Research Methods Ch2 - Slide 1

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Research Methods Ch2 - Slide 1

  1. 1. The Science of Psychology # 7 What Makes Psychology a Science? # 8 Three Principles of Scientific Endeavor # 9 Scientific Method in Psychology # 10 The Experimental Method # 11 Copy Figure 2.3 "Steps in Conducting an Experiment" # 12 Descriptive Research Methods # 13 Copy Table 2.1 "Examples of Descriptive Research Methods" p. 42 # 14 What Ethical Principles Guide Psychology Research? # 15 read & answer p. 53 "Should Non-Human Animals Be Used in Research?" # 16 get Chapter 02 Test Review Sheet off teacher's website and complete
  2. 2. # 7 What Makes Psychology a Science? Psychologists use scientific principles, methods, and procedures to be able to predict how people will behave. Decade of BEHAVIOR: 2000-2010 Overt Behaviors -- include walking, gesturing, talking, even emotional reactions like laughing or crying. Must be easily observable. empiricism-- knowledge achieved through careful observation theory-- collection of interrelated ideas and observations that help explain and predict behavior or mental processes.
  3. 3. #8 Three Principles of Scientific Endeavor Objectivity Systematic Observation Replicability
  4. 4. Objectivity Evaluating research and theory on their own merits without personal bias Did the referee do a good job?
  5. 5. Systematic Observation carefully setting up how data will be collected How do you evaluate a book?
  6. 6. Replicability must be able to confirm findings through repeated observations
  7. 7. # 9 Scientific Method in Psychology Situation State the Problem Develop a Hypothesis Design a Study Collect & Analyze Data Draw Conclusions & Report Results TRY AN EXAMPLE
  8. 8. # 9 Scientific Method in Psychology Situat ion State the Problem Develop a Hypothesis Design a Study Collect & Analyze Data Draw Conclusio ns & Report Results
  9. 9. # 10 The Experimental Method EXPERIMENT procedure in which researchers systematically manipulate and observe elements of a situation (variables) in order to test a hypothesis and establish CAUSE & EFFECT independent variable dependent variable sample random assignment operational definition participants experimental group control group Try an Example TERMS
  10. 10. # 10 The Experimental Method Match up the term with the example next to it that best matches up with it. Assume we are conducting an experiment on the effects of drinking alcohol and playing Guitar Hero.
  11. 11. # 12 Descriptive Research Methods Major Types surveys case studies naturalistic observation ex post facto studies correlational studies
  12. 12. surveys gather large amounts of information quickly Interviews Written questionnaires Telephone calls Computer surveys
  13. 13. case studies intensive observation & analysis of one person uniqueness of individual hard to generalize to others What if participant dies?
  14. 14. naturalistic observation goal is to watch behavior as it occurs in real world people change when they know they are being watched must blend into background to be successful
  15. 15. ex post facto studies allows researchers to describe differences among groups of individuals gender age ethnicity etc. could all be used in this type of research Limitation is that is does NOT show the causes of any differences
  16. 16. correlational studies used to determine the strength of a relationship between two variables one goes up; the other goes up = positive one goes up; the other goes down = negative Type Example Positive Correlation height and shoe size Negative Correlation Golf skill and Golf score limitation = just b/c 2 variables are correlated doesn't mean one causes the other
  17. 17. # 14 What Ethical Principles Guide Psychology Research? Ethics rules about proper conduct used in research APA -- (American Psychological Assoc.) is the group that sets guidelines Informed Consent must get participants permission It must also be with full information including all risks that might be involved and that they can stop at any time. Debriefing after experiment, people must be told all about the study can deception be used? Generally NO, but sometimes information is withheld if it will bias the person's response.

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