Asking and Answering Questions,
Setting and Resetting Goals, and S
witching Strategies in Virtual Refer
ence Interactions
...
Purpose of this Study
To focus on VR as a learning
environment
To describe how teaching and
learning strategies are formed...
Theoretical Framework:
Activity Theory
• Based on the work of Vygotsky
• The Notion that consciousness is a
transformation...
Education as a Dialogue
Wells (2002) proposed that education
should be essentially a dialogue, a
semiotic apprenticeship.
Tutoring and VR: Similarities
1. One-on-one learning
2. Focused on Problem-solving
The Impact of Tutoring
Tutoring is powerful.
Bloom (1982) and
Cohen, Kulik & Kulik (1984)
Benjamin Bloom (1984), The 2 Sigma Problem:
The search for methods of instruction as
effective as one-to-one tutoring
Tuto...
The Tutoring Environments
Tutoring has the following components:
• sensitivity to individual student needs,
• natural dial...
What makes tutoring successful?
Factor #1
Sensitivity to Student Questions.
(Merrill, Reiser, Merrill & Landes;
1995)
What makes tutoring successful?
Factor #2
Natural Conversation Patterns
(Graesser, Person, and Magliano;
1995)
What makes tutoring so
successful?
Factor #3: Flexibility
Flexibility: Understanding the Student
The number of questions the
student asks is not an indicator of
subject-matter comp...
Flexibility: Understanding the Student
Students do not ask questions that
point to gaps in their knowledge.
(Person, Graes...
Establishing Common Ground
Used to confirm or modify one’s
knowledge and understanding
- Graesser and Olde (2003)
Summary of the Literature
1. Quantity of student questions does
not give much information about
the student competency.
2....
Summary of the Literature
3. Tutoring is successful due to
a) Sensitivity to individual student needs,
b) Natural dialogue...
Research Questions
1. What methods do librarians use to teach
students and what strategies are students
using to learn?
2....
Methodology: The Source of Data
Transcripts generated by librarians and
students of the Michigan Virtual
Reference Collabo...
Sampling Procedures
Purposely selected transcripts that
displayed complex interactions
between the librarian and the
stude...
Method of Analysis:
Interactional Sociolinguistics:
Examines conversation on two levels:
1. Immediate situation and
surrou...
Methodology: Discourse Analysis
Interactional sociolinguists,
The anthropologist, John
Gumperz,
Sociologist, Erving Goff...
John Gumperz
People choose to interpret a word
or phrase based on what they
know, or assume, about each
other.
Interactional Sociolingustics:
Erving Goffman
Alignment and “Footing.”
Goffman’s Concept of Alignment and
Footing
Doctor to Child: “Let me look in your ear. Do you
have a monkey in your ear?”
D...
Findings
Transcript Analysis
Some Basic Patterns
• Establishing Common Grounds
• Explaining a process
• Generating Search Terms
Common Grounds : Closings
S: got it
L: Yeay!
S: many thanks. i appreciate your
time!
L: Great job!
S: Thank you. Have a gr...
Common Grounds : Closings
L: You are very welcome.
S: bye
L: You're a great researcher.
S: lol
L: lol
[….]
The Process/Chronology
L: I think you need your library card number…
S: oops got it when i go to the library…
L: ...you wi...
Search Term Generation Strategy
S: got any ideas…not getting any hits with
careers, job trends in 1970
L: Job outlook?
L: ...
More Complex Patterns
• Parallel Problem Solving
• Using Inferences
Parallel Problem Solving:
Transcript #1
S: Where can I find a list of the best
jobs in 1970?
L: Hi. In the 1970s? - Let me...
Parallel Problem Solving
S: I'm trying to do a comparison
between the best jobs listed in us
news & world report for 2010
...
Parallel Problem Solving
L: Maybe we should search the US
news and world report of the 70s.
S: yes exactly. thanks.
Parallel Problem Solving
L: […] I have an idea. Let me send you
the URL to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. While you searc...
Parallel Problem Solving
L: http://www.bls.gov/ .... ( A )
There is an Occupational Outlook Handbook for
1970s also. ( B )...
Parallel Problem Solving
L: Guess what? The US News and
World Report is not archived
electronically back till 1970s.
L: So...
Parallel Problem Solving
L: I'm sure we can find something.
S: crossing fingers
L: Still looking...
Parallel Problem Solving
L: I found a document. I'll send it to you.
[…]
S: thanks
L: [URL]
S: cool
L: Bingo! Look on page...
Parallel Problem Solving: Transcript #2
S: I am writing a paper and i need to know
what could be some possible body
paraga...
Parallel Problem Solving
L: […] possible topics: divorce, bankruptcy,
mortgage defaults…,
S: Oh ok I understand now I just...
Parallel Problem Solving
S: Also if i go to research about these
topics what am i really analzying the
reason that made th...
Parallel Problem Solving
L: Maybe these ideas are too broad...I would
need to see your assignment to know.
L: It's a websi...
Parallel Problem Solving
L: Opposing Viewpoints is a great resource
because [it has]…opinion pieces on social
issues.
L: W...
Parallel Problem Solving
L: Broadly speaking, when you write, you
should …
S: my thesis will relate to why people bail
out...
Student: I am doing a career research project.
I have already looked in OOH for
information on a career as a Medical
Admin...
Lib: Your college has "Vocational & Career
Collection.” That is a great database for
research into a career. Let me see wh...
L: Oh…It sounds like you know how to
access databases, right? […]
S: Yes, we have been instructed on this in
class. Howeve...
Making Inferences: Example #3
S: I am trying to start my research
paper..., and I don't know where to
begin.
[...]
L: ...H...
Making Inferences: Example #3
S: Yes, I have the information I need, I
just don't know how to start the
paper
L: Okay, let...
Making Inferences: Example #3
L: The Owl is a great source. Did you
get the page?
S: Patron is no longer connected.
Making Inferences: Example #4
S: how do i get a full text article online
that is in [my college] library that is
in a peri...
Making Inferences: Example #4
L: […] can you tell me a bit more about
your question? Are you looking for
an online version...
Making Inferences: Example #4
S: i think i go to proquest..but dont
know how to know if its at [my
college library].
Making Inferences: Example # 4
S: i think i go to proquest..but dont
know how to know if its at [my
college library]
L: yo...
Making Inferences: Example # 4
• L: If you then need to determine if
that article will be available in print
at the Librar...
Research Questions
1. What methods do librarians use to teach
students, and what strategies are students
using to learn?
2...
Recommendations
Try to make our goals and strategies visible
to the student by describing what we are
doing.
Expose the st...
Five-part Framework
1) A student poses a problem,
2) A goal and a strategy to solve this
problem is initiated,
3) new info...
List of References
Bloom, B. S. (1984). The 2-sigma problem: The
search for methods of group instruction as
effective as o...
List of References
Engeström, Y. (1999). Activity theory and individual
and social transformation. In Y. Engeström, R.
Mie...
List of References
Fox, B. A. (1993). The human tutorial dialogue
project: Issues in the design of instructional
systems. ...
List of References
John-Steiner, V. & Mahn, H. (1996). Sociocultural
approaches to learning and development: A
Vygotskian ...
List of References
Merrill, D. C., Reiser, B. J., Merrill, S. K. & Landes,
Shari. (1995). Tutoring: Guided learning by
doi...
List of References
Morf, M. E. & Weber, W. G. (2000). I/O Psychology and
the bridging of A. N. Leont'ev's activity theory....
List of References
Person, N. K. , Graesser, A. C., Kreuz, R.J. & Magliano, J.
P. (1994). Inferring what the student knows...
List of References
Wertsch, J. V. (1981). Introduction to “the problems of
activity in psychology” by Leont’ev, A. N. In J...
List of References
Wells, G. (2002). The role of dialogue in activity theory.
Mind, Culture, and Activity, 9(1), 43-66.
We...
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Questions, Responses, Goals and Strategies in Virtual reference ...

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  • As the quality of virtual reference services continues to improve, the virtual reference literature reflects a growing interest in the potential of virtual reference as a viable learning environment. The purpose of this study is to focus on virtual reference as a learning environment and to describe how teaching and learning goals and strategies are formed and modified through natural dialogue.
  • The theoretical framework for this study is activity theory, based largely on the writings of Vygotsky. At the core, activity theory is the notion that consciousness is a transformation that takes place when internal cognitive processes engage with the outside world through the mediation of tools.
  • Language is one tool that an individual uses to mediate with the outside world. Through language, the individual engages with others to co-construct knowledge. Influenced by activity theory, Wells (2002) proposed that education should be essentially a dialogue.


  • One area of research that might shed light on the teaching and learning potential in virtual reference environments is that of tutoring because 1) both environments involve one-to-one learning through dialogue, and 2) both learning environments focus on problem solving.
  • Research shows that tutoring is powerful. In the 1980s, Benjamin Bloom and Cohen, Kulik & Kulik conducted meta-analysis of research into tutoring, and discovered overwhelming evidence that tutoring was a more successful learning environment than the traditional classroom.
  • Bloom reported that students who learned in a one-to-one environment performed better on achievement tests than those who learned in a group situation. The average tutored student scored higher than 98% of the students who were in a traditional classroom environment.
  • Four components that make tutoring a successful learning environment are: 1) sensitivity to individual student needs, 2) natural dialogue patterns, 3) flexibility, 4) deep explanatory reasoning.
  • Factor #1: One reason why the tutoring environment is successful is because tutors are sensitive to student questions. Merrill, Reiser, & Landes found that tutors focused their attention not on scripted tutor-initiated questioning, as had been previously thought, but rather tutors focused on student-initiated questions. Tutors based their decision on how fast to give feedback and what kind of feedback to give on the student’s line of reasoning.
  • Factor #2: Graesser, Person, and Magliano (1995) observed that most normal tutoring was conducted by tutors who lacked experience, formal training, and expertise in the subject matter, and despite its counter-intuitive nature, these “normal” tutors made greater academic gains with students than classroom teachers, who were subject-matter experts, experienced and professionally trained. From this, Graesser, Person, and Magliano (1995) hypothesized that tutoring was successful not because of superior teaching strategies, but rather because of the natural “conversational dialogue patterns” embedded in the interaction.


  • Factor #3: One of the advantages of tutoring over classroom instruction is the flexibility that the tutor has to adjust instruction to the specific needs of each individual student. For this reason, researchers looked at whether the questions that students asked and the answers they gave to questions were in any way a means of assessing their individual needs.
  • Researchers found that the quantity of questions students asked did not correlate with the students’ understanding of the subject as reflected in their scores on examinations and final grades.
  • The authors also found that the questions students did ask rarely pointed to specific gaps in their knowledge. Student were either unable to identify their problems or were inhibited from asking questions that pointed to their lack of understanding.
  • Graesser and Olde (2003) found that the most common reason why students asked questions was to establish common ground. Establishing Common ground is a means for the participants to confirm that their understanding of a subject is correct and accurate so that they can modify their understanding.
  • A review of the literature establishes several heuristics central to this study. First of all, the quantity of questions that students ask is not an indicator of student knowledge or competence in a subject area. Second, students are not good at identifying gaps in their knowledge.
  • Finally, tutoring is superior to classroom instruction, not because of skillful teaching strategies, but because of intense collaboration between the tutor and the student and the involvement of complex reasoning skills in solving a specific problem. The literature shows that tutoring is successful despite that fact that students are poor at asking questions and the average tutors are inexperienced and employ basic teaching strategies. Tutoring is effective because it provides an environment that is sensitive to the needs of the student, follows natural conversational rules, is flexible and involves the student and the tutor in deep explanations of real-life problems.
  • This study addresses the following research questions: 1) What strategies do librarians use to teach students about the research process, and what strategies are students using to learn? 2) When a session involves several layers of questions/problems, how do the participants determine which questions/problems to address and in what order, and 2) What cues signal strategy and/or goal formation and switching.
  • The Source of Data was transcripts generated by the librarians and students of the Michigan Virtual Reference Collaborative or the QuestionsPoint 24/7 Global service.
  • The sampling procedure used was a purposefully selected set of transcripts. First, I read transcript identifying those in which the student needed help with a research project. Then, I reread these selected transcripts looking for those that displayed a certain amount of complexity. I focused on sessions that were relatively substantial, where the participants had enough time to display goal formation and strategy development. Then, I read and reread these complex transcripts until patterns began to emerge.
  • According to Deborah Schiffrin (1994), interactional sociolinguistics is the study of conversations on two levels: 1) the immediate situation and surroundings and 2) the broader culture of the participants. An example of the immediate situation is a classroom setting. The broader cultural factors include the ethnic composition of the students and the teacher. Both levels, the immediate and the broader cultural factors, influence how inferences are made and how discourse is conducted.
  • The two leading figures in interactional sociolinguistics are the anthropologist, John Gumperz, and the sociologist, Erving Goffmann. According to Schiffrin (1994, p. 105), both looked at the interaction of “self, and other, and context”
  • The research of John Gumperz informed us about the way that people co-construct conversation. Gumperz argued that all words, phrases and sentences are inherently ambiguous. People choose to interpret a word or phrase based on the particular environment and other cultural information that the speakers know, or assume, about each other.
  • Amongst the concepts that Erving Goffman contributed to discourse analysis methodology, was the notion of footing. Goffman defined footing as “a change in [our] alignment” with others, or a means of positioning of ourselves towards others (1981, p. 128).
  • Tannen and Wallet illustrate Goffman’s concept of footing in their frequently cited, 1987 case study. In their study, a medical doctor aligns herself with three audiences: a child patient, the mother, and a recorder that is taping the examination for instructional purposes. The doctor aligns herself with the three different audiences according to three different registers: a teasing register, a conversational register, and a reporting register. Switching between registers as necessary, the doctor speaks to the child in a teasing register, to the mother in a conversational register, and to the tape recorder in a reporting register.




  • Examples of the student and the librarian establishing common ground are numerous, especially in the openings and the closings. In the openings, hi and the name are very common, and so are restatements or paraphrases of the student’s question.
    Here is an example of a closing. The student retrieved what she needed. Both participants thank and praise each other.
  • I like these closings that go on and on and one…
  • Here the librarian explains the process of accessing a database. The librarian walks the student through the steps in accessing a database to find an article.
  • Here is an example of a librarian modeling a search term generation strategy – a kind of brainstorming technique.
  • In the next set of slides, we will look at parallel problem solving and using inferences. First, we will look at two problem solving situations. In the first, the librarian and the student work in tandum to solve one specific problem using about four different strategies. In the second, the librarian and the student negotiate four separate problems, but in the end resolve only one. After that, we will look at how inferences and presuppositions contribute to student problem solving processes.
  • The student asks for a list of best jobs in the 1970s. The librarian takes the question at its face value and begins a search.
  • The student provides more information. This additional information makes the librarian rethink her strategy and realign her goals with that of the student.
  • Here the librarian and the student are establishing common ground. The librarian’s use of the word “maybe” shows she is unsure of how they should proceed. The student reassures the librarian.
  • Now, the librarian decides to search for a 1970s article in the US News and World Report that lists best jobs, but also decides to continue her original plan which was to search a government website, as a possible back up. As a teaching strategy, this approach keeps the student actively engaged in the whole process.
  • In this set of slides, I try to show an example of parallel problem solving. If you notice the letters next to each line of text, you may be able to recognize parallel discussions. The “As” represent the search at the BLS, the “Bs” represent a search in the OOH, while the “Cs” represent the search for a specific article in the US News and World Report. The librarian and the student seem quite comfortable engaging in discourse in which the discourse structures are not adjacent to each other; they are disjointed. The discourse is not linear, but rather there are three parallel discussions going on at once.
  • The librarian runs into an obstacle and adjusts her strategy. The two participants begin to reestablishing common ground and reshape their strategy.
  • Reestablishing common ground
  • Continued work on establishing common ground. In this VR session, the librarian and the student established excellent footing and work as a team to solve the student’s problem.
  • The student poses a question in which she asks for help with her topic. From this question, as the dialogue continues, four problems emerge: narrowing a topic, finding information, managing course assignment issues, and student self-efficacy.

    The librarian introduces the question of source material.
     
  • The student introduces a second problem, which is narrowing the topic. The two are juggling two problems.
  • The student remains focused on her topic.
    Also, notice this example of a student asking a deep explanatory reasoning question. This gives the librarian information about the where the student is having trouble. The student seems to be grappling with a complex concept involving critical thinking skills.
  • The librarian introduces a third problem, her concern about course management issues. The two are now juggling three problems: narrowing the topic, finding sources material, and conforming to constraints related to the requirements of the course.
  • The student introduces a fourth problem, which is her lack of confidence in her writing skills. The librarian attempts to give the student some guidance on this.
  • The librarian continues to try to give the student advice on how to write. However, the student stays focused on her goal, which is to identify and narrow her topic. Through out the session, the librarian tried to negotiate with the student to discuss source material, course management issues, and basic writing skills, but the student remained focused and in a gentle way controlled the session. However, the librarian gave the student valuable information that the student stored in her memory bank, from which she may later draw in order to solve research problems she may encounter as she continues completing her research paper.
  • This next set of slides illustrates how inferences are used to negotiate meaning and solve problems. After reading the student’s question, the librarian identifies a database suitable for this student’s research, and then proceeds to set up a process or a framework to guide the student.
  • Let’s examine the adjacent pair of sentences. From the information the librarian gave the student, the student makes an important inference. The student realizes that the database she had been searching was actually a good and useful one. This realization causes her to reassess her problem, her knowledge deficit. She now thinks her problem is not related to the resource she was using, but that maybe she was searching it ineffectively. She guesses she needs help identifying search terms.
  • Student has redefined her problem from that of finding sources to that of finding appropriate search terms. The librarian begins to realign the discourse to more closely address this problem. Both the librarian and the student struggle to re-establish common ground.
    I am unable to include the whole dialogue, but Interestingly, the librarian has difficulty moving away from discussing databases to discussing search terms. This might be because one’s choice of search terms is closely connected to the database one is using. Databases offer suggestions for keywords and subject headings, so it could be that there is a natural ordering of goals and strategies from Database – to – Search Terms.
  • We can only guess what happened here. However, one problem might have been that the student and the librarian were unable to make correct inferences and establish common ground and negotiation a goal and a strategy to solve the student’s problem.

  • Who can paraphrase this student’s question? What does this student need? How does the use of the word “house” create ambiguity?


  • What does the librarian interpret the word “housed”?
    The librarian thinks the word housed means physically in the library.
  • Can you identify knowledge deficits, or gaps in the students understanding? What is the student’s misconception?

    The student thinks that she must go to a website separate from the college website.
  • Can you identify knowledge deficits, or gaps in the students understanding? What is the student’s misconception? The student thinks that she must go to a website separate from the college website. What word tells us that? “go to”

    How has the librarian misinterpreted the student’s problem?
  • The librarian proceeds to help the student without recognizing and correcting the misunderstanding.
  • I was somewhat disappointed in not identifying specific verbal cues that signaled strategy switching, such as “oh” or “whoops.” Switching takes place during transitions where common ground is established. Establishing common ground is a complex series of exchanges between the two participants that involves active and purposeful engagement. The goals that are set and the strategies used to achieve these goals are also a delicate negotiation between the student and the librarian. The librarian pulls in one direction, the student is either convinced and follows along, or starts to pull in a different direction, bringing the librarian with her. Sometimes the student loses confidence in the process and disconnects. Skill in reestablishing common ground is important in bringing transactions to a successful conclusion and making the experience a positive one for the student and the librarian.


  • First, Librarians should try to make the processes that they are using visible to the student.
    One good way to do this is to employ “think aloud” strategies. Allow the student to view us while we fumble and struggle to find the best search term and database. This helps them acquire our expert strategies and it makes the process more transparent and less mysterious.
    Second, expose the students to deep explanatory reasoning by explaining why. When students have a deep understanding of the process, they are more likely able to transfer their new knowledge to other research situations.
    Third, be flexible in maintaining common ground when switching goals and strategies. In virtual reference transactions, problem solving takes place within a five-part framework: 1) A student poses a problem, 2) a goal and a strategy to solve this problem is initiated, 3) new information is introduced, 4) common ground is reestablished, and then, 5) goals and strategies are added, deleted or modified.



  • In virtual reference transactions, problem solving takes place within a five-part framework: 1) A student poses a problem, 2) a goal and a strategy to solve this problem is initiated, 3) new information is introduced, 4) common ground is reestablished, and then, 5) goals and strategies are added, deleted or modified.



  • Questions, Responses, Goals and Strategies in Virtual reference ...

    1. 1. Asking and Answering Questions, Setting and Resetting Goals, and S witching Strategies in Virtual Refer ence Interactions Mary Kickham-Samy, Librarian, Macomb Community College Warren, MI
    2. 2. Purpose of this Study To focus on VR as a learning environment To describe how teaching and learning strategies are formed and modified through natural dialogue.
    3. 3. Theoretical Framework: Activity Theory • Based on the work of Vygotsky • The Notion that consciousness is a transformation that takes place when internal cognitive processes engage with the outside world through the mediation of tools.
    4. 4. Education as a Dialogue Wells (2002) proposed that education should be essentially a dialogue, a semiotic apprenticeship.
    5. 5. Tutoring and VR: Similarities 1. One-on-one learning 2. Focused on Problem-solving
    6. 6. The Impact of Tutoring Tutoring is powerful. Bloom (1982) and Cohen, Kulik & Kulik (1984)
    7. 7. Benjamin Bloom (1984), The 2 Sigma Problem: The search for methods of instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring Tutored students performed: • 2 standard deviations above classroom students. • better than 98% of students taught in a typical classroom of 30 students.
    8. 8. The Tutoring Environments Tutoring has the following components: • sensitivity to individual student needs, • natural dialogue patterns, • Flexibility, • Deep explanations of real-life problems.
    9. 9. What makes tutoring successful? Factor #1 Sensitivity to Student Questions. (Merrill, Reiser, Merrill & Landes; 1995)
    10. 10. What makes tutoring successful? Factor #2 Natural Conversation Patterns (Graesser, Person, and Magliano; 1995)
    11. 11. What makes tutoring so successful? Factor #3: Flexibility
    12. 12. Flexibility: Understanding the Student The number of questions the student asks is not an indicator of subject-matter competency. (Person, Graesser, Magliano, & Kruez; 1994)
    13. 13. Flexibility: Understanding the Student Students do not ask questions that point to gaps in their knowledge. (Person, Graesser, Magliano, & Kruez; 1994)
    14. 14. Establishing Common Ground Used to confirm or modify one’s knowledge and understanding - Graesser and Olde (2003)
    15. 15. Summary of the Literature 1. Quantity of student questions does not give much information about the student competency. 2. Students are not good at identifying gaps in their knowledge.
    16. 16. Summary of the Literature 3. Tutoring is successful due to a) Sensitivity to individual student needs, b) Natural dialogue patterns, c) Flexibility d) Deep explanatory reasoning.
    17. 17. Research Questions 1. What methods do librarians use to teach students and what strategies are students using to learn? 2. When a session involves several layers of questions/problems, how do the participants determine to address and in what order? 3. What cues or signs signal strategy and/or goal formation and switching?
    18. 18. Methodology: The Source of Data Transcripts generated by librarians and students of the Michigan Virtual Reference Collaborative or QuestionsPoint Global service.
    19. 19. Sampling Procedures Purposely selected transcripts that displayed complex interactions between the librarian and the student..
    20. 20. Method of Analysis: Interactional Sociolinguistics: Examines conversation on two levels: 1. Immediate situation and surroundings 2. Broader culture of the participants (Deborah Schiffrin, 1994)
    21. 21. Methodology: Discourse Analysis Interactional sociolinguists, The anthropologist, John Gumperz, Sociologist, Erving Goffman
    22. 22. John Gumperz People choose to interpret a word or phrase based on what they know, or assume, about each other.
    23. 23. Interactional Sociolingustics: Erving Goffman Alignment and “Footing.”
    24. 24. Goffman’s Concept of Alignment and Footing Doctor to Child: “Let me look in your ear. Do you have a monkey in your ear?” Doctor to Mother: “What we want to look for is to see how she moves her palate…” Doctor to Tape Recorder: “Her canals are fine, they’re open…” - Tannen and Wallet Case Study, 1987
    25. 25. Findings Transcript Analysis
    26. 26. Some Basic Patterns • Establishing Common Grounds • Explaining a process • Generating Search Terms
    27. 27. Common Grounds : Closings S: got it L: Yeay! S: many thanks. i appreciate your time! L: Great job! S: Thank you. Have a great evening…
    28. 28. Common Grounds : Closings L: You are very welcome. S: bye L: You're a great researcher. S: lol L: lol [….]
    29. 29. The Process/Chronology L: I think you need your library card number… S: oops got it when i go to the library… L: ...you will be prompted to insert it. S: got it […] L: Let me know if you are able to get into the database… S: im there L: Great!
    30. 30. Search Term Generation Strategy S: got any ideas…not getting any hits with careers, job trends in 1970 L: Job outlook? L: job forecasts L: best jobs L: job growth S: got it L: Yeay!
    31. 31. More Complex Patterns • Parallel Problem Solving • Using Inferences
    32. 32. Parallel Problem Solving: Transcript #1 S: Where can I find a list of the best jobs in 1970? L: Hi. In the 1970s? - Let me do a search for you. Just a second...
    33. 33. Parallel Problem Solving S: I'm trying to do a comparison between the best jobs listed in us news & world report for 2010 L: So, you want to compare those "best job" to best jobs of the 1970s.
    34. 34. Parallel Problem Solving L: Maybe we should search the US news and world report of the 70s. S: yes exactly. thanks.
    35. 35. Parallel Problem Solving L: […] I have an idea. Let me send you the URL to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. While you search that, I'll look for an equivalent article in USNews and World Report of the 1970s. […] S: anks...great idea
    36. 36. Parallel Problem Solving L: http://www.bls.gov/ .... ( A ) There is an Occupational Outlook Handbook for 1970s also. ( B ) S: checking it out now. ( A ) L: You can try to google that. ( B ) L: OK. I'm going to look in magazines… ( C ) S: great thanks ( C ) googling now ( B )
    37. 37. Parallel Problem Solving L: Guess what? The US News and World Report is not archived electronically back till 1970s. L: So I'm going to join your search. S: bummer. looking at bls now
    38. 38. Parallel Problem Solving L: I'm sure we can find something. S: crossing fingers L: Still looking...
    39. 39. Parallel Problem Solving L: I found a document. I'll send it to you. […] S: thanks L: [URL] S: cool L: Bingo! Look on page 79. S: you rock!
    40. 40. Parallel Problem Solving: Transcript #2 S: I am writing a paper and i need to know what could be some possible body paragaph topics. My thesis is: In troubled times people bail out of commitments [...] L: Have you already researched articles, etc. …?
    41. 41. Parallel Problem Solving L: […] possible topics: divorce, bankruptcy, mortgage defaults…, S: Oh ok I understand now I just thought if I chose those they would be to broad S: I have tryed researching articles… L: One good resource…would be "Opposing Viewpoints…”” S: Is that a website?
    42. 42. Parallel Problem Solving S: Also if i go to research about these topics what am i really analzying the reason that made these people leave their commitments?
    43. 43. Parallel Problem Solving L: Maybe these ideas are too broad...I would need to see your assignment to know. L: It's a website on your school's library site…. L: How long a paper is this supposed to be? L: …maybe you can focus on one area, like marriage, political activity, etc. etc. S: I like the idea of marriage
    44. 44. Parallel Problem Solving L: Opposing Viewpoints is a great resource because [it has]…opinion pieces on social issues. L: Within marriage, you could cover, li[vi]ng with parents, delaying having kids…. S: I am not that good of writer so… L: When you looking at the articles in Opposing Viewpoints… try to see … how those writers organized their materials.[…]
    45. 45. Parallel Problem Solving L: Broadly speaking, when you write, you should … S: my thesis will relate to why people bail out of marriage
    46. 46. Student: I am doing a career research project. I have already looked in OOH for information on a career as a Medical Administrative Assistant. Where else might I find information about career in the medical field? [.........] Lib: Let me see what databases might help. Making Inferences
    47. 47. Lib: Your college has "Vocational & Career Collection.” That is a great database for research into a career. Let me see what you need to access it. Just a second. Patron: Yes it does, I search there many times already and really wasn't able to find much. I think I am having some trouble with keywords. Making Inferences
    48. 48. L: Oh…It sounds like you know how to access databases, right? […] S: Yes, we have been instructed on this in class. However, my ability to find the right keywords…is lacking. Any tips? L: Hmm... S: ….I search there many times already… I think I am having some trouble with keywords.
    49. 49. Making Inferences: Example #3 S: I am trying to start my research paper..., and I don't know where to begin. [...] L: ...Have you searched in any of the research databases...?
    50. 50. Making Inferences: Example #3 S: Yes, I have the information I need, I just don't know how to start the paper L: Okay, let me find a source that might help you understand the different parts of a research paper... S: thank you.
    51. 51. Making Inferences: Example #3 L: The Owl is a great source. Did you get the page? S: Patron is no longer connected.
    52. 52. Making Inferences: Example #4 S: how do i get a full text article online that is in [my college] library that is in a periodical or journal housed in […my] library on aristotle
    53. 53. Making Inferences: Example #4 L: […] can you tell me a bit more about your question? Are you looking for an online version of an article that's available in print at the Library?
    54. 54. Making Inferences: Example #4 S: i think i go to proquest..but dont know how to know if its at [my college library].
    55. 55. Making Inferences: Example # 4 S: i think i go to proquest..but dont know how to know if its at [my college library] L: you can search for articles in full text through ProQuest or other Library databases...
    56. 56. Making Inferences: Example # 4 • L: If you then need to determine if that article will be available in print at the Library, …From the Library Catalog there's an option to search…for Magazine/Journal Title…. • S: (Patron ended chat session.)
    57. 57. Research Questions 1. What methods do librarians use to teach students, and what strategies are students using to learn? 2. When a session involves several layers of questions/problems, how do the participants determine to address and in what order? 3. What cues or signs signal strategy and/or goal formation and switching?
    58. 58. Recommendations Try to make our goals and strategies visible to the student by describing what we are doing. Expose the students to deep explanatory reasoning by explaining why. Be flexible in maintaining common ground when modifying goals and strategies.
    59. 59. Five-part Framework 1) A student poses a problem, 2) A goal and a strategy to solve this problem is initiated, 3) new information is introduced, 4) common ground is reestablished, 5) 5) goals and strategies are added, deleted or modified.
    60. 60. List of References Bloom, B. S. (1984). The 2-sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13(6), 4-16. Cohen, P. A., Kulik, J. A. & Kulik, C. (1982). Educational outcomes of tutoring: A meta- analysis of findings. American Educational Research Journal, 19(2), 237-248.
    61. 61. List of References Engeström, Y. (1999). Activity theory and individual and social transformation. In Y. Engeström, R. Miettinen & R. Punamaki (Eds.), Perspectives on Activity Theory (19-38). Cambridge University Press: New York. Fishbein, H. D., Eckart, T., Lauver, E., Van Leeuwen, R. & Langmeyer, D. (1990). Learners’ questions and comprehension in a tutoring setting. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 163-170.
    62. 62. List of References Fox, B. A. (1993). The human tutorial dialogue project: Issues in the design of instructional systems. Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ. Graesser, A. C. & Olde, B. A. (2003). How does one know whether a person understands a device? The quality of the questions the person asks when the device breaks down. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(3), 524-536. Graesser, A. C. & Person, N. K. (1994). Question asking during tutoring. American Educational Research Journal, 31(1), 104-137.
    63. 63. List of References John-Steiner, V. & Mahn, H. (1996). Sociocultural approaches to learning and development: A Vygotskian framework. Educational Psychology, 31(3/4), 191-206. Leont’ev, A. N. (1981). The problems of activity in psychology. In J.V. Wertsch (Ed.), The concept of activity in soviet Psychology (pp 37- 71). Armonk, NY: Sharpe.
    64. 64. List of References Merrill, D. C., Reiser, B. J., Merrill, S. K. & Landes, Shari. (1995). Tutoring: Guided learning by doing. Cognition and Instruction, 13(3), 315- 372. Graesser, A. C., Person, N. K. & Magliano, J. P. (1995). Collaborative dialogue patterns in naturalistic one-to-one tutoring. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9, 495-522.
    65. 65. List of References Morf, M. E. & Weber, W. G. (2000). I/O Psychology and the bridging of A. N. Leont'ev's activity theory. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 41(2) 81-93. •Oakleaf, M & VanScoy A. (2010). Instructional strategies for digital reference: Methods to facilitate student learning. Reference and user Services Quarterly, 49(4), 380-390.
    66. 66. List of References Person, N. K. , Graesser, A. C., Kreuz, R.J. & Magliano, J. P. (1994). Inferring what the student knows in one- to-one tutoring: The role of student questions and answers. Learning and Individual Differences, 6(2), 205-229. Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to discourse. Blackwell: Malden, MA.
    67. 67. List of References Wertsch, J. V. (1981). Introduction to “the problems of activity in psychology” by Leont’ev, A. N. In J.V. Wertsch (Ed.), The concept of activity in soviet Psychology (pp 37-40). Armonk, NY: Sharpe. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press: Cambridge: MA; London: England.
    68. 68. List of References Wells, G. (2002). The role of dialogue in activity theory. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 9(1), 43-66. Wells, G. (2007). Semiotic mediation, dialogue and the construction of knowledge. Human Development, 50, 244-274. Yasnitsky, A. & Ferrari, M. (2008). Rethinking the early history of post-Vygotskian 101-121.

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