Educational Psychology
Define and contrast descriptive, correlational
and experimental studies, giving examples of how
eac...
Educational Psychology
In your discussion,
define and differentiate the following terms: fact,
concept, principle, hypothe...
There are a variety of ways of validating
truth:
• Intuition
• Religious scripture and interpretation
• Philosophy and log...
In order for a process to be described as
“scientific” it must meet three criteria:
• knowledge must be grounded in experi...
Some scientists argue that the only appropriate
phenomena to study using the scientific method
is behavior that is observa...
Educational psychology offers a fertile
opportunity for scientists to demonstrate
the validity of these opposing viewpoint...
The scientific method can be used to engage in
• Research
where the objective is to gain
understanding of a particular phe...
Assessment
Qualitative Quantitative
Measurement
Research Evaluation
Research in Educational Psychology
There are three different types of studies
used in scientific investigations
Used when we have little
knowledge of a pheno...
There are three different types of studies
used in scientific investigations
Used when we want to understand
the relations...
There are three different types of studies
used in scientific investigations
Correlation coefficient describes
the strengt...
Example of A Perfect Correlation
Example of A Zero Correlation
There are three different types of studies
used in scientific investigations
Correlation coefficient describes
the strengt...
Example of A Positive Correlation
Example of A Negative Correlation
There are three different types of studies
used in scientific investigations
Correlation coefficient describes
the strengt...
Research in Educational Psychology
.60 > .40 (Regardless of sign)
There are three different types of studies
used in scientific investigations
Used when we have a fairly good
understanding...
There are three different types of studies
used in scientific investigations
Must have at least two groups
• Experimental ...
There are three different types of studies
used in scientific investigations
• Experimental study
Research in Educational ...
There are four levels of scientific investigation:
Action -- What is the relationship of A
and B or what is the impact of ...
There are four levels of scientific investigation:
Interaction -- What is the impact of A @
B1, A @ B2, etc.?
Example -- D...
There are four levels of scientific investigation:
Transaction -- What is the relationship
between A and B over time?
Exam...
There are four levels of scientific investigation:
Transaction -- What is the relationship
between A and B over time?
Exam...
There are four levels of scientific investigation:
Transformation -- How do qualitative
changes in A impact qualitative ch...
There are four basic methods used to gather
data to be used in scientific studies. Each of the
methods can be used in all ...
There are four basic methods used to gather
data to be used in scientific studies. Each of the
methods can be used in all ...
Use of the scientific method results in an
increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:
FACT
• names and dates of important
...
Use of the scientific method results in an
increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:
CONCEPT
• rules that allow for categ...
Use of the scientific method results in an
increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:
PRINCIPLE
• relationship(s) between/...
Use of the scientific method results in an
increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:
HYPOTHESIS
• educated guess about re...
Use of the scientific method results in an
increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:
THEORY
• set of facts, concepts, and...
Use of the scientific method results in an
increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:
LAW
• firmly established, thoroughly...
Use of the scientific method does not
necessarily invalidate information gathered
through other means.
However, when data ...
As stated previously, educational psychology
is a SCIENTIFIC approach to the study of
the teaching/learning process.
You w...
AN IMPORTANT CAVEAT
Only a small amount of the principles and
theories developed in educational psychology
have support fr...
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Research - Introduction to Reseach (Graduate)

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Research - Introduction to Reseach (Graduate)

  1. 1. Educational Psychology Define and contrast descriptive, correlational and experimental studies, giving examples of how each of these have been used in educational psychology. Define the four basic methods used to collect data in educational psychology (systematic observation, participant observation, paper/pencil, and clinical), giving an example of how each has been used in the study of important variables in educational psychology.
  2. 2. Educational Psychology In your discussion, define and differentiate the following terms: fact, concept, principle, hypothesis, theory, and law. Developed by W. Huitt (1999)
  3. 3. There are a variety of ways of validating truth: • Intuition • Religious scripture and interpretation • Philosophy and logical reasoning • Science and the scientific method • Social and/or cultural consensus • Personal experience Research in Educational Psychology
  4. 4. In order for a process to be described as “scientific” it must meet three criteria: • knowledge must be grounded in experience • knowledge must be grounded in a paradigm or exemplar • any hypothesis must be potentially falsifiable Research in Educational Psychology
  5. 5. Some scientists argue that the only appropriate phenomena to study using the scientific method is behavior that is observable by others However, other scientists believe that personal and interpersonal subjective experiences can also be studied using the scientific method Research in Educational Psychology
  6. 6. Educational psychology offers a fertile opportunity for scientists to demonstrate the validity of these opposing viewpoints Sample topics that have been addressed include: • Cognitive development • Teaching methods for concept development • Language development Research in Educational Psychology
  7. 7. The scientific method can be used to engage in • Research where the objective is to gain understanding of a particular phenomena OR • Evaluation where the objective is to make a judgement of worth or value Research in Educational Psychology
  8. 8. Assessment Qualitative Quantitative Measurement Research Evaluation Research in Educational Psychology
  9. 9. There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations Used when we have little knowledge of a phenomena and we want to describe it accurately and truthfully • Descriptive study Research in Educational Psychology
  10. 10. There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations Used when we want to understand the relationships among variables and make predictions from present circumstances to future ones • Correlational study Research in Educational Psychology
  11. 11. There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations Correlation coefficient describes the strength of the relationship • Correlational study Range is from -1 to +1 Research in Educational Psychology
  12. 12. Example of A Perfect Correlation
  13. 13. Example of A Zero Correlation
  14. 14. There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations Correlation coefficient describes the strength of the relationship • Correlational study Range is from -1 to +1 Type of relationship is determined by sign Research in Educational Psychology
  15. 15. Example of A Positive Correlation
  16. 16. Example of A Negative Correlation
  17. 17. There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations Correlation coefficient describes the strength of the relationship • Correlational study Range is from -1 to +1 Type of relationship is determined by sign Strength of relationship is determined by absolute value Research in Educational Psychology
  18. 18. Research in Educational Psychology .60 > .40 (Regardless of sign)
  19. 19. There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations Used when we have a fairly good understanding of predictive relationships and we want to demonstrate cause/effect relationships • Experimental study Research in Educational Psychology
  20. 20. There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations Must have at least two groups • Experimental study Subjects must be randomly assigned One group must experience a treatment The INDEPENDENT variable is manipulated Change (if any) is observed in the DEPENDENT variable Research in Educational Psychology
  21. 21. There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations • Experimental study Research in Educational Psychology Only Results from Experimental Studies Can Demonstrate Cause and Effect Relationships
  22. 22. There are four levels of scientific investigation: Action -- What is the relationship of A and B or what is the impact of A on B? Example -- What are the best teaching methods that can be used to motivate students to learn? Research in Educational Psychology
  23. 23. There are four levels of scientific investigation: Interaction -- What is the impact of A @ B1, A @ B2, etc.? Example -- Does using cooperative learning in gender-mixed classrooms impact girls the same way it impacts boys? Research in Educational Psychology
  24. 24. There are four levels of scientific investigation: Transaction -- What is the relationship between A and B over time? Example -- If a teacher has successfully used a behavior modification technique, but has since stopped, what does the child do the next time the teacher uses that same technique? Research in Educational Psychology
  25. 25. There are four levels of scientific investigation: Transaction -- What is the relationship between A and B over time? Example -- What are the processes by which a mother’s educational level impacts the parent-child interaction and subsequent characteristics of the child when he or she enters a classroom at a later date? Research in Educational Psychology
  26. 26. There are four levels of scientific investigation: Transformation -- How do qualitative changes in A impact qualitative changes in B; also B1 on A1, etc. Example -- How does parent involvement in a training program designed to impact a child’s classroom behavior impact the siblings of the child and the sibling’s subsequent interactions with the parent and future classroom behavior? Research in Educational Psychology
  27. 27. There are four basic methods used to gather data to be used in scientific studies. Each of the methods can be used in all three types of studies: • Paper/pencil -- any information gathered by asking the subject a question • Systematic observation -- trained recorder gathers data on prearranged variables Research in Educational Psychology
  28. 28. There are four basic methods used to gather data to be used in scientific studies. Each of the methods can be used in all three types of studies: Research in Educational Psychology • Participant observation -- the person collecting the data participates in the process being observed • Clinical -- specially-trained practitioners gather data as part of a diagnostic/prescriptive activity
  29. 29. Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: FACT • names and dates of important activities; population of the United States in the latest census • an idea or action that can be verified Research in Educational Psychology
  30. 30. Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: CONCEPT • rules that allow for categorization of events, places, people, ideas, etc. • a DESK is a piece of FURNITURE designed with a flat top for writing; a CHAIR is a piece of FURNITURE designed for sitting; a CHAIR with a flat surface attached to it that is designed for writing is also called a DESK Research in Educational Psychology
  31. 31. Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: PRINCIPLE • relationship(s) between/among facts and/or concepts • the number of children in the family is related to the average scores on nationally standardized achievement tests for those children Research in Educational Psychology
  32. 32. Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: HYPOTHESIS • educated guess about relationships (principles) • for lower-division, undergraduate students study habits is a better predictor of success in a college course than is a measure of intelligence or reading comprehension Research in Educational Psychology
  33. 33. Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: THEORY • set of facts, concepts, and principles that allow description and EXPLANATION • Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Erikson's theory of socioemotional development, Skinner's theory of operant conditioning Research in Educational Psychology
  34. 34. Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base: LAW • firmly established, thoroughly tested, principle or theory • a fixed interval schedule for delivering reinforcement produces a scalloping effect on behavior Research in Educational Psychology
  35. 35. Use of the scientific method does not necessarily invalidate information gathered through other means. However, when data from science seem to contradict data from personal experience, intuition, social or cultural consensus, religious scripture and interpretation, or philosophy and rational thinking, an opportunity for learning has presented itself. Research in Educational Psychology
  36. 36. As stated previously, educational psychology is a SCIENTIFIC approach to the study of the teaching/learning process. You will be expected to support your opinions developed through another source with data collected using the scientific method. Research in Educational Psychology
  37. 37. AN IMPORTANT CAVEAT Only a small amount of the principles and theories developed in educational psychology have support from a body of research developed through the use of experimental studies. Therefore, most of the concepts, principles, and theories discussed in this course must be considered as best-first-guess hypotheses. Research in Educational Psychology

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