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Segregation and Discrimination


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Segregation and Discrimination

  1. 1. Segregation and Discrimination Racism in the Gilded Age (and beyond)
  2. 2. Roots of Racism in the Gilded Age <ul><li>Failures of Reconstruction allow racism to expand in the post-Civil War South… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharecropping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence of the KKK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African Americans move west looking for opportunity, but what happens to those who are left behind? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The rise of Jim Crow <ul><li>Jim Crow laws : laws meant to enforce the segregation of schools and other public places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation: separation of blacks and whites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Crow: figure from the 1830s, symbol for inferiority of African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combined with laws restricting the right of African Americans to vote, this created an atmosphere of legalized racial discrimination! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) <ul><li>Homer Plessy sues railroad company for segregating seating, arguing it violates the 14 th Amendment… case goes to the Supreme Court! </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court ruling: “separate but equal” facilities do not violate 14 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Crow laws are legitimized by the ruling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result: nearly every aspect of life in the South becomes segregated by law </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. “Separate but equal” <ul><li>How equal are these facilities in reality? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Racism in North and South <ul><li>System of segregation continues until the Civil Rights period and are “enforced” by state authorities as well as groups like KKK </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 2,500 African Americans lynched between 1885 and 1900 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>While segregation is not legal, racism is also present in the North… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White-only neighborhoods </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Resistance to racism <ul><li>Efforts to achieve equality for African Americans emerged in late 19 th century, inspiring civil rights leaders for years to come </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ida B. Wells (1862-1931) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Washington vs. DuBois <ul><li>Booker T. Washington </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born into slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became teacher after Civil War; founded Tuskegee Institute (1881) in Alabama to help African Americans learn trades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not openly challenge segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed “self help” was the key to equality, even if it meant doing so in a separate community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>W.E.B. DuBois </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born after slavery into middle class family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard-educated scholar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged African Americans to reject segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed educated African Americans (a.k.a. the “Talented Tenth”) should lead fight for equality; established NAACP in 1909 to lead reform movement </li></ul></ul>What similarities and differences existed between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois in their fight for equality?