RENAISSANC E Architectural Theories and their work by MARION PALAMEÑA
GEOGRAPHY • FLOREN CE • FRANCE • GERMAN Y • ENGLAN D • RUSSIA • OTHER
THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD• Renaissance (1400–1500); also known as the Quattrocento and sometimes Early Renaissance• High Renaissance (1500–1525)• Mannerism (1520–1600)
RELIGIOUSINFLUENCES The return of the Pope from Avignon in 1377 and the resultant new emphasis on Rome as the center of Christian spirituality, brought about a boom in the building of churches in Rome such as had not taken place for nearly a thousand years.
BRUNELLESCHI The person generally credited with bringing about the Renaissance view of architecture is Filippo Brunellesci. Brunelleschi began to look at the world to see what the rules were that governed ones way of seeing. He observed that the way one sees regular structures such as the Baptistery of Florence and the tiled pavement surrounding it follows a mathematical order—linear perspective.
BRUNELLESCHIHe holds up a picture of the Baptistery painted on a panel, its backtowards you, and has you squint through a small hole in the painting.Through the hole you saw a mirror which reflected the painting itself soyou see the front of the painting in the mirror. Then Pippio whisks awaythe mirror so that you see the real Baptistery through the peephole andyou are amazed because they are so similar.
BRUNELLESCHIDifference between pictures before and after perspective
BRUNELLESCHI The entire theory of perspective can be developed from a single fact: that the apparent size of an object decreases with increasing distance from the eye. No written record exists from Brunelleschis experiments. He probably passed the method verbally to Masaccio, Masolino, and Donatello, who used it in their works.
BRUNELLESCHI Brunelleschi was the first architect to employ mathematical perspective to redefine Gothic and Romanesque space and to establish new rules of proportioning and symmetry. Although Brunelleschi was considered the main initiator of stylistic changes in Renaissance architecture, critics no longer consider him the "Father of the Renaissance".
BRUNELLESCHI DISTINGUISHED BY ITS 9 BAY LOGGIAHospital of the Innocents/ Founding
BRUNELLESCHI Soon other commissions came, the most important of which were the designs for the dome of the Cathedral of Florence (1419- 1436) and the Sagrestia Vecchia, or Old Sacristy of S. Lorenzo (1421-1440). As Brunelleschi began to build the dome, most people in Florence shook their heads and said it was impossible. There was no conceivable way to build a dome that size that would be self-supporting. Brunelleschi was undaunted, and his plans began to take form.
BRUNELLESCHIBrunelleschis design contained two shells for the dome, an inner shell madeof a lightweight material, and an outer shell of heavier wind-resistant materials. Bycreating two domes, Brunelleschi solved the problem of weight during constructionbecause workers could sit atop the inner shell to build the outer shell of the dome.
BRUNELLESCHI ingenius ring and To support the dome Brunelleschi devised an rib support from oak timbers. Although this type of support structure is common in modern engineering, his idea and understanding about the forces needed to sustain the dome was revolutionary. The rings hug both shells of the dome, and the supports run through them. Other than a few modifications to remove rotted wood, the supports still hold up the entire dome.
BRUNELLESCHI Another fear that a lot of people observing the construction had was how to actually get the bricks on the dome to stay up in the dome, and not fall to the ground during the construction. Once again, Brunelleschi had an ingenious idea that is common practice today, but revolutionary in its time. He created a herringbone pattern with the bricks that redirected the weight of the bricks outwards towards the domes supports, instead of downwards to the floor. By observing carefully the curve of the dome as it took shape, Brunelleschi was able to place this bricks in key areas.
BRUNELLESCHI Santo Spirito, Florencedesigned by Brunelleschi and finished by his followers Antonio Manetti, Giovanni da Gaiole, and Salvi dAndrea
RENAISSAINCE The Renaissance style places emphasis: on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of Classical antiquity and in particular, the architecture of Ancient Rome, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
RENAISSAINCE Quattrocento In the Quattrocento, concepts of architectural order were explored and rules were formulated. Characteristics of Renaissance Architecture. The study of classical antiquity led in particular to the adoption of Classical detail and ornamentation. Space, as an element of architecture, was utilised differently to the way it had been in the Middle Ages. Space was organised by proportional logic, its form and rhythm subject to geometry, rather than being created by intuition as in Medieval buildings. The prime example of this is the Basilica di San Lorenzo in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446).
VITRUVIUS(born c. 80–70 BC, died after c. 15 BCHigh renaissance
VITRIVIUS Vitruvius is famous for asserting in his book De architectura that a structure must exhibit the three qualities of firmitas, utilitas, venustas – that is, it must be solid, useful, beautiful. Vitruvius Pollio’s treatise De Architectura, was written circa 27 BC and is the only book of its kind to survive from antiquity. These extracts from Vitruvius comprise the first Book and his comments on what
VITRIVIUS The Ten Books on Architecture, a treatise written in Latin and Greek on architecture, dedicated to the emperor Augustus. According to Vitruvius, architecture is an imitation of nature. As birds and bees built their nests, so humans constructed housing from natural materials, that gave them shelter against the elements.
VITRIVIUSThe subjects of Vitruvius Ten Books, using modernterminology, are: Landscape architecture Construction materials Temples (Part 1) Temples (Part 2) Public places: square, meeting hall, theatre, park, gymnasium, harbour Private dwellings Finishes and colours Water supply Sundials and clocks Mechanical engineering
Leon Battista AlbertiFebruary 18, 1404 – April 20, 1472High renaissance
ALBERTI Leon Battista Alberti, born in Genoa (1402– 1472), was an important Humanist theoretician and designer whose book on architecture De re Aedificatoria was to have lasting effect. An aspect of Humanism was an emphasis of the anatomy of nature, in particular the human form, a science first studied by the Ancient Greeks. Humanism made man the measure of things. Alberti perceived the architect as a person with great social responsibilities.
ALBERTI The first treatise on architecture was De re aedificatoria(English: On the Art of Building) by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450. It was to some degree dependent on Vitruvius De architectura, a manuscript of which was discovered in 1414 in a library in Switzerland. De re aedificatoria in 1485 became the first printed book on
ALBERTIDe re aedificatoria(English: On the Art ofBuilding) Lineaments Materials Construction Public Works Works of Individuals Ornament Ornament to Sacred Buildings Ornament to Public Secular Build Ornament to Private Buildings
ALBERTI The first was Della pittura [On Painting] in 1435 in which he provided the first systematic exposition of the rules of one-point perspective and the theory of painting as grounded in visual experience with geometrical principles. The second was Della statua (On Sculpture) in 1436 (with a later version in 1450) in which he argued that statues are geometric imitations of nature and for which he worked out a canon of human proportions. Albertis own summary: Short: 1:1, 2:3, 3:4 Middling: 2:4. 4:9, 9:16 Long: 1:3, 3:8, 1:4
ALBERTIThe TempioMalatestiano The tall central element gives the impression of a basilican church. This may have been Albertis way of giving the church additional impact without making any structural changes on the interior.
ALBERTIDetails of the facade at the Church of SanFrancescodominant motif: the triple arch as in such a Roman monument as the Arch of Constantine.
ALBERTI The use of the arches on the facade and along the sides reveals another important aspect of Albertis study of ancient architecture and his position as a theorist. In his examination of Roman buildings He posited that arches are openings in walls and thus correctly rest on piers. By contrast, columns (and pilasters as theirThe distinction between the columns and counterparts) carry piers. entablatures (horizontal
ALBERTIThe New Facade of Santa MariaNovella, Florence The general view here reinforces our understanding that in Italy the facade of a building such as Santa Maria Novella was seen as belonging to the public space in front of the church, not as necessarily revealing anything about
ALBERTI The symbolic quality of the triumphal arch is clear; but even more important, Alberti fused it with a temple motif.
ALBERTI The Church of Sant Andrea, Mantua The facade accomplished its task by virtue of Albertis boldness in combining typologies from the ancient world into a new synthesis. To give the facade monumentality, he imposed on it a triumphal arch, not unlike the Arch of Titus in Rome. The symbolic quality of the triumphal arch is clear; but even more important, Alberti fused it with a temple motif.
ALBERTIAlbertis design for the church did not end, of course, with the facade, butcontinued with a new interpretation of the cruciform plan. Wishing to avoid thenotion of an arcade on columns, regardless of the frequency of such a solutioneven among other Renaissance architects, Alberti reintroduced the triumphalarch motif on the interior in an overlapping ABABA rhythm.
Andrea Palladio30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580Mannerism
PALLADIO Published I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura (The Four Books of Architecture) in Venice. This book was widely printed and responsible to a great degree of spreading the ideas of the Renaissance through Europe. All these books were intended to be read and studied not only by architects, but also by patrons. From his principle, Palladio said all architecture should have "Firmness, Commodity, and Delight."
PALLADIO Due to the new demand for villas in the sixteenth century, Palladio specialized in domestic architecture. Palladios villas are often centrally planned, drawing on Roman models of country villas. Palladio based his principle design on classicism, like Vitruvius and Alberti. He mostly focused in building villas and churches.
PALLADIO True Palladianism" in Villa Godi by Palladio. The extending wings are agricultural buildings and are not part of the villa. In the 18th century they became an important part of Palladianism. Palladio always designed his villas with reference to their setting. If on a hill, such as Villa Capra, facades were frequently designed to be of equal value so that occupants could have fine views in all directions.
PALLADIO Porticos on both sides Double loggia Façade elevation were like roman temple dual purpose: farmhouses and palatial weekend retreats Design of the whole- square Observes proportionality and symmetry Rooms are in 3:4 and 4:5 ratio
PALLADIOThe Palladian, or Serlian, arch or window, as interpreted by Palladio Roman dities in top of the porticco
Giorgio Vasari30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574Mannerism
VASARI Vasaris Le Vite de più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori (Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects) It included a valuable treatise on the technical methods employed in the arts.
VASARI In Florence, Vasari also built the long passage, now called Vasari Corridor, which connects the Uffizi with the Palazzo Pitti on the other side of the river.
RENAISSAQNCE ARCHITECTURECHARACTERISTICS Classicism Square, Symmetrical and Proportional Plans Symmetrical arrangement of windows and doors Extensive use of Classical columns and pilasters Triangular pediments Square lintels Arches Domes Niches with sculptures Piers
BUILDING MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM Bricks Pietra Sirena Timber Stone Marble
Comparative Analysis PLAN square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions FAÇADE Façades are symmetrical around their vertical axis. Church façades are generally surmounted by a pediment and organised by a system of pilasters, arches and entablatures. The columns and windows show a progression towards the centre. COLUMNS and PILASTERS The Roman orders of columns are used:- Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite.
Comparative Analysis CEILINGS Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted or decorated. DOORS Doors usually have square lintels. They may be set within an arch or a triangular or segmental pediment. Openings that do not have doors are usually arched and frequently have a large or decorative keystone. WINDOWS Windows may be paired and set within a semi- circular arch. They may have squarelintels and triangular or segmental pediments, which are often used alternately.
Comparative Analysis WALLS External walls are generally of highly-finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight courses. Internal walls are smoothly plastered and surfaced with white-chalk paint. For more formal spaces, internal surfaces are decorated with frescoes. DETAILS Courses, moldings and all decorative details are carved with great precision. Studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance theory. The different orders each required different sets of details. Some architects were stricter in their use of classical details than others, but there was also a good deal of innovation in solving problems, especially at corners. Moldings stand out around doors and windows rather than being recessed, as in Gothic Architecture. Sculptured figures may be set in niches or placed on plinths. They are not integral to the building as in Medieval architecture.