SOCIAL
SCIENCES
HISTORY
what man has done
POLITICAL
SCIENCE
how man governs
ECONOMICS
PSYCHOLOGY SOCIOLOGY
ANTHROPOLOGY
ho...
QUESTION
HYPOTHESIS
EXPERIMENT
RESULTS
CONCLUSIONS
THEORY
additional
hypothesis
reject/revise
hypothesis
others replicate ...
Ancient Greece.
Socrates suggested that man “know thyself” – a
process of introspection by “looking within” to
examine our...
During the Middle Ages emotions and behaviors were thought to be
inspired by spiritual forces.
The Age of Enlightenment re...
Structuralism (Wilhelm Wundt) – the basic elements of
consciousness are divided between objective sensations
(sight and ta...
Evolutionary: investigates how primal survival instincts can influence
behavior
Biological: focuses primarily on the
activ...
Psychodynamic: emphasizes internal unconscious conflicts; the
emphasis is on sexual and aggressive instincts that collide ...
Cognitive: focuses on the mechanisms through
which people receive, store, and process information
Behavioral: examines the...
Psychologists approach their various subjects with a number of presuppositions
 The Nature of Man: an issue of philosophy...
Assumption: Adaptive organisms survive and transmit their genes to future
generations
Applications:
 Applies Darwin’s ide...
 William James: “the father of psychology”; adaptive behavior
patterns are learned and maintained because they are succes...
Assumption: biological/physiological processes influence behavior and
mental processes
Applications:
 Stanley Schachter: ...
 Hans Eysenck: the importance
of genetics; intelligence is
inherited
 William James: humans share common instincts
(e.g....
Assumption: unconscious motives and conflicts influence behavior
Applications:
 Sigmund Freud: free association (patient ...
 Carl Jung: unconscious consisted of two components—a personal
(or individual) one and a collective one: cultures had sim...
Assumption: people make free and conscious choices based on their
unique experiences; human behavior is primarily determin...
Assumption: perceptions and thoughts influence behavior; how people
process information and images is part of our “mental
...
 Lawrence Kohlberg: explains moral development through a period of
stages
The central idea of the cognitive approach is o...
Assumption: personal experience and reinforcement guide individual
development; it is not what a person thinks, but what h...
 Ivan Pavlov: developed the idea of “psychic reflexes” whereby an
action can bring about an unrelated action; classical c...
Assumption: socio-cultural, biological, and psychological factors create
individual differences
Applications:
 Solomon As...
Which of these approaches serves Psychology best?
Psychology
Evolutionary
Biological
Psychodynamic
HumanistCognitive
Behav...
Psychologists must choose research methodology that is not only
scientifically sound but also suitable for the topic. Each...
Laboratory Study
Participants are observed in a laboratory setting
Independent variable: the factor that the experimenter...
Survey Method
People respond to a series of questions about a particular subject
Sample: a group that represents a larger...
Naturalistic Observation
Researchers observe the behavior of people or animals in their natural habitat
Correlation: a me...
Case Study
Researchers conduct in-depth investigations of individuals or small groups
Method provides background
informat...
Psychological Test
Tests provide accurate, objective
information—there is little chance
of distorting results
Convenient...
Longitudinal Method
A group of participants is observed at intervals over an extended period of time
Method provides info...
Cross-sectional Method
Researchers compare the differences and similarities among people in different
age groups at a give...
Problems and Solutions in Research
Avoiding a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a
situation in which...
The Placebo Effect. A change in a participant’s illness or behavior
that results from a belief that the treatment will hav...
Socrates
http://www.kidspast.com/images/socrates.jpg
Aristotle
http://westernparadigm.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/aristotl...
Darwin
http://oreh.pef.uni-lj.si/~markor/Darwin/Charles_Darwin.jpg
William James
http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/resources...
Jean Piaget
http://lakeplacidcsd.net/lpcsweb/highschool/dev.web/piaget.jpg
Albert Bandura
http://news-service.stanford.edu...
SELECTEDBIBLIOGRAPHY
IntroductiontoPsychology
Belch, Hal. What is Psychology?: Psychology Approaches. Culver City,
CA: Soc...
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  1. 1. SOCIAL SCIENCES HISTORY what man has done POLITICAL SCIENCE how man governs ECONOMICS PSYCHOLOGY SOCIOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY how man makes a living how man thinks and acts as an individual how man thinks as acts in a group what makes groups of men similar and dissimilar
  2. 2. QUESTION HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT RESULTS CONCLUSIONS THEORY additional hypothesis reject/revise hypothesis others replicate and test theories
  3. 3. Ancient Greece. Socrates suggested that man “know thyself” – a process of introspection by “looking within” to examine our own thoughts and feelings to act in a way consistent with what each believes is right Aristotle outlined the laws of associationism (a learned connection between two ideas or events)
  4. 4. During the Middle Ages emotions and behaviors were thought to be inspired by spiritual forces. The Age of Enlightenment re-introduced science to philosophical and scientific thought: rationalism emphasized reason over faith in direct contradiction with Middle Ages thought
  5. 5. Structuralism (Wilhelm Wundt) – the basic elements of consciousness are divided between objective sensations (sight and taste) and subjective feelings (emotional responses and mental images) Functionalism (William James) – study of mental processes (functions or purposes of consciousness) Inheritable Traits (Francis Galton) – heredity determines a person’s personality and behavior Gestalt : perception (consciousness) is more than the sum of its parts, it involves the “whole pattern”
  6. 6. Evolutionary: investigates how primal survival instincts can influence behavior Biological: focuses primarily on the activities of the nervous system, the brain, hormones, and genetics
  7. 7. Psychodynamic: emphasizes internal unconscious conflicts; the emphasis is on sexual and aggressive instincts that collide with cultural norms (socially acceptable behavior) Humanistic: emphasizes an individuals potential for growth and the role of perception in guiding mental processes and behaviors
  8. 8. Cognitive: focuses on the mechanisms through which people receive, store, and process information Behavioral: examines the learning process, focusing in particular on the influence of rewards and punishments Sociocultural: explores how behavior is shaped by history, society and culture
  9. 9. Psychologists approach their various subjects with a number of presuppositions  The Nature of Man: an issue of philosophy  The Nature of the Question: an matter of purpose  The Nature of the Resources: a question of procedure
  10. 10. Assumption: Adaptive organisms survive and transmit their genes to future generations Applications:  Applies Darwin’s ideas of Natural Selection (an evolutionary process in which individuals of a species that are best adapted to their environments are the ones most likely to survive; they then pass on their traits to their offspring) to Psychology
  11. 11.  William James: “the father of psychology”; adaptive behavior patterns are learned and maintained because they are successful  David Buss: a core principle of Psychological adaptation involves an organism’s need to reproduce
  12. 12. Assumption: biological/physiological processes influence behavior and mental processes Applications:  Stanley Schachter: studied eating behaviors by manipulating external cues to determine effects on eating Howard Gardner: studied brain damage and neurological disorders; different parts of the brain have different functions; created theory of multiple intelligences
  13. 13.  Hans Eysenck: the importance of genetics; intelligence is inherited  William James: humans share common instincts (e.g. curiosity, parental love, sympathy, etc.) which are passed genetically from generation to generation  Masters and Johnson: studied human sexuality
  14. 14. Assumption: unconscious motives and conflicts influence behavior Applications:  Sigmund Freud: free association (patient is instructed to say anything that comes into his mind) relieves the operation o the mental process by bringing the unconscious to the conscious
  15. 15.  Carl Jung: unconscious consisted of two components—a personal (or individual) one and a collective one: cultures had similar archetypes (cultural symbols that appear to be nearly universal and that are stored in collective unconscious  Erik Erikson: people go through certain psychological crises at different phases of development, each crisis needs to be resolved before a person can progress to the next stage of development
  16. 16. Assumption: people make free and conscious choices based on their unique experiences; human behavior is primarily determined by one’s environment Applications:  Carl Rogers: human behavior is governed by ‘self-concept’—the image a person has of himself  Abraham Maslow: people have a “hierarchy of needs”, beginning with the basics (food, shelter), progressing to the “higher” (love, self-esteem, understanding), and culminating in self-actualization
  17. 17. Assumption: perceptions and thoughts influence behavior; how people process information and images is part of our “mental programming” Applications:  Jean Piaget: people develop through different stages, at different rates  Albert Bandura: social cognition theory (a form of learning in which the person observes and imitates the behaviors of others); people approach a situation based on “expectancies” learned from previous experiences
  18. 18.  Lawrence Kohlberg: explains moral development through a period of stages The central idea of the cognitive approach is one of a logical progression—whether applied to personality, morality, or behavior
  19. 19. Assumption: personal experience and reinforcement guide individual development; it is not what a person thinks, but what he does Applications:  John Watson: psychology must be limited to overt, observable behavior; controlling a person’s environment would influence him in a certain direction
  20. 20.  Ivan Pavlov: developed the idea of “psychic reflexes” whereby an action can bring about an unrelated action; classical conditioning  B.F. Skinner: behavior is strongly influenced by rewards and punishment
  21. 21. Assumption: socio-cultural, biological, and psychological factors create individual differences Applications:  Solomon Asch: people tend to conform to other people’s ides of truth even when they disagree with those truths  Stanley Milgram: people will change their behavior at the request of— or even in the presence of— someone they perceive to be an authority figure
  22. 22. Which of these approaches serves Psychology best? Psychology Evolutionary Biological Psychodynamic HumanistCognitive Behavorial Sociocultural
  23. 23. Psychologists must choose research methodology that is not only scientifically sound but also suitable for the topic. Each type has advantages and disadvantages. Interview Researchers study people face to face by asking questions Researchers can obtain personal, detailed information Subjects’ responses may not be completely honest Researchers’ biases can influence behavior
  24. 24. Laboratory Study Participants are observed in a laboratory setting Independent variable: the factor that the experimenter manipulates or changes in a study Dependent variable: the factor in a study that changes or varies as a result of changes in the independent variable Experimental group: the group on which the critical part of the experiment is performed Control group: the group that does not participate in the critical part of the experiment Researcher can be completely Objective Method usually provides accurate Information Setting is somewhat artificial; may not reflect the “real world”
  25. 25. Survey Method People respond to a series of questions about a particular subject Sample: a group that represents a larger group Representative sample: a group that truly represents a selected characteristic of a larger population Stratified sample: subgroups in the population are represented proportionally in the sample Researchers can gather information on feelings, opinions, and behavior patterns Results can be amazingly accurate Allows for a large number of subjects Survey’s sample may not be representative of population as a whole Questions may not be phrased objectively Interpretation of results may be distorted
  26. 26. Naturalistic Observation Researchers observe the behavior of people or animals in their natural habitat Correlation: a measure of how closely one thing is related to another Causation: how one event makes another event happen Behavior is completely natural Researchers cannot interact with subjects and my interpret subjects’ responses incorrectly No control over the setting or the events that occur
  27. 27. Case Study Researchers conduct in-depth investigations of individuals or small groups Method provides background information that may shed light on present behavior Subjects’ responses may not be completely honest Researchers’ biases can influence behavior May focus on isolated circumstances or events that cannot be replicated
  28. 28. Psychological Test Tests provide accurate, objective information—there is little chance of distorting results Convenient Tests are limited in the amount of information they can obtain Does not always provide a complete representation of an individual’s true abilities or personality
  29. 29. Longitudinal Method A group of participants is observed at intervals over an extended period of time Method provides information needed for certain kinds of research, such as studies on development Enables researchers to see how individuals change over time Method is expensive and time consuming Participants may not be available for the duration of the study
  30. 30. Cross-sectional Method Researchers compare the differences and similarities among people in different age groups at a given time Method provides information needed for certain kinds of research, such as studies on development Enables researchers to see how individuals change over time Method is expensive and time consuming Participants may not be available for the duration of the study
  31. 31. Problems and Solutions in Research Avoiding a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a situation in which a researcher’s expectations influence that person’s own behavior, and thereby influence the participant’s behavior. This can be minimized by: Single-blind experiment: an experiment in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment Double-blind experiment: an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received the treatment
  32. 32. The Placebo Effect. A change in a participant’s illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather than the actual treatment. The Milgram Experience. Researchers must follow ethical guidelines in experimentation experimenter subject “answerer”actor
  33. 33. Socrates http://www.kidspast.com/images/socrates.jpg Aristotle http://westernparadigm.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/aristotle.jpg?w=263&h=315 Wilhelm Wundt http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/resources/Wilhelm_Wundt.gif William James http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/resources/William_James.GIF Francis Galton http://www.reproductive-revolution.com/francis-galton.png Terapias Gestalt http://www.terapiasnaturales.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/gestalt.jpg Evolution http://daily.swarthmore.edu/static/uploads/by_date/2009/02/19/evolution.jpg Nervous System http://www.capitalcitychiro.net/images/stock/nervous%20system.gif Middle Ages Exorcism http://www.australianparanormalsociety.com/news/wp-content/uploads/am4.jpg Age of Enlightenment http://www.memo.fr/Media/MOD_LUM_000.jpg Brain (cartoon) http://www.st-augustines.worcs.sch.uk/images/Departments/psychology/psych_2.jpg Good v. Evil http://www.blacksunjournal.com/wp-content/images/1506l.jpg Group Hug http://graphics.tomrue.net/images/group-hug.jpg Lab rat http://www.101usesforajohnhoward.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/07/25labrat.gif Herd http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_1V7wnZxPqok/RoOCiW5wfoI/AAAAAAAAFPc/1MdGesWwUJM/s400/herd-of-sheep.jpg PHOTOCREDITS IntroductiontoPsychology
  34. 34. Darwin http://oreh.pef.uni-lj.si/~markor/Darwin/Charles_Darwin.jpg William James http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/resources/William_James.GIF David Buss http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/0204/020904bussdavid.jpg Stanley Schachter http://www.socialpsychology.org/images/socialfigures/schachter.gif Howard Gardner http://www.howardgardner.com/images/Howard%20Gardner%20Compressed.jpg Hans Eysenck http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1f/Hans.Eysenck.jpg/200px-Hans.Eysenck.jpg William James http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/questionofgod/images/voices/james_sidebar.jpg Masters and Johnson http://images.stltoday.com/stltoday/resources/sex625may3.jpg Sigmund Freud http://blog.syracuse.com/shelflife/2008/05/freud.jpg Carl Jung http://www.crystalinks.com/jung.jpg Erik Erikson http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic20826.files/Erikson2.jpg Carl rogers http://www.myers-online.de/myers/zeitleiste/images/vRogers.jpg Abraham Maslow http://quangkhoi.net/learningcenter/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/maslow1.jpg PHOTOCREDITS IntroductiontoPsychology
  35. 35. Jean Piaget http://lakeplacidcsd.net/lpcsweb/highschool/dev.web/piaget.jpg Albert Bandura http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2007/december5/gifs/graw_bandura.jpg Lawrence Kohlberg http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/features/images/kohlberg_lecture.gif John Watson http://www.nndb.com/people/078/000030985/john-b-watson-1-sized.jpg Ivan Pavlov http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/pavlov.jpg B.F. Skinner http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.psychology.uiowa.edu/Faculty/wasserman/Glossary/skinner.jpg&imgr efurl=http://www.psychology.uiowa.edu/Faculty/wasserman/Glossary/homepage.html&usg=__kkqrz4g- NzKQbOC4D3GR1mJe5ZE=&h=316&w=319&sz=24&hl=en&start=1&tbnid=T29QO16IxvOGLM:&tbnh=117&tbnw=118&pr ev=/images%3Fq%3Db%2Bf%2Bskinner%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26hl%3Den Solomon Asch http://aschcenter.blogs.brynmawr.edu/files/2008/10/aschpipeforweb.jpg Stanley Milgram http://www3.niu.edu/acad/psych/Millis/History/2003/Milgram_head.gif PHOTOCREDITS IntroductiontoPsychology
  36. 36. SELECTEDBIBLIOGRAPHY IntroductiontoPsychology Belch, Hal. What is Psychology?: Psychology Approaches. Culver City, CA: Social Studies School Service. 2004 Kasschau, Richard A. Understanding Psychology. New York, NY: Glencoe McGraw-Hill. 2003 Rathus, Spencer A. Psychology: Principles in Practice. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 2003

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