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War And Society


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War And Society

  1. 1. War and Society Economic and Social Effects of the Civil War
  2. 2. Economic effects of the war <ul><li>Although both sides experienced difficulties during the war, the South was the hardest hit: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food shortages hurt civilians and soldiers alike </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation caused prices to rise by 9000 percent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves resisted by slowing the work pace or escaping, hurting the economy further </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Northerners have to sacrifice as well, but the Union has a few major advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War production boosts Northern industry and strengthens the economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The federal government also steps in to help pay for the war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First income tax (1861) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New paper currency, aka “greenbacks” (1862) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Opposition to the war rises… <ul><li>SOUTH </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners grew very weary of the war and the sacrifices they had to make </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By the end of 1863, nearly 40 percent of troops had left the army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In addition, the principle of states’ rights hurt the Confederate war effort </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disagreements between states made it more difficult to coordinate the war effort – no clear leader! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NORTH </li></ul><ul><li>Not all Northerners supported the war either! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about the Election of 1864 (Lincoln vs. McClellan) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s main opponents in the North were “Copperheads” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copperhead = poisonous snake that strikes without warning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol for Northerners who sympathized with the South...seen as traitors! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. “Copperheads” in the North &quot;Annihilation to Traitors,&quot; screams the American Eagle as it watches various creatures hatching in its nest enfolded in the American flag. Various southern secession leaders are named, while a copperhead snake, prepares to strike at the national symbol. The Union states are represented as healthy eggs, holding out promise for the future.
  5. 5. Draft laws! <ul><li>In 1863, both North and South passed laws of conscription requiring men to serve in the armed forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although the North had a larger overall population, they still needed more soldiers as the war dragged on and the casualties piled up… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In addition, the North offered $300 “bounties” (cash rewards) to those who volunteered to fight instead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, fewer men were drafted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both sides allowed for draftees to hire substitutes to take their place…. why was this a problem? </li></ul>
  6. 6. What a riot… Angered by the fact that rich men were virtually exempt form the draft, frightened by the prospect of job competition from freed southern slaves, and frustrated by the lack of resolution on the battlefield, working men took to the streets in New York City during the summer of 1863 to protest against the war. Well-dressed men, African Americans, and leading war advocates were the main targets of mob violence during three nights of uncontrolled rioting. As this illustration shows, federal troops finally put down the rioting in a series of battles around the city. (Collection of Picture Research Consultants & Archives)
  7. 7. Women and the war <ul><li>Women played key roles in the war effort, serving as nurses, volunteer relief workers, and even spies…. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Treating Civil War Casualties Wounded at Fredericksburg In this photograph, taken outside an army hospital in Fredericksburg, Virginia, one of the many women who served as nurses during the Civil War sits with some of her wounded charges. Medical facilities and treatment for the wounded were woefully inadequate; most of those who were not killed outright by the primitive surgical practices of the day either died from their wounds or from secondary infections. (Library of Congress)
  9. 9. Civil War Camps Salisbury, North Carolina Civil War prison camps were not all deprivation. This illustration shows Union prisoners of war playing baseball. (Library of Congress) Andersonville, Georgia More than 13,000 soldiers died of starvation and disease at Andersonville, the most infamous prison of the Civil War