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  1. 1.                                    TALK ABSTRACTS – ABS 2013 – UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO  Improving conservation management of New Zealand’s rarest kiwi R Abbott, B Bell, N Nelson Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand To increase the effectiveness of restocking for conservation, it is necessary to identify elements of release protocols which affect post release survival, and modify procedures accordingly. Rowi are critically endangered flightless ratites which form monogamous, highly territorial pairs. Restocking of the sole remaining rowi population has been underway for over 16 years. We hypothesized that as a result of behavioral mechanisms induced by pre-release experience, individuals in larger groups may have higher survival rate than those in small release groups. We tested this experimentally by manipulating release group size over 3 years. Modelling reveals that of all variables tested, group size was the only factor with significant influence on post release survival. Survival of individuals in small groups was significantly lower than that of individuals released in large groups. Increased conspecific tolerance mediated by rearing conditions is proposed as an explanation for this. Our findings have informed conservation management leading to changes in release protocols, and triggered further research into long term effects of rearing conditions in conservation management. The future of the study of mechanisms of behavior and integration with ecology and evolution E Adkins-Regan Cornell U The past 50 years of research on mechanisms and development of animal behavior have produced many exciting discoveries. These mechanisms include physiology, for example, neuroendocrinology, and genetics/genomics, as well as behavioral and cognitive mechanisms. New developmental processes have been discovered, and a richer and more biologically realistic understanding of the roles of nature and nurture has been achieved. What does the future hold? Several promising themes will be explored, for example, epigenetics and evo-devo perspectives. For future promise to be realized, there needs to be a closer relationship between the conceptual frameworks of mechanisms and development with those of ecology and evolution. The research agenda outlined by Tinbergen in 1963 needs to be reflected in an updated and more integrated manner in the science of the 21st century. Vocal kin recognition in kin neighborhoods of western bluebirds C Akcay, RJ Swift, VA Reed, JL Dickinson Cornell University In most cooperatively breeding birds, individuals direct helping behavior to close relatives. Although the pattern of kin-directed helping is well established in birds, the mechanism of recognition is known in only a few cases. Here we report the first study that investigated the mechanism of kin recognition in western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana). Western bluebirds live in family groups in winter and show a high degree of male philopatry. Sons disperse locally forming kin neighborhoods and occasionally help at their parents’ or brothers’ nests. We presented western bluebirds with songs recorded from equidistant kin and nonkin living on other territories, conducting playback near their nests on two consecutive days. We found that male western bluebirds responded more aggressively to playback of nonkin song compared to kin song. These results suggest that vocal signatures serve as a kin recognition cue in western bluebirds. Worthless gifts: a male deceitful tactic to increase mating success in spiders MJ Albo, V Melo-González, MC Trillo, FG Costa Clemente Estable Biological Research Institute During courtship, males from the spider Paratrechalea ornata (Trechaleidae) offer to females fresh prey (genuine gifts), but also prey leftovers (worthless gifts). We examined gift content and it´s relation to male condition in nature; afterwards, we investigated how these factors affect male mating success. In the field, we calculated male body condition, gift weight, and classified gift content as “fresh” or “leftovers”. We found that 30% of the gifts were fresh prey while 70% were prey leftovers. Fresh gifts were heavier than leftover ones, and gift weight correlated positively with male condition. In the lab, we exposed females to males carrying a fly gift, a worthless gift and no gift, in two male feeding groups (good condition “GC”; poor condition “PC). Males offering gifts (fly and worthless) acquired highest mating success and longer matings compared to males without gift in GC group, but not in PC. Female preferences lead to strong selection acting on males to offer gifts (regardless it content) and increase their reproductive success. Prey availability and male condition facilitate evolution of worthless gifts, probably having
  2. 2. important consequences on female fitness Visual signal design in the Cercopithecini primates WL Allen, JP Higham New York University Most studies of animal visual signals focus on identifying functions rather than understanding signal form. Here we investigate the evolution of guenon (tribe: Cercopithecini) face patterning, a group of Old World monkeys that have evolved some of the most colorful and complex visual signals of all mammals. As guenons frequently form polyspecific associations, the putative function of their face markings is to promote species recognition and maintain reproductive isolation. We examined the hypothesis that face patterns have designs that are maximally visually distinct from those of other sympatric species by taking an image-processing approach to analyzing colorcalibrated images of guenons’ faces. Our analysis is based on the use of retinal and cortical models of visual processing to obtain a signal representation based on guenon perception. After examining the evolutionary history of face pattern diversification in the tribe, we investigate whether the signals of sympatric species are well partitioned in guenon face-space. We go on to discuss factors that may drive deviations from optimal partitioning, and investigate what determines the portion of face-space occupied by each species. Prototypical versions of swamp sparrow songs are more effective signals R Anderson, R Lachlan, S Nowicki Duke University In songbirds, developmental stress can reduce song learning accuracy. There is some evidence that receivers can use this aspect of song to assess male quality, yet it is unclear how receivers can judge how well songs were learned. Here we test the hypothesis that receivers assess learning accuracy by evaluating the degree to which songs are prototypical of population category norms. We used computational methods to cluster a large sample of swamp sparrow songs into types and to estimate the degree to which individual song exemplars were prototypical of these types. Playback of prototypical song exemplars evoked a stronger aggressive response from territorial males and more sexual displays from captive females than did playback of outlier exemplars, suggesting that prototypical songs function better in both male-male and male-female communication. Our results show that song prototypicality is salient to swamp sparrows and support the hypothesis that receivers can assess song learning accuracy by comparing individual songs to a generalized prototype for the population. Cannibals do it too? A social lens on solitary predators MCB Andrade U Toronto Scarborough With the exception of a few fascinating taxa, spiders do not usually come to mind when we think about the role of social interactions in evolution. This is not surprising since most spiders are solitary predators, many with a penchant for cannibalism. However, an awareness of social context can be critical to individual fitness throughout the life of solitary spiders, with current information or past experience affecting life history and behaviour. Direct social interactions are also necessary during key periods (early development, mating). This leads to interesting general questions about how an organism that is adapted for a solitary, predatory lifestyle acquires social information, and how behavioural tendencies shift to permit social interactions. I discuss how social information and interactions shape behavioural decisions and other phenotypic traits of black widows and other solitary spiders. An introduction to conservation behavior L Angeloni Colorado State U The disciplines of animal behavior and conservation biology are separate thriving fields of scientific inquiry, each with its own history and approach. Conservation biology was established in the 1980s, drawing from the biological and social sciences, as a mission-driven discipline to conserve biodiversity in the face of mounting anthropogenic impacts. Despite the potential for animal behavior to contribute theory, approaches, data, and expertise to this multidisciplinary endeavor, it was not fully integrated into the early development of conservation biology. In response to this disconnect between the two fields and persuasive arguments for the ways that animal behavior could inform biodiversity conservation, the new discipline of conservation behavior emerged in the mid-1990s. I will
  3. 3. provide a brief overview of the history of conservation behavior, reviewing early arguments in favor of its development, barriers that initially slowed its progress, and the literature that has since emerged. As highlighted in this symposium, the study of animal behavior has the potential to provide solutions to real world conservation challenges. Rattlesnake encounters alter vigilance behavior of California ground squirrels RE Ayon, RW Clark San Diego State University Upon discovering rattlesnake predators, California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) often display stereotyped antisnake responses consisting of elongated postures, close-range inspection, and communicative displays (e.g. tail-flags). After an encounter, ground squirrels appear to maintain a state of heightened vigilance in the area of the interaction, even if the snake is no longer visible. We used an experimental approach to examine how this heightened vigilance affects the subsequent antisnake responses of ground squirrels. Adult ground squirrels from the Diablo Mountain Range in San Jose, CA were shown plaster rattlesnake models and novel objects both before and after encountering live, tethered northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus oreganus) under field conditions. We found that interactions with live rattlesnakes significantly increased ground squirrel vigilance compared to snake models and novel objects. The response to both objects after rattlesnake encounters were only marginally different than the initial response to the live rattlesnake itself, and only squirrels with previous encounters exhibited significantly higher responses to these inanimate objects. Effects of early social environment on male gelada dispersal and reproductive strategies CL Barale, DI Rubenstein Princeton University Gelada males disperse as adolescents. Some males disperse before puberty and move from their natal one-male unit (OMU) to another OMU, while others disperse at or after puberty to a bachelor group. After dispersal, males take one of several routes to adulthood. A pre-puberty dispersing male can remain in an OMU as a subordinate follower male (early entry strategy) or disperse secondarily into a bachelor group (double dispersal). Bachelor males can take over an existing OMU (take-over strategy), enter an OMU as a follower (follower strategy), or enter first as a follower and challenge the existing leader from within the unit (usurper strategy). Why do adolescents opt for one strategy over another? What are the fitness consequences of that decision? Using social network analysis to examine the juvenile social environment, we uncovered social types that may be important in determining an adolescent’s dispersal and reproductive strategies. We also identify aspects of social context that shape individual social type differences. By fitting the pieces of this puzzle together, we can better understand how the early social environment impacts gelada dispersal and reproductive strategies. The function and evolution of hawkmoth anti-bat ultrasound JR Barber 1, AY Kawahara 2 (co-presenter) 1. Boise State University 2. University of Florida The shared evolutionary history between echolocating bats and nocturnal insects has resulted in a 60 million year arms race. Tiger moths have escalated the interaction by beaming ultrasonic response signals back at bats. These anti-bat sounds have been shown to warn bats of bad taste, function in acoustic mimicry complexes and jam bat biosonar. We will discuss our recent discovery that hawkmoths also produce ultrasound in response to bat attack. Unlike tiger moths, hawkmoths are not chemically defended, only males produce ultrasound and the structure of the sound-producing organ varies greatly across the family. This raises the prospect that anti-bat ultrasound production might be linked to multiple additional behavioral strategies, including cross-family acoustic mimicry, advertisement of physical defenses and/or evasive flight; and that hawkmoth ultrasonic reply to bat attack has multiple independent evolutionary origins. The Effect of Lateralization on Gentling and Training Mustangs P Barlow-Irick Mustang Camp Effects of lateralization in the training of horses was retrospectively examined in training records for sixty mustangs (Equus caballus) trained at Mustang Camp in New Mexico in 2012. Horses were categorized into preference groups on evidence that the horse showed stereotyped orientation, limited access to their un-preferred side, or
  4. 4. exhibited operant suppression when trainers were on their un-preferred side. Twenty-two (36%) showed a left preference, eight (13%) exhibited a right preference and twenty-seven (45%) had little or no preference. The number of days required to train each of 26 tasks were compared between preference groups. Median one-way chi-square approximations and post-hoc Tukey-Kramer procedures detected significant differences between the groups in 9 of the 26 tasks. The differences between tasks that challenged right-side horses but not left-side horses suggest that it may not reflect similar levels of fear but differences in types of responses. Understanding and mitigating lateralization may provide guidance for developing the protocols to most efficiently train mustangs. Quantifying coastal river otter associations and signaling dynamics with an Encounternet system A Barocas 1, HN Golden 2, M Ben-David 1 1. University of Wyoming, 2. Alaska Department of Fish and Game Obtaining detailed information on social structure of highly mobile aquatic carnivores is particularly challenging. Alaska Coastal river otters (Lontra Canadensis) present a plastic social system, using coastal latrine sites for communication. Previous research suggests that this social flexibility is driven by the availability of forage fish. However, detailed empirical data on association rates and signaling dynamics for this species are deficient. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of an ‘Encounternet’ proximity system, using 8 mobile units and 10 static units deployed on latrine sites. Detections over 25 days enabled us to estimate the frequency and duration of encounters and latrine visits. The 5-meter reception range between mobile tags was suited for our system and resulted in detailed association data. Tagged otters had a large proportion of brief encounters, suggesting multiple fission and fusion events. From 236 Latrine visits recorded, the majority was of reduced duration (under 15 minutes). Repeated visits enabled us to quantify latrine connectivity using a network approach. We view this system as a promising research tool for both social flexibility and signaling dynamic Do androgens link morphology and behavior to produce morph-specific behavioral syndromes DG Barron 1, MS Webster 2, H Schwabl 1 1. Washington State University, 2. Cornell University Most species exhibit extensive variation in morphological, behavioral, and physiological traits. Researchers have established the covariation of morphological and behavioral traits and proposed their link arises from a shared physiological mechanism, with androgens emerging as prime candidates. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that androgen production simultaneously determines morphological and behavioral variation, thereby producing unique behavioral syndromes within breeding morphs of male red-backed fairy-wrens (Malurus melanocephalus). Although morphological development in this species is androgen-dependent, injection with GnRH failed to expose morph-specific constraints on androgen production. Observations of foray frequency, territoriality, and offspring feeding revealed morph-specific patterns of mating and parental effort, yet these were primarily driven by age and were independent of baseline or maximal androgen levels. While these findings support the idea that morphological and behavioral traits are linked via phenotypic correlations, they challenge the notion that behavioral differences arise from underlying variation in circulating androgen levels. Is mating with sub-adults coercive? Insights from female pheromone production in redback spiders L Baruffaldi, MCB Andrade University of Toronto Scarborough Monogynous male redback (Latrodectus hasselti) sometimes mate with sub-adult females by ripping through their exoskeleton to access the underlying, newly developed sperm storage organs. Sub-adult-mated females show none of the typical behaviours associated with mate choice, but moult and produce normal spiderlings at adulthood. Male L. hasselti are frequently cannibalized when they mate adults, and this may favour the sub-adultmating tactic. We ask whether this behaviour is maladaptive for females by examining patterns of sex pheromone production following sub-adult-matings. If sub-adult-mating is maladaptive because it circumvents female choice, we predict that, at adulthood, these females will produce sex pheromones to solicit additional matings from new males. This pattern of sex pheromone production would mirror that of virgin adult females. In contrast, if sub-adultmating is adaptive or neutral to females, they should not produce sex pheromones as adults. This would mirror adult-mated females, which cease pheromone production after mating. We test these hypotheses by comparing sex pheromone production of sub-adult-mated, adult-mated, and virgin adult females of L. hasselti.
  5. 5. Persistent effects of predation on a plastic mating bias in swordtails AL Basolo, AJ Melie Universiry of Nebraska-Lincoln In Poeciliid fishes, a preexisting receiver bias for a colorful, elongated caudal fin is phylogenetically widespread. Within the genus Xiphophorus, this mating bias has favored the evolution of a male sword structure and the evolution of longer swords. We tested whether the female sword response changes with predation environment by exposing females to three predator treatments (small predator, large predator, large predator consuming a male). The preference for a long sword weakened after experiencing a predator, suggesting that the sword bias shows predator-related plasticity. However, plasticity did not vary with the type of predation environment. We also asked whether there are lasting effects of predation on the preference. We found that the predation effect persisted to the next day, regardless of whether the memory was of a small, a large or a successful predator. These results indicate that predator exposure causes females to respond less strongly to long swords, regardless of the perceived degree of predation risk, and, that females retain a memory about predation risk that affects their response to swords the next day. The transcription factor doublesex (dsx) regulates reproductive behavior of a beetle OM Beckers, AP Moczek Indiana University Morphology (e.g. weaponry) and behavior (e.g. fighting) are frequently interwoven to form complex, interdependent phenotypes. The coordinated expression of morphology and behavior is therefore a crucial fitness determinant in many species. In the horned beetle, Onthophagus taurus, larval feeding conditions determine whether males develop into large, horned ‘major’ males that use horns as weapons in inter-male sexual competition or instead metamorphose into small, hornless ‘minor’ males that do not fight and instead sneak copulations. Previous work identified that the somatic sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) plays a crucial role in the nutrition-dependent expression of alternative morphologies in males and the inhibition of horns in females. Here, we explore the role of dsx in the regulation of male and female reproductive behavior. Specifically, using a combination of RNAimediated dsx knockdown and behavioral assays we investigate dsx's function in the regulation of male and female aggression, fighting, and courtship. We find that dsx influences male and female reproductive behaviors in ways that only partly parallel its role in the regulation of morphological development. On the validity of a single (boldness) assay in personality research. C Beckmann 1, PA Biro 1 Deakin University A common method to assess behavioral types in personality research involves the use of a single emergence test, whereby a shorter latency to emerge from a holding container into a novel environment is inferred to represent greater ‘boldness’. Although any behavior may be context specific, studies using this single assay type must assume it reflects boldness in other similar contexts, otherwise it cannot reflect personality. We attempted to validate whether a single assay of this type is correlated with similar assays of boldness under more familiar, less stressful, situations. We compared single emergence test scores of two fish species in a novel environment, with two different behavioral assays of the same fish in subsequent repeated trials in home tanks. Although behavior was highly repeatable in home tanks, we found no correlation between emergence test scores in the novel environment and measures of latency to emerge from shelter following disturbance or activity levels in home tanks. Our results lead us to question the validity of using this single emergence test assay as a predictor of general boldness, and to question the use of any single assay of behavior in personality research Are sentinels safe and “selfish”? Surveying the evidence PA Bednekoff Eastern Michigan University Sentinel behavior is coordinated vigilance, usually from high, exposed positions. In theory sentinel behavior could be produced by each individual being safest when a sentinel, and also being safer as a forager when someone else is a sentinel. How well does this theoretical framework explain what we know about sentinel behavior? The theory posits that sentinels can detect attacks well enough to compensate for their exposure during attacks. Evidence shows that sentinels detect many attacks but during attacks, sentinels may be more or less exposed than predators. Thus sentinel behavior may be indeed based on safety. For simplicity, the modeling framework did
  6. 6. not include kin selection or mutual dependence. Recent evidence shows that sentinel behavior increases when vulnerable young are exposed. Thus sentinel behavior in part acts to protect others. Finally, certain groups, notably the babblers, seem far more prone to sentinel behavior than other groups. This suggests that some sorts of social behavior may predispose species to sentinel behavior. The current evidence suggests that sentinel behavior should not be viewed as either selfless or selfish, but rather as fundamentally social. Spatial release from masking in a temporal pattern discrimination task in Cope’s gray treefrog MA Bee, JL Ward, NP Buerkle University of Minnesota High background noise levels impair vocal perception in noisy social groups. In humans, "spatial release from masking" contributes to speech perception in such environments. We tested the hypothesis that spatial release from masking improves the ability of female gray treefrogs to discriminate between two alternating calls differing in pulse rate along a biologically relevant continuum between conspecific (50 pulses/s) and heterospecific (20 pulses/s) calls. Tests were replicated at two signal levels (85 dB and 82 dB SPL) and in three acoustic conditions: quiet, co-localized chorus-shaped noise, and spatially separated noise. In quiet conditions, females exhibited robust preferences for calls with relatively faster pulse rates more typical of conspecific calls. Behavioral discrimination between calls differing in pulse rate deteriorated significantly in the presence of co-localized noise. Spatial separation between signals and noise restored pulse rate discrimination behavior. Our results indicate that spatial release from energetic masking facilitates a biologically important temporal discrimination task in an animal with ears that function as pressure difference receivers. Support interventions serve a prosocial conflict management function in rhesus macaques BA Beisner, B McCowan University of California, Davis The extent and complexity of human prosocial behavior is unique, and its evolutionary roots can be traced by investigating similar behavior in nonhumans. Among nonhuman primates, prosocial policing is defined as impartial monitoring and attempted control of conflict by third parties. We evaluate the assumption of impartiality by investigating the potential for partial (support) interventions to function as policing. Using seven large captive groups of rhesus macaques, we investigated the relationship between intervention type and group-level costs and benefits (e.g. rates of trauma) and individual level costs and benefits (preferential sex-dyad targeting, access to mates, and return aggression). Results show that impartial interventions and support of subordinate non-kin represent prosocial policing as both (1) were negatively associated with group-level trauma and severe aggression, respectively, (2) showed no preferential targeting of same-sex competitors, (3) did not increase chances of mating with the beneficiary when performed outside the mating season, and (4) were low-cost for the highest-ranking interveners. We suggest expanding the definition of policing to include policing support. Small song repertoires and high song type sharing by canyon wrens at local and continental scales L Benedict , A Rose, N Warning University of Northern Colorado Avian song diversity can be assessed across multiple spatial scales. We examined local and range-wide patterns of song usage and song type sharing among canyon wrens using data from a focused study in Northern Colorado and data from recordings collected across Western North America. As in many wren species, female canyon wrens sing; however they do so infrequently and use only a single song type. Males typically sing five song types, all consisting of a descending cascade of notes to which they variably append broadband notes. Songs are delivered with eventual variety in bouts that include an average of 4.6 repetitions of one song type. In our study population song types were highly conserved and males shared an average of 93% of their nearest neighbors’ song types. Some song types appear to be geographically restricted, while others are sung by individuals distributed over 2000km apart. Local and range-wide stability of certain song types may reflect high copying fidelity during learning, and may be favored by ecological and life history traits including low-density territory distributions, a sedentary lifestyle, and long-term monogamy.
  7. 7. Ant colonies trade-off foraging intensity for defense: A risk-avoidance behavioral syndrome S Bengston, A Dornhaus University of Arizona Behavioral syndromes, such as bold/shy or aggressive/passive, appear relatively ubiquitous across the species of animals in which they have been studied. Still, other behavioral traits may be evolutionarily relevant but have not received as much attention. Few studies explore behavioral type of entire groups or consider how interactions within and between groups in a population may affect group phenotype. We explore a variety of behavioral traits (foraging, defensive response, activity level and aggression) using <i>Temnothorax</i> ants to determine whether whole colonies exhibit behavioral syndromes and how behavioral type might vary across populations. We found that colonies exhibit what may be called a risk-avoidance behavioral syndrome: colonies trade-off between foraging intensity and defensive response. Colonies that invest more in foraging behavior show a decreased response to the presence of non-nestmates. This syndrome may reflect differences in risk tolerance between colonies, providing an evolutionary explanation for why variation in colony level behavioral types may persist, namely as a result of different environmental conditions or innate resource holding potential of colonies. The evolution of problem-solving abilities in carnivores S Benson-Amram 1, 2, EM Swanson 2, 3, G Stricker 2, KE Holekamp 2 1. University of St. Andrews, 2. Michigan State University, 3. University of Minnesota The Social Intelligence Hypothesis (SIH) posits that intelligence evolved due to selection pressures associated with life in complex societies. If the SIH is correct, then many of the cognitive abilities observed in primates should also occur in non-primate mammals that live in primate-like societies. We examined technical intelligence and behavioral flexibility in captive carnivores by investigating their responses to a novel problem-solving task. We tested 152 individuals from 43 species across 9 families of carnivores. 46 individuals from 23 different species across 8 families successfully solved the problem. We then used a comparative approach to examine which ecological and social factors predict problem solving success as well as persistence and the diversity of exploratory behaviors individuals exhibited when interacting with the problem. The results of this study inform our understanding of the selective pressures leading to the evolution of intelligence in carnivores. Moreover, comparing our results to those from primates helps us better understand the selection pressures that have shaped the evolution of intelligence across mammals more generally. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba) S Bettoni, JS Gilchrist Edinburgh Napier University The howlers (Alouatta spp.) are notoriously difficult to keep or breed in captivity, which may be related to poor physical or psychological wellbeing in this environment. The enrichment of enclosures aims to provide captive animals with more appropriate conditions for the development of a normal behavioral repertoire, consequently improving welfare. This study investigated the effect of environmental enrichment on the abnormal, inactive and exploratory behavior, and on the use of area by eight brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba) housed at “Rancho dos Gnomos” Sanctuary (ASERG), São Paulo, Brazil in 2012.Quantitative behavioral data were collected by Group scan sampling and All occurrences method during Baseline, Enrichment and Post-enrichment periods on the individuals studied. During the enrichment phase the level of activity and the frequency of exploratory behavior increased while the occurrences of abnormal behavior decreased. Additionally the use of area by the individuals improved: use became more even, and more sections were utilized. These findings suggest that environmental enrichment elicits positive effects on the behaviour of captive Brown Howler monkeys. The Behavioral Ecology of Avian Mobbing Calls AC Billings University of Montana Information is a resource. Communication is one way to acquire information. Often information is acquired from others’ communication. This social information, often termed eavesdropping, is extremely useful and a lot more common than we think. The use of social information has recently shattered our traditional understanding of communication. We are now beginning to understand that communication exists in complex networks with many
  8. 8. senders and receivers spanning species and even taxa. And it is the signals that are accessible and relevant to all that are going to be the most interesting. These signals are the alarm calls, which are acoustic signals given in response to danger. An important type of alarm call is the mobbing call. In birds, mobbing calls are loud, broadband signals given to perched or stationary predators that bring others to the location of the predator to chase it from the area. Because mobbing calls rely on the social response of others to be successful, they are perfect to explore communication in networks. Therefore, my thesis research is focused on how mobbing calls are acoustically structured, designed and used socially in communication networks. Source-filter differences in courtship vocalizations in three brocket deer species (Mazama) P Black-Decima1, AM Nievas2, A Hurtado1, M Santana1 1 Univ Nacional de Tucumán, Argentina, 2 UNESP Jaboticabal, Brasil Neotropical deer species commonly produce short bleat-like vocalizations in courtship in males and in relations between mother and fawn in females. Our objective was to analyze acoustic and formant parameters of brocket deer vocalizations (genus Mazama) looking for consistent differences between species and individuals. Deer were recorded in captivity at 2 Reserves, in Tucuman, Argentina, and Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. Recordings were analyzed with Praat. The 3 species studied differed significantly in the parameters of duration and fundamental frequency (F0): (M. americana 140±7.9ms, 321±24Hz; M. gouazoubira 85±26ms, 183±35Hz; M. nemorivaga 211±51ms, 218±32 Hz; Hierarchical Linear and Nonlinear Models). F0 was not related to body size among species. We calculated vocal tract length (VTL) from formant dispersion and found a correlation with body size. The largest species (M. americana) had a VTL of 18.09±0.42 cm, and the other 2 species had values of 15.04±0.24 cm (M. gouazoubira) and 14.5±0.2 cm (M. nemorivaga) respectively. These results suggest that species identification information is in the F0 and duration and body size in the formant dispersion. Role of sensory ecology in reducing animal-vehicle collisions BF Blackwell 1, TL DeVault 1, SL Lima 2, TW Seamans 1 1. USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center, 2. Indiana State U, Department of Biology Annually in the USA, well over 80 million bird fatalities occur as a result of automobile collisions and over 10,000 as a result of bird-aircraft collisions. In addition to animal mortality, animal-vehicle collisions (AVCs) can pose a substantial safety concern and financial burden to the public. Our purpose for this presentation is to discuss how behavioral theory can be applied to the development of tools and methods that will reduce the frequency of AVCs. We will center our presentation in the context of bird-aircraft collisions and discuss 1) whether antipredator behavior theory is applicable to understanding how birds react to approaching aircraft; 2) how sensory ecology can aid our understanding of animal detection and response to object approach; 3) opportunities for multidisciplinary approaches to the development of tools and methods that exploit antipredator behavior to reduce AVCs; and 4) progress to date in understanding how birds detect and respond to approaching aircraft. Finally, we will extend our discussion to the challenges of reducing AVCs in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Habituation and sensitization: new thoughts about old ideas DT Blumstein U of California Los Angeles People have written about habituation, a process that leads to declined responsiveness to a stimulus, as well as its doppelganger—sensitization—for over 2000 years. And, intensive research in the last century has led to well supported generalizations about mechanisms of habituation. However, we have not developed a ‘natural history’ of habituation which would help us predict, based on life history and natural history variation, how species will respond to humans and anthropogenic stimuli. The need for predictive models has never been greater. In this talk I will review generalizations about these learning processes and point out how a clear understanding of mechanism can be used to inform wildlife management and generate testable management interventions. I will also highlight unanswered questions about habituation and sensitization, and establish the groundwork for developing a natural history of habituation. For Whom the Bat Sings KM Bohn 1, M Smotherman 1. Florida International U, 2. Texas A&M U Research on birdsong has played a prominent role in our understanding of the ecology, evolution and
  9. 9. neurobiological basis of complex vocalizations. Since few other animals use such elaborate vocal signals, it is not known to what extent avian findings can be extrapolated to other organisms. The Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, is a mammal that sings like a bird, producing hierarchically structured songs that vary in phrase order from one rendition to the next. Such syntactical flexibility may be used to meet the demands of a highly dynamic social environment. We used playback experiments to determine what elicits bat songs and to test whether song syntax is associated with social context. Bats responded immediately to echolocation calls that mimicked a bat approaching the roost. Songs that were produced in response to echolocation playbacks differed in composition, duration and syntax than those produced spontaneously in the roost. While the cues for singing may be different, the different modes of song production and their dependence on social context is quite similar to songbirds, suggesting remarkable evolutionary convergence. The evolution of polygyny in the obligatorily eusocial domain JJ Boomsma 1, JS Pedersen 1, DB Huszár 1 1. Centre for Social Evolution, U of Copenhagen Obligate eusociality being derived from ancestral states of life-time monogamy implies that: 1. Facultatively eusocial lineages had to abandon multi-female nesting to achieve morphologically differentiated castes; 2. Lineages of obligatorily eusocial insects re-evolved multi-female nesting (polygyny) syndromes independently and to different degrees: common in ants but rare in the other lineages. As novel social traits appear to evolve only when they enhance the inclusive fitness of social interactants in proportion to their power, it is useful to explore the lineage-specific selection forces that have fostered polygyny or maintained monogyny in Hamiltonian terms of relatedness and costs/benefits of rearing offspring, siblings or more distant kin. High frequencies of polygyny in ants may be related to a combination of perennial life cycles, reduced disease pressure, and (in contrast to termites) sperm storage for life. Wynne-Edwards’ reference, quoted in Hamilton (1964), to ‘the widespread practice of attacking and persecuting strangers and relegating newcomers to the lowest social rank’, is helpful in conceptualizing the evolution of polygyny in obligatorily eusocial lineages. Expanding Social Intelligence to Panthera: problem solving, learning, and memory in lions (P. leo) N Borrego University of Miami The Social Intelligence Hypothesis (SIH) proposes the evolution of intelligence is driven by the challenges of navigating social landscapes; social animals derive benefits from cognitive abilities facilitating social challenges, and the resultant fitness advantage engenders an evolutionary link, whereby social complexity selectively favors cognitive complexity. According to SIH, intelligence convergently evolved in social taxa. My research tests this prediction by expanding SIH to a social felid, lions (Panthera leo). I used a puzzle-box task to investigate novel problem solving, learning, and memory in lions (n=12). Accordingly, lions demonstrated complex cognition and were adept at solving the task. My results support SIH and are the first formal investigation of cognition in lions. Furthermore, my results expand SIH to Panthera and provide a platform for disentangling the roles of social and environmental complexity in cognitive evolution. I am currently conducting puzzle-box experiments with asocial Panthera, and will compare my findings to the results of this study. These comparisons will provide a holistic understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms shaping intelligence. Using the olfactory incrementing nonmatch-to-sample task to assess episodic-like memory in rats C Branch 1, 2, K Bruce 2, M Galizio 2 1. University of Nevada, Reno, 2. University of North Carolina Wilmington Episodic memory has previously been thought of as unique to humans. Recently, research has demonstrated that nonhuman species can discriminate items based on what the item is, where it is located, and when it was encountered; referred to as episodic-like memory or what, where, when memory. One limitation of studying what, where, when memory is that it requires extensive training with discriminative conditions. Here, we assessed episodic-like memory by manipulating the olfactory incrementing nonmatch-to-sample (INMS) procedure. Four target scents were pseudo-randomly chosen and presented to the rat in a holding cage before the INMS task. Then, the rat was required to recall the target scents previously presented in the holding cage and respond to those as novel in the INMS testing arena. Our results indicate that rats were able to discriminate between the two contexts and respond to the target scents as novel when they were presented in the testing arena. Several controls were implemented to account for memory load, familiarity, and forgetting. One factor that may be mitigating their responses to the target stimuli in the testing arena is “time since smelled”.
  10. 10. Intercolony competition in naked mole-rats: evidence for kidnapping in a natural metapopulation S Braude 1, J Hess 2 1. Washington University in St. Louis, 2 Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission Wild naked mole-rats are not inbred in either the drift, pedigree, or system of mating sense. Observations of intercolony aggression, invasion, and kidnapping in the laboratory, have pointed to intra-specific competition as a driving force for large colony size, but until now little was known about direct aggressive competition for resources among naked mole-rats in the wild. We report that wild colonies of naked mole-rats can expand their territories by invasions of neighboring colonies and, like captive colonies, invading colonies may kidnap unweaned pups which are later incorporated into the colony. Socially induced plasticity in penis morphology, and implications for genital evolution PLR Brennan 1, RO Prum 2 1. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 2. Yale University Male genitalia are typically considered to show little variation among males, despite high variation between species. Socially induced phenotypic plasticity in response to male-male competition is known to occur in several male reproductive traits but it has not been demonstrated in genitalia. We examined whether male-male competition affects genital morphology and whether the response varies according to the history of post-copulatory competition present in several species of waterfowl. Across species, penis length is associated with levels of postcopulatory competition that result from forced copulation, but male genital morphology has also coevolved with female genitalia through sexual conflict. We found unprecedented genital plasticity in waterfowl, but the patterns differ among species. Different hypotheses of genital evolution do not explicitly consider how adaptive plasticity would affect their predictions, and we will discuss the implications of socially induced plasticity for our understanding of genital evolution. Plasticity of cerebral lateralization in the Trinidadian guppy ED Broder, LM Angeloni Colorado State University An animal’s fitness is impacted by its degree of cerebral asymmetry, or laterality, which is the partitioning of tasks to separate hemispheres of the brain. Geographic variation in this trait is likely determined by the balance between costs and benefits of laterality in a given environment. We investigated the relationship between evolutionary history and developmental plasticity in the Trinidadian guppy, a freshwater fish that experiences variable predation pressure. We compared laterality in pairs of closely related populations that experience either high or low levels of predation in the wild, and manipulated the perceived predation risk in the rearing environment. Fish reared with exposure to chemical predator cues were more lateralized that their brothers reared without predator cues. This plastic response is in the direction we would predict if lateralization is favored in environments with high predation risk. However, unlike findings in related species, we did not detect differences among populations, suggesting guppies are not locally adapted to the level of predation risk. Developmental plasticity is likely an important contributor to variation in cerebral laterality in guppies. Why do I care what you got? Cooperation and inequitable outcomes in the Primates SF Brosnan 1 1 Georgia State U Humans are not the only species to respond negatively to outcomes that are to their disadvantage. Emerging data support the hypothesis that an aversion to inequity is an evolved mechanism to promote successful cooperative relationships amongst non-kin in primates, and likely in non-primates as well. In experimental situations, cooperation survives modest inequity as long as the partner’s overall behavior is equitable. Comparative studies indicate a link between the degree and extent of cooperation between unrelated individuals in a species and that species’ response to inequitable outcomes, indicating that this behavior evolved in conjunction with cooperation and may represent an adaptation to increase the payoffs associated with cooperative interactions. Importantly, primates that show bi-parental care cooperate in experiments, but do not respond to inequity, possibly due to the unique costs and benefits associated with bi-parental care, which is rare in primates. Together these data inform a working hypothesis for understanding decision-making in the context of inequity and emphasize the importance of considering each species’ costs and benefits when evaluating their behavior.
  11. 11. Dolphin Speak: Reevaluating Tursiops Non-signature Whistles JN Bruck University of Chicago Through the study of signal prevalence and context, there is potential to form concrete assertions in animal communication that are useful for predicting behavior, understanding sociality and determining capacities for referential signaling. It is with this perspective that I examined context-based signal use and playback responses to the first documented complex repeated non-signature whistles identified in bottlenose dolphins. As a first step toward eventually determining how dolphins may represent their world through whistles, two distinct contours were determined to be repeated amongst six populations of animals under human care. These two contours were found to be related to feeding and arousal contexts and playbacks utilizing a habituation/discrimination design verified that the whistles were perceived as distinct by 33 subjects. Comparisons were also made to the playback responses of complex repeated non-signature whistles from unfamiliar animals and the responses to the signature whistles of unfamiliar animals, indicating that the dolphins perceive signature and non-signature whistles (both from unfamiliar animals) as distinct categories. These results have implications for meaning. Thermoregulatory Limits on Male Courtship Display in Wild Turkeys. R Buchholz University of Mississippi Comparative analyses suggest that the intense male-male competition seen in lek mating systems may have selected for increased male body size and sexual dimorphism. A physiological tradeoff of large body size, however, is a reduced ability to dissipate heat produced by metabolism during energetic courtship. Large males that overheat may be unable to continue to display, and as a consequence they may miss mating opportunities. Thus female preference for high display rate and high lek attendance may act to counter-balance intrasexual selection for large size. The remarkably sexual dimorphic wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) sometimes forms leklike assemblages, varies greatly in male mass, occurs across a broad climatic range, and suffers heat stress under hot conditions, making them an appropriate study system for understanding how thermal constraints may affect the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I collected display data from video-recordings of 16 males across two breeding seasons on an artificial captive lek to describe how smaller males may be able to use environmentally determined thermal windows of mating opportunities that are unavailable to larger males. Hunting in Noise: How Road and Gas Compressor Noise Affect the Foraging Efficiency of a Gleaning Bat J Bunkley, J Barber Boise State University Anthropogenic noise is increasing in intensity and scope as a result of the growing human population. Noise is considered a pollutant by the EPA and affects all ecosystems. Many organisms are negatively affected by noise, yet mitigation efforts are rarely established. We predict that acoustic predators are particularly susceptible to a louder world. Gleaning bats use passive listening to locate low frequency, prey-produced sounds when foraging. In the lab we investigated the impacts of both road and gas compressor station noise on the foraging search time of the gleaning bat, Antrozous pallidus. Here we report that bats take significantly longer to locate prey when exposed to noise. This reduction of foraging efficiency could impact survival and reproductive success. We are translating this investigation to the landscape scale by assessing the impacts of gas compressor noise on a bat assemblage using passive acoustic monitoring. We plan to present preliminary results from this work. Research exploring the effects of noise on acoustically-specialized species is integral to the development of mitigation efforts for this unique pollutant. Behavioral Differences between Feral and Domestic Guppies MJ Cabrera-Álvarez 1,2, WT Swaney 1,2, SM Reader 1,2. 1. McGill University, 2. Utrecht University Evolutionary changes in social and anti-predator behavior have been widely studied in wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Guppies are resilient colorful tropical fish that are common aquaria pets, where they have undergone extensive domestication and artificial selection for exaggerated color and fins. We compared domestic guppies with feral guppies that were introduced twenty years ago to a “wild-like” habitat where they experienced high rates of predation by birds. We found that feral guppies shoaled more than domestic guppies both before and after exposure to a predator. However, both strains did not differ significantly in other behavioral dimensions such
  12. 12. as response to alarm substance or predator inspection. These results suggest either that shoaling is the most labile behavior we tested or that it is a particularly effective anti-predator adaptation. These data reaffirm the influence of predation on shoaling and suggest that domestic guppies retain the potential for behavioral adaptation, helping to explain their success as an invasive species. Finally, our results indicate that anti-predator behaviors may be decoupled from one another, rather than covarying together. With a little help from my friends: museum collections, animal behaviorists and systematists united DS Caetano 1, A Aisenberg 2 1 University of Idaho, 2 Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable Museum collections are the main source for species identification and biodiversity studies, traditionally providing taxonomical, morphological, and geographical data. However, data that can only be gathered in the moment of the specimen collection are usually not recorded in scientific collections, publications, nor made available in databases. Therefore, little is known about biology or ecology of an impressive proportion of species. To illustrate the importance of sharing information among disciplines, we performed a survey for researchers working in areas related to ecology, animal behavior and systematics. The majority agree that natural history information stored in collections would be a valuable source of data and were willing to share their unpublished data in databases. There is an impressive amount of data that can be recorded only by encountering living specimens in the field. Expanding the scope of information stored in databases linked to museum collections may amplify their impact in research and assure their presence in management and financial priorities. Making data stored in databases citable would be an important incentive to promote flow of data among disciplines. Does reciprocity explain food sharing in vampire bats? G Carter, G Wilkinson University of Maryland Common vampire bats regurgitate food to roost-mates that fail to feed. The original explanation for this behaviour invoked both direct and indirect fitness benefits. Alternatively however, non-kin sharing may have resulted from harassment, familiarity-based kin discrimination, or kin recognition errors. To examine these alternatives, we tested predictors of food-sharing decisions with 35 vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) individually fasted under controlled conditions of mixed relatedness and equal familiarity. Inconsistent with harassment, donors initiate food sharing more often than recipients. The food sharing network was female-biased, reciprocal, consistent, and correlated with mutual allogrooming. Reciprocal help was the best predictor of food given, and more predictive than relatedness. In a few related and reciprocating pairs, donors passed food to partners trapped behind a mesh barrier. Finally, a positive interaction showed that the symmetry of sharing increased with partner relatedness. Together with past work, these findings suggest that positive interactions between direct and indirect benefits promote food sharing in vampire bats. Future work will test responses to cheating. Behavioral syndromes in the blue-black grassquit (Volatinia jacarina, Emberezidae) held in captivity LB Castilhom, RHF Macedo Universidade de Brasília The number of studies focusing on animal personality has increased in recent years. To date, however, only species from temperate regions have been investigated in relation to the presence and type of personalities and syndromes. This study investigated such trends in the blue-black grassquit, a Neotropical passerine, with the objective of assessing whether tropical species may be under different evolutionary and ecological pressures, which could change the outcome in the shaping of personalities. Birds were tested for individual differences in feeding and environmental exploration rate. There was no evidence for different personalities in feeding rate among birds, but there was strong substantiation of personality in exploration. There was also a feeding/exploration syndrome, in which birds that fed more also were more exploratory. Although not explicitly tested, it is possible that this species follows the performance model, in which animals with a higher metabolic rate present a higher level of expensive behaviors (e.g. environment exploration) and also feed more. Migratory Behavior of Captive Blue-winged Teals (Anas discors) JL Caton, JC Owen Michigan State University Migratory disposition (i.e., migratory activity [Zugunruhe] and hyperphagia) can be experimentally induced in
  13. 13. captive birds. Most research on migratory restlessness has been conducted on landbirds with few studies on waterfowl migratory behavior. We hypothesized that captive Blue-winged Teals would exhibit migratory restlessness during fall and spring migration (focusing on spring here). Employing video surveillance cameras, infrared motion sensors, and audio recorders, we investigated whether teals would 1) enter migratory disposition, as shown by mass gain, 2) demonstrate migratory restlessness in captivity, and 3) exhibit quantifiable behavior. We found that teals, when photoadvanced, exhibit behavior consistent with migratory disposition, including hyperphagia and increased nighttime activity. Based on initial analysis of video recordings, the nighttime activity is consistent with Zugunruhe with increased flight and restless flapping shown. This is the first study to successfully demonstrate that under controlled conditions waterfowl exhibit migratory disposition and restlessness. Future analysis includes correlating video footage with motion sensors and audio recordings. A dose for the drinker is enough: the alcohol benefits for associative learning in zebrafish DMM Chacon, MM Silveira, LC Santos, AC Luchiari University of Rio Grande do Norte This study aimed to test the addictive potential of alcohol doses and the effects on conditioned learning in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Three treatments were conducted: acute, chronical and withdrawal, using 0.1%, 0.25% 1.0% alcohol and control (0%). For addiction test, place preference was observed in a shuttle box tank before and after alcohol exposure. We observed a change in the initial preference due to the association with alcohol only at 0.25 and 1.0% doses in both acute and chronical offering, indicating an alcohol-seeking behaviour after exposition to the drug, characteristic of addiction. For the conditioning task, fish received light stimulus followed by food in a pre-defined area of the tank for 8 consecutive days. The low dose group (0.1%) learned the task at day 3 both for chronical and withdrawal, but withdraw animals improved learning at the end of the test. The other doses (0.25 and 1.0%) caused learning impairment in chronical treatment, but at withdrawal fish learned on the last 2 days of test. Thus, high doses cause learning impairment and addiction, even after drug cessation, while low doses positively affect learning and do not cause addiction. Who are the “lazy” ants? Describing behavior and social interactions of highly inactive workers D Charbonneau, A Dornhaus University of Arizona Contrary to what most people think, high levels of inactivity are common in most animals. This is also true in archetypal hard workers: social insects. Although little is known about this important behavior, we show that individual ants differ consistently in their level of inactivity, and that inactivity levels observed in the lab are comparable to those observed in the field, and thus not an artifact. However, we still know very little about the adaptive function of individual-level inactivity. Here we characterize highly inactive workers and contrast them to highly active workers. We use behavioral observations and spatial tracking to investigate common behaviors of highly inactive workers, but also look at trends in individual variation throughout the colony. Our results show that highly inactive workers spend a disproportionate amount of their active time on brood care and grooming compared to active workers, and tend be further away from other workers than active ants are. This shows that inactive workers do not conform to standard models of division of labor and spatial fidelity, suggesting that inactivity is a behavior in its own right that should be integrated with these models. Individual behavioral variation in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss A Chin-Baarstad 1, F Thrower 2, KM Nichols 1,3 1 Purdue University, 2 NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center, 3 NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center With the inherently different ecological challenges of the wide range life histories exhibited by salmonid fishes, it may be expected that there will be some underlying behavioral differences. In this study we assessed individual variation for aggression, dispersal, and exploration in fish from a population of Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow and steelhead trout) from southeast Alaska. Behaviors were quantified in laboratory experiments using juvenile progeny produced from crosses within and between adults from the two life history types (migratory or resident). Each individual was tested across time for all behaviors, giving a measure of individual consistency and repeatability over four trials. These measures were used to evaluate correlations among the behaviors within individuals, as well to test whether significant differences existed among cross types. Any differences in behavior between cross types or families would reflect underlying genetic variation and the repeatability gives an upper bound estimate of heritability. The results from these behavioral trials will be used to later evaluate the correlation between behavioral differences and gene expression in the brain.
  14. 14. A robotic ant to probe route learning during tandem recruitment by ants JY Cho 1, T Morshed 1, Q Lindsey 2, MS Sakar 2, E Steager 2, V Kumar 2, SC Pratt 1 1. Arizona State Universtiy 2. University of Pennsylvania Ants use recruitment to direct nestmates to valuable resources. Some methods, such as pheromone trails, offer a persistent guide that allows recruits to journey repeatedly between nest and resource. In tandem recruitment, however, a recruit is led directly to the target by an experienced ant, but must navigate by herself on later journeys. We tested the hypothesis that tandem recruits learn a route as they follow their leader. Consistent with this idea, former tandem followers preferred routes that resembled the path they had been led on. However, these spontaneous tandem runs cannot separate the effects of leadership from environmental cues that might make certain routes more attractive. To gain greater experimental control, we built an artificial tandem leader consisting of a pheromone-marked dummy guided by a magnetically tethered robot. The robot was programmed to lead ants on one of two divergent routes. If followers learn the route, we predict that they will later choose paths resembling the path on which they were led. These data will allow a more revealing test of route learning, as well as validating a powerful new tool for the study of ant recruitment. Using computer animations to explore social learning in fish L Chouinard-Thuly 1,2, MM Webster 2, KN Laland 2 1. McGill University, 2. University of St Andrews Environments change rapidly and knowledge about resources quickly becomes obsolete. For animals vulnerable to predation like ninespine sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius), individual sampling of resources such as food patches might expose them to high costs. Alternatively, these fish can accurately learn relative profitability of food patches based on behavioral cues produced by other individuals as they exploit them, thus socially learning through public information. It is however unclear which behavior is observed. Previous work has shown that groups of fish feeding from a rich food patch display more feeding strikes, a higher activity rate, greater cohesion, a lower position in the water column, and remain closer to the feeder compared to groups feeding at a poor patch. To determine which behavior is used, we created and presented computer-animated sticklebacks performing behaviors associated with feeding at either a rich or poor food patch to an observer fish. Subsequent choice tests showed that of the behaviors presented, the striking action was the most important for fish to assess patch richness. This is the first demonstration of social learning from 3D animations in fish. Comparative Analysis of Female Color Preferences in Darters (Genus Etheostoma) PJ Ciccotto, TC Mendelson University of Maryland, Baltimore County Variation in male ornamentation in the form of elaborate nuptial coloration is commonly observed across closelyrelated animal lineages. Colorful ornaments may be used as signals to attract females, and thus female preferences for color may play a critical role in the evolution of these elaborate male traits. Darters (genus Etheostoma) are a group of sexually dichromatic freshwater fishes in which male nuptial coloration varies across lineages. We examined female color preferences in multiple species that vary in the presence of two main darter color classes: red/orange and green/blue. Our objective was to determine if female color preferences are predictably associated with male nuptial color. Females were presented with a series of motorized models that were colored red, blue, black, or grey, and association preferences with these different stimuli were measured. Across eight species examined, females exhibited significant preferences for particular colors, and preferred colors varied across species. Results are discussed with respect to male phenotypes and phylogenetic relationships to address the role of female preferences in the evolution of colorful male ornaments. Conspecific Recognition Differs Among Species of Galápagos Lava Lizards:Evidence From Lizard Robots DL Clark 1, JM Macedonia 2, JW Rowe 1 1. Alma College, 2. Florida Southern College Male Galápagos lava lizards exhibit substantial pattern diversity in pushup advertisement displays. Each species is allopatric and is thought to have evolved in isolation. As display diversity likely arose due to genetic drift, discrimination of conspecific from heterospecific displays is anticipated to be relaxed. We used a robotic lizard to test whether two species of lava lizards, the cryptically-colored Microlophus grayii and brightly-colored M. indefatigabilis, discriminate conspecific from heterospecific pushup displays. For experimental treatments we used a robot with conspecific body coloration that performed a conspecific or heterospecific pushup display. We
  15. 15. presented robots to 94 adult males (M. grayii: N = 40, and M. indefatigabilis: N = 54) and analyzed their responses for pushup display latency and duration, and as standardized scores of aggression. Results for M. grayii revealed no evidence of species discrimination of displays. In contrast, M. indefatigablis exhibited significantly stronger responses to the conspecific pushup display. We offer several potential explanations for the striking differences in social signal recognition between our two study species. Consequences of ground squirrel signaling at multiple stages of rattlesnake foraging RW Clark1, MA Barbour1,2, BJ Putman1 1. San Diego State Univeristy, 2. University of British Columbia Many species approach and signal toward their predators. These behaviors are often interpreted as predatordeterrent signals that indicate to predators that the prey is aware of its presence and is likely to escape if pursued. However, field evidence for predator-deterrent signals is scant, and the mechanisms maintaining predator responses are often unexplored. We examined the effects of a putative predator-deterrent signal, the tail-fag display, given by California ground squirrels toward northern Pacific rattlesnakes by recording responses of freeranging rattlesnakes to squirrel displays. We found that squirrel tail-flags deter snake predation on two different time scales. At the time of the interaction, snakes were more likely to attempt to strike squirrels that did not tail flag than those that did. This may be because tail flagging is reliably associated with squirrel vigilance and readiness to dodge a snake strike. Tail flagging by adult squirrels also increased the probability that snakes would subsequently abandon their ambush site. Our results highlight how the context in which predators encounter prey has an important influence on their responses to prey signals. Dealing with the Noisy Neighbors: Flying-fox Communication in Urban Areas JA Clarke, T Pearson Macquarie University Urban survivors is a term applied to wild species inhabiting urban areas and successfully coping with anthropogenic pollution, including urban noise. Grey-headed flying-foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) are highly vocal mammals inhabiting urban and rural areas in NSW, Australia. Understanding the strategies used by this urban species to communicate in spite of anthropogenic noise may reveal why other species are unsuccessful. We investigated if, similar to songbirds, flying-foxes in urban areas would use vocalizations with acoustic structures that differ from flying-foxes inhabiting rural areas. We recorded flying-foxes in five urban and rural camps over 12wks. Analysis of soundscapes and individual vocalizations revealed no differences in dominant frequencies, syllable rates or amplitude. Only when anthropogenic noise exceeded 66dBA – from low aircraft overflights in urban camps – were the flying-foxes affected. In these cases, the animals ceased vocalizing until the aircraft noise had abated. SPL of the camps is 55-57dBA from the flying-foxes’ calls, in short, these are extremely loud animals. Thus, they are urban survivors partly because they are as noisy as their human neighbors. A cross-continental look at the connections between humans and birds in urban areas B Clucas 1, S Rabotyagov 2, JM Marzluff 2 1. Humboldt State University, 2. University of Washington As humans become increasingly urban the need for conservation of nature in cities increases and requires an understanding of a diversity of human-wildlife interactions. We examine the connections between humans and birds in two urban areas (Berlin, Germany and Seattle, WA) from both socio-economical and ecological perspectives. We assess the economic value humans place on interactions with native songbirds by combining a revealed preference (expenditures on bird food) and a stated preference approach (willingness to pay to for bird conservation). We then compare how human behavior influences the abundance and species richness of birds. Residents in both cities spend a relatively large amount of money annually on bird food and engage in many birdattracting activities, but are generally less willing to pay for bird conservation. In turn, participation in bird attracting activities by humans appears to be related to increased species diversity and abundances of certain bird species. Understanding the likely positive reciprocal relationship created by the mutual benefits of human-avian interactions will be important for wildlife conservation in urban areas.
  16. 16. Sibling egg cannibalism by neonates of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Karyn Collie 1,2 1. The Graduate Center CUNY, 2. Queens College CUNY Cannibalism provides benefits to young individuals, but pre-dispersive juveniles may cannibalize kin. Neonates of the Colorado potato beetle often consume eggs in their natal clutch, a mix of full and half siblings. The fitness benefits neonates gain by cannibalism were studied to determine whether these benefits outweigh inclusive fitness costs. Neonates were tested for their ability to discriminate between eggs based on relatedness, whether they preferentially consume inviable eggs, and whether egg development is a cue. Female mediation of cannibalism was examined by measuring the oviposition behavior of females provided different quality plants. The cannibalism rates in populations with differences in competition were also compared. Sibling cannibalism increases growth rates and decreases development time, compensating for the costs of eating a half sibling. Neonates discriminate eggs from other populations but not within their own population, prefer eating inviable eggs, but do not use egg development as a cue. Females on low-quality plants can increase the number of inviable eggs available to hatchlings. Cannibalism is highest in populations with higher competition. Social context influences the initiation and threshold of thermoregulatory behaviour in honey bees CN Cook, MD Breed University of Colorado, Boulder Interactions between individuals in a society are the basis of effective task allocation. This task allocation plays a critical role in the ecological efficiency of social insect societies. In this study we test whether social context, specifically the number of workers present, affects thermoregulatory task performance in honeybees, Apis mellifera. When faced with increasing hive temperatures, a subset of honey bee workers gather to cool the hive by fanning at the entrance. We present here that worker bees assayed singly are significantly less likely to initiate fanning behavior in response to elevated temperature than bees assayed in small groups of three or ten workers. Bees assayed in groups also exhibit lower response thresholds than those assayed alone. The likelihood for fanning behavior varies significantly among behavioural castes, while thermal response thresholds do not. These results suggest that worker task performance depends on the presence of other workers, and offer another method by which division of labor in societies is organized. Summertime and the living is not easy: dancing bees demonstrate seasonal gaps in food availability MJ Couvillon, R Schürch, FLW Ratnieks University of Sussex Although insect pollinated crops are an increasing proportion of our diet, pollinating insects, including honey bees (Apis mellifera), continue to decline in North America and Europe. Honey bees face many challenges including pests, pathogens, and pesticides. However, independent of these is another issue affecting wildlife in general: landscape changes in the last century, such as agricultural intensification, have reduced flowers and flower-rich habitats that provide nectar and pollen insects. We investigated honey bee foraging ecology seasonality by “eavesdropping” on 5097 waggle dances over two years to show that mean foraging distance and area are significantly greater in summers (July & August, 2156m, 15.2km2) than springs (March & April, 493m, 0.8km2) or autumns (September & October, 1275m, 5.1km2). As bees do not forage at long distances unnecessarily, this indicates summer is a challenging season to find food. Additionally, the summer nectar quality, only 25.5% sugar, is low. Our results demonstrate that listening to bees can provide information relevant to helping them, and, in particular, can identify when additional forage would be valuable. Inclusive fitness theory for religious cognition and behavior Bernard J. Crespi Simon Fraser U W. D. Hamilton believed that progress in science is facilitated by novel, often controversial ideas. In this spirit, I present and defend a new hypothesis for the evolution of human religious thought and behavior that is based on inclusive fitness theory. The hypothesis centers on central, integrated roles for animism, ancestor worship, filial piety, healthy positive schizotypy and belief in the supernatural, isomorphisms between kinship systems and religious systems in the service of kin and God, maternal moral inculcation coupled with child overimitation, and the oxytocin-dopamine bonding and reward system mediating both kinship interactions and religious experience. I evaluate the hypothesis using data from the literature on anthropology, history, endocrinology, animal behavior,
  17. 17. psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience, and data from my laboratory on the genetic bases of the autism spectrum and the psychotic-affective spectrum of psychological and personality variation in non-clinical populations. Testing assumptions of the evolution of host defenses against brood parasites in American robins R Croston1, ME Hauber2 1.The Graduate Center, CUNY, 2. Hunter College, CUNY Hosts of the brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) challenge coevolutionary theory because most accept parasitic eggs despite the costs of rearing unrelated young. American robins (Turdus migratorius) are one of few cowbird host species to eject parasitic eggs. We have shown that robins respond specifically to parasitism by cowbirds, despite an apparent lack of sensory tuning toward detection of cowbird eggs. This implies selection on robins for defenses against cowbird parasitism. We tested critical assumptions for the evolution of such defenses, that cowbird parasitism 1) imposes recoverable costs on robins, and 2) produces individuals showing consistent responses to parasitism. We manipulated clutch contents of robin nests to evaluate proportional brood loss of robins reared with cowbirds. We found no such cost at the nestling stage, as host chick survivorship did not decrease when raised with cowbirds versus robins. We also modeled repeatability of egg ejection across multiple experimental parasitism events in the same clutch. We found that rejection is highly repeatable, irrespective of timing or clutch size, confirming the assumption (2) in this system. Exploring the complex relationship between tenure and reproductive success among male spotted hyenas L Curren 1,2 1. U of New Hampshire, 2. Michigan State U In most cases of endurance rivalry, males compete to remain reproductively active longer than other males, but these time periods are typically brief, such as a single breeding season. Here, I explored endurance rivalry among males in a species that breeds year-round, the spotted hyena (<i>Crocuta crocuta</i>). Most males were present in the clan for over two years before siring their first cub, and most sired their first cub in their first four years or did not sire one at all. Next, I found evidence suggesting that males might incorporate their initial reproductive success (RS) into their decision regarding whether to stay in the clan or secondarily disperse. Finally, male RS increased during the first six years of tenure, then decreased, indicating that tenure may not be the sole determinant of male RS. To this end, I found a positive correlation between a male’s annual RS and his associations with females, although there was no effect of his rate of aggressive interactions with these females. These results support the notion that male spotted hyenas compete via an endurance rivalry, but questions remain regarding other traits that females select for and against in mates. Personality predicts attention bias for threat in orange-winged Amazon parrots, Amazona amazonica. VA Cussen, JA Mench University of California, Davis Stable behavioral differences between individuals of a species (i.e. personality,) may result from individual state characteristics (e.g. morphology or physiology). In turn, these characteristics can lead to differential fitness outcomes for individuals. Cognitive processing of environmental information may be such a characteristic. We developed a subjective personality assessment for A. amazonica. We then assessed whether personality predicted a cognitive state difference in attention bias for threat, as measured by the number of balks and errors when performing a spatial foraging task in the presence of a passive human observer. Two factors, ‘Neuroticism’ (N) and ‘Extraversion’ (E), accounted for 66% of the total variance in personality. There was individual variation, with N ranging from -10 to 22.3 and E from 9.25 to 27.5. Both factors were temporally consistent over one year (E ρ=0.82, p<0.00001; N ρ=0.88, p<0.00001). There was a significant correlation (ρ=0.58, p=0.047) between N and attention bias for threat. Our findings show that differences in personality are correlated with a biologically relevant difference in cognitive bias in vigilance for threat. New Insights into Avian Duet Structure and Function CR Dahlin 1, L Benedict 2 1. University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, 2. University of Northern Colorado Many avian species give vocal duets, and a common question posed regarding duets is what advantages are gained by participating in a joint signal that outweigh the costs of coordination? To answer this question we
  18. 18. reviewed publications on over 50 species of duetting birds to look for patterns in structure and function across species. We broke down the structural components of duets into categories, classified their function(s), and ranked them with confidence ratings. We classified duets into one conflict-based category, mate-guarding, and five cooperative categories. We found that structural data was incomplete for many species, but our compilation will serve as a foundation for future work. We found overwhelming evidence indicating that the majority of duets are used in solely cooperative situations or in both cooperative and conflict-based situations (primarily territory and/or resource defense). Thus the simple conflict versus cooperation dichotomy may not serve as a useful approach when investigating duets. In addition, the multi-functionality of many duets may help explain the vast diversity of duet forms and the lack of a clear association between duet form and function. Linking courtship behavior, color perception and mate choice decisions R Dakin 1 1. Queen's U Despite a long history of study showing that females prefer to mate with certain males, we lack a good understanding of how females choose. In this study, I use the peacock’s iridescent eyespots to link signal perception with female choice and male courtship behavior. Using models of avian color vision and measurements taken at light angles that mimic the way males display, I show that about 50% of the variation in male mating success can be explained by eyespot plumage color. Additionally, females are more likely to return to revisit males with greater eyespot color contrast after viewing them once. Next, I examine the iridescent eyespot colors under different light conditions, since males display at about 45° to the right of the sun, on average. I show that this light angle enhances eyespot color contrast in a way that may influence female choice. Lastly, I show that subtle differences between two peafowl species may be due to selection for enhanced eyespot color contrast in different habitats. Overall, my results demonstrate that by considering perception, we can better understand the function of behaviors on both sides of the courtship signaling exchange. Appreciating plasticity in sensory systems of both senders and receivers in sexual selection Lainy B. Day U of Mississippi We often ignore individual variation in favor of understanding species level trends. Yet, mate choices are known to vary by age, habitat, season, hormones, ontogeny, learning, genetics, etc. Such factors can influence female sensory physiology in ways that affect individual variation in female choice of males and can alter our understanding of sexual selection theory. Importantly, there are also particular mating systems where individual variation in male sensory physiology may have profound effects on sexual selection. When male courtship displays are constructed or produced by the male rather than being a fundamental part of the males' morphology, there exist the opportunity for the males’ sensory physiology to dramatically alter the signals females receive. Three important examples of signals that are highly dependent on male sensory physiology are the bowers of male bowerbirds, the display arenas and complex acrobatics of manakins, and the songs of songbirds. Such cases add a further layer of complexity to understanding sexual selection in light of individual variation in sensory physiology that may alter perception of the signal by the sender and and the receiver. The sunny side of egg stacking: multiple avoidance strategies in response to parasitism risk JB Deas 1, MS Hunter 1 U Arizona Organisms that do not provide parental care must weigh multiple factor or risks in the selection of an oviposition site, and may evolve strategies that increase offspring survivorship. The seed beetle, Mimosestes amicus, shows remarkable behavioral plasticity in response to variation in egg parasitism cues. When exposed to egg parasitoid adults, females superimpose eggs atop each other in order to protect bottom eggs from parasitism. Here, we examine egg protection behavior in response to variation in parasitism risk. We exposed females to treatments varying in the probability of encountering parasitized eggs on seed pods. Our results reveal that oviposition behavior was influenced by the evenness of the distribution of parasitized eggs. Females avoided oviposition on seed pods with parasitized eggs when other pods were available, and stacked their eggs only when all or almost all pods bore parasitized eggs. Remarkably, oviposition rate was also reduced in females exposed to higher parasitism risk. Our results provide novel evidence of an herbivore assessing risk to her offspring and adopting an oviposition strategy that includes both risk avoidance and offspring protection.
  19. 19. The Systematic Squirrel: Cache Effort and Organization, and Implications for Memory MM Delgado, LF Jacobs University of California at Berkeley We have previously found that fox squirrels match their caching effort to the potential energetic returns of food items. But there is a spatial component to cache effort: do food-storers arrange caches to reduce memory load? A scatter-hoarding squirrel could arrange caches hierarchically, using a cognitive mechanism known as chunking, caching food items in particular locations based on type. This question has not been addressed with field observations. We presented 26 wild fox squirrels with a series of 16 nuts of up to four types, in conditions that varied in complexity of sequence and hence potential memory load. We localized caches (N=843) using handheld GPS. Our results suggest that instead of chunking, squirrel’s cache organization can be modeled as two complementary heuristics. First, match investment to food item value and second, systematically cover a caching area. This model could explain many of our results, including the observation that increasing memory load impaired the squirrels’ ability to maintain consistent cache densities. I will discuss these and other results in the context of our emerging model of how the rational squirrel invests in and organizes its caches. Acoustic adaptation vs. magic traits: song diversification in a Neotropical avian radiation. EP Derryberry 1, N Seddon 2, S Claramunt 3, RT Brumfield 4, JA Tobias 2 1. Tulane University, 2. University of Oxford, 3. American Museum of Natural History, 4. Louisiana State University Diversification of mating signals can have important functional consequences for mate choice and species recognition in birds. An increasing number of studies have found evidence for a direct influence of ecological and sexual selection on signal divergence as well as an indirect influence of morphological adaptation to different foraging niches. How these direct and indirect forces interact to shape signal evolution remains poorly understood. Using phenotypic, ecological and molecular datasets, we explored the interplay between morphological, ecological and vocal evolution in an avian radiation characterized by dramatic ecological and morphological variation, the Neotropical ovenbirds and woodcreepers (Aves: Furnariidae). We examined both the direct influence of habitat differentiation as well as the indirect effect of biomechanical constraints on vocal evolution. Our results suggest that both direct and indirect selective forces separately shape signal evolution and have important implications for avian diversification. ABS and Animal Behavior: Historical Perspectives Donald A. Dewsbury I will attempt to summarize some of the conditions that led to the founding of the Animal Behavior Society as well as some of its later development. Although formally founded in 1964, the origination of the ABS is best viewed as a process, rather than an event. That founding occurred in the context of behavioral activity in a number of disciplines and locations and evolved from several conferences and committees in addition to such organizations as the American Society of Zoologists, the Ecological Society of America, and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Much has changed since the ABS was founded, but some of the core principles of informality, the right to present material, and free discussion remain intact. I will review some of the development of the society including its membership, governance, disciplinary affiliations, meetings, scope, and principal research foci. Dynamic status signals in a cooperatively breeding bird C Dey 1, J Dale 2, JS Quinn 1 1. McMaster University, 2. Massey University Signals of dominance and fighting ability are used to settle disputes over mates and other resources. Since there could be an advantage for individuals to dishonestly signal their fighting ability, the maintenance of honest dominance signalling systems has been considered an evolutionary paradox. Here, we show that the size of the pukeko’s (Porphyrio melanotus melanotus) frontal shield ornament is a strong predictor of dominance status within social groups, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Furthermore, when we experimentally decreased the apparent size of the shield in some birds, their true shield size also quickly decreased (within 1 week). Since our manipulation only changed the apparent size of the shields, it could not have affected the physiological costs of producing or bearing them. Thus the observed change in shield size must have been caused
  20. 20. by changes in social interactions caused by the manipulation. As a result, we provide indirect evidence that social interactions can influence status signal expression, which could potentially maintain honesty in status signalling systems. Extrapair paternity in the absence of tradeoffs in the western bluebird JL Dickinson 1, ED Ferree 1,2 1. Cornell University, 2. Claremont Colleges The prevalence of extapair mating in socially monogamous birds has complex implications for the intensity of sexual selection. The mean net benefit for males engaging in extra-pair mating varies widely among species and populations. On the one hand, extrapair (EP) paternity can significantly increase male reproductive success, potentially increasing the variance in male fitness and the intensity of sexual selection. On the other hand, tradeoffs between extra-pair and within-pair mating will dampen this effect. In western bluebirds, we show that successful EP males are also successful sires of their own broods, doubling their annual fitness compared to males not siring EP young. Further dissection of components of reproductive success indicates an absence of tradeoffs and an unexpected augmentation of fitness due to higher fledging success at EP nests. In our population of western bluebirds, both extrapair mating preferences and paternity favor older males. We explore the outsized success of extrapair males within the context of sexual selection favoring male longevity, a fitness component that is often attributed only to natural selection. Beluga Mouth Play: More Than Just A Game S. Dietrich 1, S. Garza 2, H. Hill 1 1. St. Mary's University, 2. University of Texas at San Antonio In a longitudinal study on the behavioral development of four beluga calves, we documented the spontaneous emergence of a rare affiliative motor play interaction between calves called the “mouth game”. This tug-of-war game has been anecdotally observed in various captive beluga environments, but its function and origin are unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the topography, developmental sequence, and developmental timing of this behavior. The mouth game emerged spontaneously and without observational learning in two 3month old calves raised with each other and their mothers, providing strong evidence that the mouth game is likely an innate developmental stage. Two calves born after the first demonstration of the "mouth game" also displayed this behavior at similar ages. We compared the frequency of the mouth game to other types of play. As expected, other types of play developed in complexity and increased in frequency over time. However, the mouth game emerged as a discrete event and occurred at inconsistent intervals that did not increase in frequency. These results suggest that the mouth game is different from other types of play displayed by belugas. Who’s your neighbour? Acoustic cues to individual identity in red squirrel rattle calls. SM Digweed 1,2 D Rendall 2, T Imbeau 1 1. Grant MacEwan University, 2. University of Lethbridge North American red squirrels often produce a territorial rattle call when conspecifics enter or invade. Previous playback experiments suggest that rattle calls may indicate an invader's identity as squirrels responded more to calls played from strangers than neighbors. This dear-enemy effect is well known and functions to reduce aggressive interactions between known neighbours. However, although previous experiments suggest some form of individual differentiation and recognition, detailed acoustic analysis of acoustic cues in rattle calls have not been conducted. If calls function to aid in conspecific identification in order to mitigate aggressive territorial interactions, we would expect that individual recognition cues would be acoustically represented.Our work provides a detailed discriminant function analysis of acoustic cues to identity within 225 rattle calls across 32 individual squirrels. A detailed analysis of clusters of neighbouring squirrels indicated a significant likelihood that calls were assigned correctly to specific squirrels (55-75% correctly assigned); in other words squirrels have distinct voices that should allow for identification and discrimination. Swamp smarts: discovering cryptic intelligence in crocodilians. V Dinets 1,2 1 Louisiana State University 2 University of Tennessee, Knoxville Crocodilians (crocodiles, alligators and their relatives) have usually been thought of as simple-minded, lethargic eating machines, commonly mistaken for plastic models by zoo visitors. This image is now rapidly changing.
  21. 21. During a six-year comparative study of multimodal communication in all extant crocodilian species and follow-up research, I discovered that (1) crocodilians engage in complex courtship "dances" involving up to a hundred individuals; (2) their sophisticated signaling system, which simultaneously utilizes five different physical channels, can be optimized for the most effective signal transmission depending on habitat parameters; (3) they are capable of mutual coordination and collaboration during cooperative hunting; (4) they use hunting tools. These findings provided insights into different aspects of crocodilian phylogeny, behavioral and morphological evolution, and social organization. Combined with recent discoveries by other researchers, such as complex parental care involving diverse signal repertoire and feeding the offspring, they show striking levels of cryptic behavioral complexity, and suggest impressive intelligence that cannot be detected by casual observations. Parental effort in relation to multiple sexual signals in blue-black grassquits P Diniz, RHF Macedo Universidade de Brasília Parental attractiveness influences paternal and maternal efforts in a wide range of taxa with biparental care. However, we still lack an understanding concerning the direction of the correlation between attractiveness and parental effort, possibly because studies usually consider only one of multiple ornaments. We investigated predictions of five hypotheses linking attractiveness (coloration, song and aerial display traits) and parental effort (feeding rates) in a wild population of blue-black grassquits (Volatinia jacarina), a Neotropical sexually dichromatic bird with biparental care. Paternal effort was negatively related to male coloration (ultraviolet-blue chroma, low hue) and positively related to one male song attribute (central frequency), suggesting that males carry redundant information about paternal investment. Interestingly, maternal effort was positively related to a third male trait (blue-black plumage coverage). These results are more consistent with the positive differential allocation hypothesis, which predicts that high male attractiveness should be associated with low paternal and high maternal investment. Juvenile exposure to pathogens affects the presence of personality in field crickets N DiRienzo 1, PT Niemelä 2, AV Hedrick 1, A Vainikka 2, R Kortet 2 1. University of California, Davis, 2. University of Eastern Finland Over the last decade the study of consistent differences in individual behavior, or "animal personalities,” has been a major focus of behavioral ecology research. While we now know personalities are present across a range of taxa, little is known about how early experience affects adult personality. Here we explore how exposure to pathogens at two moments in development influence two attributes of personality: the mean behavioral types of exposed versus control individuals, and consistency individuals’ behavior tendencies. Specifically, we test how exposure to a bacterial pathogen (Serratia marcescens) influences adult personality in the cricket, Gryllus integer. After maturation we conducted two boldness trials to assess individual personality type and the consistency of behavior. After the behavioral trials we measured encapsulation response and phenoloxidase activity as proxies for immune function. Our results suggest that juvenile exposure to pathogens does affect consistency of adult behavior. In particular, whether we were able to detect consistent individual differences in behavior or not depended on exposure history, and whether this exposure occurred as adults or juveniles. The contribution of additive genetic variation to personality variation NA Dochtermann 1, T Schwab 1 1. North Dakota State U Considerable recent research in behavioral ecology has focused on understanding the proximate and ultimate causes and consequences of personality variation. Much of this research has assumed an underlying genetic basis for personality variation and a handful of studies have explicitly estimated the quantitative genetics of personality. More frequently personality researchers (and evolutionary ecologists in general) have used repeatability as a proxy for heritability. Thus, unfortunately, the general validity of the assumption that additive genetic variance underlies personality differences has not previously been examined. Here, using meta-analysis, we estimated the degree to which repeatability approximates heritability and the relative contribution of additive genetic variation to personality variation. We found that repeatability and heritability were generally concordant (rp = 0.85) and that, across studies, 60% of personality variation was attributable to additive genetic variation.