Instructional design and Dick and Carey model and ARCS model project
By Mario Carrizo
Definition Instructional design is define basically as the person who teaches, designs or develops instructions. Instructional designers use abstract tools and physical tools to create instructions for educators, hospitals, military installations, businesses, and to train others.
ARCS Model Description It was created by John Keller and was used to help educators by guiding and analyzing the concepts, and designing different strategies to help and motivate the learners out.
ARCS Brief History Before ARCS Model was made, there was no instruction for educators on how to motivate the student nor a method or model to follow. Educators were not motivating their students enough nor was there instructional design tools or programs for it. John Keller, who was an Educational Researcher from Florida, took the task to research and develop a model for educators to enhance the motivation of their learners.
How is ARCS Used ARCS model is used by assisting instructional designers or educators with their objective lessons by developing activities and use of strategies as a guide to teach or motivate their learners to promote learning. ARCS model is divided into 4 steps: Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction
ARCS Model - Attention Is a strategy to help the learner by giving them different activities to keep them interested. Attention methods can be from giving specific examples, up to putting them in group work to do the activity.
ARCS Model - Relevance Is a strategy to help the learner by telling them the benefits that can be gained if they do the activity, and how it will help them in their daily lives.
ARCS Model - Confidence Is a strategy to help the learner or motivate them to what they will expect from doing this activity. By giving them an objective or benefit to pursue, the learner will have the desire to want to study.
ARCS Model - Satisfaction Is a strategy to help the learner by giving them the experience of this activity once they are done.
ACRS Model Strength & Weakness Strengths: Model is easy to follow. Enough time to complete student research and to have student complete the assignment. Allows the learner to choose the material to learn and the teachers to help out if they have problems. Teacher ‘s accountability.
ARCS Model Strength & Weakness Weakness: The attendants – who are the people youre trying to teach. If the teacher does not know who the audience is then its going to be difficult to grasp their attention. This by itself is very important factor because without motivation there is no interest. Teacher traits – if the teacher is willingly to help these students with the subject. In order for a teacher to motivate the student, they must be creative with the subject. Financial constraints – if there is no money to pay the teacher or the educator to teach the student. In other words, to be able to help the educator to teach the student they need to have money to pay the teacher to do so.
Dick and Carey Model Brief HistorySince 1968, several versions of Dick and Carey model has beendeveloped. As years passed, this model has been modify so it canbe used in businesses, and industry related jobs. In 1996, themodel of Dick and Carey changed once again with somemodifications that helped with procedures and concepts of themodel. Now days, parts of Dick and Carey model is still used andhas helped shape another model like Kirkpatrick model. Howeverin spite of that, instructional design and educators teaches Dickand Carey along with ADDIE, ARCS, and other models to designersand educators among others today.
Dick and Carey Model Description Dick and Carey model can be described as an organized model. It gives educators or designers step-by-step instructions of what the purpose of their objective is, and the learners to learn up to the end-result.
How Dick and Carey Model is Used Dick and Carey Model is used by nine stages: Stage I: Identify instructional goals What is the purpose of this goal? What do you want the learner to accomplish when they reached their objective goal. Stage II: Conduct instructional analysis Provide the learner a systematic process on how to reach the desire goal, and give out the knowledge or skills they need to achieve the goal.
How the Dick & Carey Model is Used (Cont…) Stage III: Analyze learners and contexts Find out the strength and skills of the learner on the topic. Also, find out what is the learners approach to the topic and the attitude towards the topic. Stage IV: Write performance objectives You want to write a goal objective so the learner can know what he/she is supposed to reach at the end of their objective goal.
How the Dick & Carey Model is Used (Cont…) Stage V: Develop assessment instruments. You want to create an assessment or test that goes with the goal of the objective. This will demonstrate if your lesson plans objective has been achieved. Stage VI: Develop instructional strategy. You want to create a strategy on how to teach it in order for the learner to reach their goal objective. You can teach it by demonstrating how to do it and have the learner follow, etc.
How the Dick & Carey Model is Used (Cont…) Stage VII: Develop and select instruction What are the best materials needed to accomplish the objective goal. Stage VIII: Design and conduct a formative evaluation Use collected information that was used previously, so you can improve the instruction objective. Basically, you are evaluating your instruction to see if it is going to work while doing it.
How the Dick & Carey Model is Used (Cont…) Stage IX: Revised instruction If you need to change your instruction in order for the learner to reach their goal more effectively. Stage X: Design and Conduct a Summative Evaluation Did the instruction of the goal objective work? Basically, youre trying to see if your objective goal work and can the learner do the same objective goal later after completed it.
Dick and Carey Model Strength & Weakness Strengths: This model gives a lot of planning of the objectives, so the learner can complete it successfully. The model works as a whole. The educator needs to do all the stages in order for the objective goal to work. This model can be used with either large or small audience and can be taught to any person.
Dick and Carey Model Strength & Weakness Weakness: This model gives a lot of emphasis on the objective or instruction on how to reach the goal, and planning the objective to reach that goal. Another weakness of this model is that you need time to complete each stage and have good coordination in order to be successful.
Compare and Contrast of Both Models Comparison: Both models need to have an audience to work. Both models use objective plan for the students to learn. Both models have different steps to follow in order to achieve the final goal. Both models need time to assess their processes in order to see if they work properly. Both models need the student to be motivated in order to be successful. Both models instruct the learner what to expect at the end of the lesson. Both models need an instructor to teach the lesson for the model to work. Both models require the learner to achieve the intended goal and end experience. Both models give the learner the experience to learn from the lesson.
Compare and Contrast of Both Models Contrast: ARCS model is used to motivate the learners contrary to the Dick and Carey Model that is used for organizing your objective, so the learner reaches its goals. Time is a primary factor for both models; but the Dick and Carey Model seems to have more steps to follow in order to complete the lesson plan objective properly. ARCS model is very clear to follow on the contrary of Dick and Carey which is more complex to understand because of the many steps to follow. In ARCS model the teacher personality is a big factor for the student to learn the subject while the Dick and Carey model is the student own desire to learn. In ARCS model, not having the finance to pay a teacher to teach or motivate the learner can be a issue, but not with Dick and Carey Model.