the name is due to the large green plain on which the town lies.
  114. 146. <ul><li>The national flower of Greenland &quot;Niviarsiaq&quot; which means &quot;little girl&quot; in Greenlandic. </li></ul><ul><li>(Epilobe, Chamaenerion latifolium ) </li></ul>Classes begin in August. Here children in traditional clothes arrive for the new year.
  115. 147. Qaqortoq ( Julianehåb ) , a town of 3000 people near Narsaq
  116. 148. Qaqortoq harbour reflections
  117. 149. The old church Frelserens Kirke of Qaqortoq (1832)
  118. 151. The colonial buildings dating back to 1775, when the town was founded
  119. 152. <ul><li>The famous fountain, the oldest in Greenland, in Qaqortoq´s Town Square, Torvet. </li></ul>
  120. 154. <ul><li>The fountain depicts whales spouting water out of their blowholes. </li></ul>
  121. 155. <ul><li>Café in Qaqortoq center. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the paved street ! </li></ul>
  122. 156. <ul><li>Elders’ council chamber, 1859 </li></ul>
  123. 157. Colour detail
  124. 158. <ul><li>Like many other greenlandic towns, Qaqortoq is sparsely built among some rock hills. Wooden stairs are the only access for some to get home. </li></ul>
  125. 159. On a Christmas night
  126. 160. <ul><li>As part of a national project, many sculptures and stone carvings decorate the area. </li></ul>Stone Whales carved into the side of the mountain in Qaqortoq
  127. 162. <ul><li>The Norse settlements in Greenland </li></ul>The Vikings (or Nordic or Norse) came from Iceland and started farming communities in 984 AD. They were led by Erik the Red.
  128. 163. <ul><li>The Norse settlers who arrived in AD 985 found a few pockets of vegetation amid the barren rock and snow. Most of these settlements were inthe south, sheltered deep within narrow fjords. The settlement of Brattahlíð was one of Greenland’s wealthiest, founded by Erik the Red himself. </li></ul><ul><li>The location is close to the modern municipality of Qaqortoq in Eriksfjord . The present settlement of Qassiarsuk is now located in its place. </li></ul>Brattahlíð - Vikings in Greenland Narsaq - Narsarsuaqq Qassiarsuk -
  129. 164. <ul><li>A reproduction of Tjodhilde's Church stands in Brattahlid. It was the first Christian church in the New World ! (actually, a small chapel). </li></ul><ul><li>Tjodhilde was wife to Erik the Red . </li></ul>
  130. 167. <ul><li>The Norse settlements prospered. From the number of farms in both colonies, whose ruins still dot the landscape, the population may have risen to a peak of about 5 000, in the XIII century. </li></ul><ul><li>Trading with Norway exchanged live falcons, polar bear skins, narwahl tusks and walrus ivory, for timber, iron, tools, and luxuries such as raisins, nuts, and wine. </li></ul>
  131. 168. <ul><li>Bratttahlid langhus </li></ul><ul><li>A modern replica of the original &quot;long house&quot; of Erik the Red's clan. </li></ul>
  132. 169. <ul><li>Some even blame european pirates – Basques or other. Some blame the food habits based on sheep, goats, and cattle – the Norse never adapted to eating seals… </li></ul><ul><li>So Greenland remained unexplored for two centuries, until the Danish colonisation in 1721, under the leadership of the missionary Hans Egede. </li></ul>Isolation, lost of soil fertility due to intensive farming, total deforestation for heating and metal smelting, livestock consumed to the last, dramatic climate cooling and, maybe, fighting for land and resources with the Inuits –mixed causes may have originated the extinction of Viking colonies in the XV century.
  133. 170. Nowadays Brattahlíð has again some of the very best farmland in Greenland. This farm is close to Erik’s settlement, in Eriksfjord.
  134. 171. <ul><li>It takes good sewing to get good crops. </li></ul>
  135. 172. Rosenvinges tree plantation, near Qassiasurk. The oldest natural Greenland brushwoods are &quot;Rosenvinges trees“, a local pine tree. Some deeper land allows trees to grow.
  136. 173. <ul><li>Arboretum Groenlandicum </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1988, a large-scale plantation of about 150 ha, with more than 50000 trees of various provenances.. </li></ul>The goal of the Arboretum is to establish a collection of trees and bushes from both the alpine and the arctic tree-lines of the Northern Hemisphere.
  137. 174. <ul><li>A surprisingly lush vegetation is found in the inner south valleys, though it is species-poor vegetation.  </li></ul>
  138. 175. The Valley of Flowers , Kangerlussuaq <ul><li>The unique arctic flora in the Flower Valley makes this a great place for a stroll or a trek. Formed due to glacier retreat and the consequent glacial sedimentation, with plenty of flowers. </li></ul>
  139. 176. <ul><li>For greenlandic flora, visit </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  140. 188. 4 Greenland Research
  141. 189. <ul><li>The research stations </li></ul><ul><li>Danmarkshavn </li></ul><ul><li>Station Nord </li></ul>
  142. 190. Danmarkshavn is a small weather and research station located in the Northeast Greenland. The station is an all-year facility with eight persons working and living at the site
  143. 191. Station Nord <ul><li>Station Nord is a military and scientific base build by the USA in 1952 as a weather and telecommunications station. </li></ul>Located at 81°43N , it is the most remote location in Greenland .
  144. 192. Located in the very flat and beautiful area east of Kap Prins Knud, only 933 km away from the North Pole , Station Nord is n ow operated by the Danish Defense Command. There is accommodation for up to 20 scientists.
  145. 193. <ul><li>A Twin Otter used for flying new crew from Kangerlussuaq to Station Nord. </li></ul>
  146. 194. Global warming : The New Island Uunartoq Qeqertoq ( the warming island ) is a W shaped island that used to be covered by the ice cap. At 71° 28' N, 21° 50' W, 600Km north of the Polar Arctic Circle, it suddenly was re-found in 2005 detached from the mainland, as the ice cover melted.
  147. 195. Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund)
  148. 197. <ul><li>The farthest North ? </li></ul><ul><li>The island of Oodaag or Oodaaq is presently the most northernly island on Earth. In fact it’s a quite small islet of gravel in Northern Greenland (8m x 15m) discovered in 1978 and submersed by sea or ice most of the time. </li></ul>
  149. 198. <ul><li>4 </li></ul>5 Transportation in Greenland No railways, no inland waterways and virtually no roads . Small scale transport by dog sledge is frequent in the north and east, and for tourist aventure.
  150. 199. <ul><li>Greenland's national shipping company. </li></ul><ul><li>The company provides passenger boat service in the territorial waters of Greenland. </li></ul><ul><li>The company was founded in 1774. </li></ul><ul><li>Route runs between Narsarsuaq in the south and Ilulissat ( Disko Bay) in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>T he ship calls at a number of towns such as Qaqortoq /Julianehåb, Nuuk /Godthåb, Sisimiut /Holsteinsborg and Ilulissat /Jakobshavn. </li></ul>By sea
  151. 200. Arctic Umiaq Line Sarfaq Ittuk
  152. 202. <ul><li>Royal Arctic Line freight company supplies goods to all coastal harbours. Life in the country depends on its coming ! </li></ul>Mary Arctica , one of the most modern cargo ships
  153. 203. Kangerlussuaq Airport It was first established as a US Airbase. Today the airport is the busiest in Greenland and a major port of entry into the country for tourists, businessmen, and researchers. By air
  154. 204. It’s located about 50km north of the Arctic Circle.
  155. 205. <ul><li>Destinations </li></ul><ul><li>(Copenhagen) </li></ul><ul><li>Nuuk </li></ul><ul><li>Ilullissat </li></ul><ul><li>Kulusuk </li></ul><ul><li>Narsaq </li></ul><ul><li>Qaanaaq </li></ul><ul><li>Sisimiut </li></ul><ul><li>Tasiilak </li></ul><ul><li>Upernavik </li></ul><ul><li>Uummannaq </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>From Copenhagen Air Greenland   has 5 to 8 weekly flights to Greenland .
  156. 206. Sikorsky S 61 heli , for internal cargo and passenger routes (25 seats)
  157. 207. de Havilland Dash 7 (50 seats) landing in Kulusuk
  158. 208. Bell 222U , 8 seats
  159. 209. The End
  160. 210. ??? Vollmondtour am Ikasak Fjord 7 km from Simiutaq <ul><li>East coast ! </li></ul>
  161. 211. <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Photos and text excerpts from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http :// </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Research, organization and slideshow by Mario Ricca , 2009 </li></ul>Greenland – Another World