Psychology 261

410 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
410
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Psychology 261

  1. 1. Psychology 261Psychology 261 Physiological PsychologyPhysiological Psychology Welcome to the course!Welcome to the course!
  2. 2. How does PSYCH 261 fit into theHow does PSYCH 261 fit into the psychology curriculum?psychology curriculum? We expect some basic knowledge from PSYCHWe expect some basic knowledge from PSYCH 101101 We DO NOT expect any particular backgroundWe DO NOT expect any particular background in the life sciences, but inevitably suchin the life sciences, but inevitably such background will help you if you have it.background will help you if you have it. This course serves as prerequisite for: PSYCHThis course serves as prerequisite for: PSYCH 306 (perception), PSYCH 307 (human306 (perception), PSYCH 307 (human neuropsychology), PSYCH 399 (Research inneuropsychology), PSYCH 399 (Research in behavioural neuroscience), PSYCH 461behavioural neuroscience), PSYCH 461 (Honours seminar in behavioural neuroscience).(Honours seminar in behavioural neuroscience).
  3. 3. Who is teaching the course?Who is teaching the course? Colin Ellard (phone ext. 6852, emailColin Ellard (phone ext. 6852, email cellard@watarts.uwaterloo.cacellard@watarts.uwaterloo.ca).).  More about me than you care to know.More about me than you care to know.  What I can do for youWhat I can do for you Lectures, questions, evaluationLectures, questions, evaluation  What I can’t do for youWhat I can’t do for you Read the textbook or make this really easyRead the textbook or make this really easy
  4. 4. Who else is teaching the course?Who else is teaching the course? The teaching assistantsThe teaching assistants  Gillian Munro (Gillian Munro (gesmunro@watarts.uwaterloo.cagesmunro@watarts.uwaterloo.ca, PAS, PAS 4219)4219)  Chris Striemer (Chris Striemer (clstreim@watarts.uwaterloo.caclstreim@watarts.uwaterloo.ca, PAS, PAS 4227)4227) What the teaching assistants can do for youWhat the teaching assistants can do for you  Tutorials and office hoursTutorials and office hours What the teaching assistants cannot do for youWhat the teaching assistants cannot do for you  Tell you what questions are on the tests (they won’tTell you what questions are on the tests (they won’t know) or give you extra marks.know) or give you extra marks.
  5. 5. What is the textbook?What is the textbook? Biological psychology (Rosenzweig, Breedlove &Biological psychology (Rosenzweig, Breedlove & Leiman) 3Leiman) 3rdrd edition.edition.  Used copies MAY be available but check editionUsed copies MAY be available but check edition  One copy will be on reserve in PorterOne copy will be on reserve in Porter  The bookstore doesn’t have enough copies for all ofThe bookstore doesn’t have enough copies for all of you (but they will get more if they sell out).you (but they will get more if they sell out).  Don’t ignore the CD – it’s got some good stuff on it.Don’t ignore the CD – it’s got some good stuff on it.  Check out the website (Check out the website (www.biopsychology.comwww.biopsychology.com) for) for great summaries of breaking neuroscience newsgreat summaries of breaking neuroscience news
  6. 6. How do I get an ‘A’?How do I get an ‘A’? All evaluation is by multiple-choice (I don’t like it, butAll evaluation is by multiple-choice (I don’t like it, but that’s life).that’s life). The midterm is on October 16The midterm is on October 16thth and is worth 40%.and is worth 40%. The exam is in the exam period and is worth 60%The exam is in the exam period and is worth 60% Official documentation is required for a rewriteOfficial documentation is required for a rewrite I will bring example questions to class as often as I can.I will bring example questions to class as often as I can. In the past, few people who have failed to attend classIn the past, few people who have failed to attend class regularly and kept up with the reading have succeeded inregularly and kept up with the reading have succeeded in the course.the course. Try not to get behind.Try not to get behind. Ask for help when a problem arises and NOT on the dayAsk for help when a problem arises and NOT on the day before the midterm.before the midterm.
  7. 7. The organization of the courseThe organization of the course My lectures will follow the syllabus, which isMy lectures will follow the syllabus, which is organized in terms of textbook chapters. But myorganized in terms of textbook chapters. But my lectures will not necessarily cover everything inlectures will not necessarily cover everything in the textbook.the textbook. I will publish coursenotes on the course websiteI will publish coursenotes on the course website in time for you to print off and bring to class ifin time for you to print off and bring to class if you wish:you wish: http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/~cellard/teaching/http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/~cellard/teaching/ PSYC261/p261index.htmlPSYC261/p261index.html It’s a huge class – but try not to be intimidatedIt’s a huge class – but try not to be intimidated about asking questions. Ask on email and I willabout asking questions. Ask on email and I will answer in class.answer in class.
  8. 8. Three simple requests regardingThree simple requests regarding etiquetteetiquette Please do your best to arrive on time (andPlease do your best to arrive on time (and I’ll do the same).I’ll do the same). Please don’t carry out loud, distractingPlease don’t carry out loud, distracting conversations in class.conversations in class. I will always finish class on or before theI will always finish class on or before the stroke of 2:20 pm. Please don’t startstroke of 2:20 pm. Please don’t start packing up until I’ve finished speaking.packing up until I’ve finished speaking.
  9. 9. What a great bunch of topics weWhat a great bunch of topics we have to cover!have to cover! Basic neuroscience stuff – brain cells,Basic neuroscience stuff – brain cells, neuroanatomy, how brain cellsneuroanatomy, how brain cells communicatecommunicate How we know the external world (theHow we know the external world (the senses)senses) How we engage that world (movement)How we engage that world (movement) Sex, sleep and feeling.Sex, sleep and feeling.
  10. 10. Questions?Questions?
  11. 11. Psychology 261Psychology 261 Biological psychology:Biological psychology: Scope and OutlookScope and Outlook
  12. 12. Lecture synopsisLecture synopsis What is biopsychology?What is biopsychology? The three main experimental approachesThe three main experimental approaches Examples of modern biopsychologicalExamples of modern biopsychological researchresearch
  13. 13. What’s in a name?What’s in a name? Biological psychology or biopsychologyBiological psychology or biopsychology Physiological psychologyPhysiological psychology PsychobiologyPsychobiology Behavioural NeuroscienceBehavioural Neuroscience
  14. 14. What are we?What are we? As neuroscientists, we’re the behaviourAs neuroscientists, we’re the behaviour people.people. As psychologists, we’re the brain people.As psychologists, we’re the brain people.
  15. 15. What is physiologicalWhat is physiological psychology?psychology? The study of the relationship betweenThe study of the relationship between brain and behaviourbrain and behaviour  study of behaviourstudy of behaviour  comparative/evolutionary approachescomparative/evolutionary approaches  developmental approachesdevelopmental approaches  mechanismmechanism  applicationapplication
  16. 16. The study of behaviourThe study of behaviour structural descriptions of behaviourstructural descriptions of behaviour  here’s where we say exactly what ishere’s where we say exactly what is happening (“the gentleman put his left leghappening (“the gentleman put his left leg over the melon….”)over the melon….”) functional descriptions of behaviourfunctional descriptions of behaviour  this goes beyond direct observation -- makesthis goes beyond direct observation -- makes some inferences about what is beingsome inferences about what is being donedone (“foraging behaviour”)(“foraging behaviour”)  need to be careful with these-- know whereneed to be careful with these-- know where your inferences come fromyour inferences come from
  17. 17. Comparative and EvolutionaryComparative and Evolutionary approachesapproaches continuity of behaviourcontinuity of behaviour  nature is conservative -- expect to see thenature is conservative -- expect to see the same things re-usedsame things re-used eg. The nerve impulseeg. The nerve impulse species-specificity of behaviourspecies-specificity of behaviour  nature can be adventurous -- new things cannature can be adventurous -- new things can appear to suit the needs of a speciesappear to suit the needs of a species eg. The evolution of languageeg. The evolution of language
  18. 18. We are all alike and we are allWe are all alike and we are all differentdifferent
  19. 19. Developmental approachesDevelopmental approaches individuals change over the lifespanindividuals change over the lifespan (ontogeny)(ontogeny)  TeenagersTeenagers RT to identify emotion in pictures like these begins to increase after age 11 and until about age 20. Also, emotion is more often mis-identified
  20. 20. Developmental Approaches (cont)Developmental Approaches (cont) Teens show more activation in amygdalaTeens show more activation in amygdala Adults show more activation on frontalAdults show more activation on frontal cortex.cortex. This is your brain on fear (if you’re a teenager) This is your brain on fear (if you’re an adult
  21. 21. MechanismMechanism the real engine of biopsychologythe real engine of biopsychology  how does the organization and activity ofhow does the organization and activity of neuronsneurons explainexplain behaviour?behaviour?  It’s surprisingly rare to be able to give a veryIt’s surprisingly rare to be able to give a very complete explanation of anything incomplete explanation of anything in neuroscienceneuroscience
  22. 22. Brain-behaviour relationsBrain-behaviour relations Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (1700 BC)Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (1700 BC)  Describes a number of cases of head injuriesDescribes a number of cases of head injuries  First mention of crossed relationship betweenFirst mention of crossed relationship between brain and bodybrain and body  First mention of aphasia (loss of speech dueFirst mention of aphasia (loss of speech due to damage to left temporal lobe).to damage to left temporal lobe).
  23. 23. Gall and phrenologyGall and phrenology Early origins of localization of functionEarly origins of localization of function Basic idea was that the brain is divided into different areas for different functions (not so silly) and that one could ‘read’ individual brain differences from bumps on the head (somewhat sillier).
  24. 24. fMRI and localizationfMRI and localization
  25. 25. The underlying assumptionsThe underlying assumptions That the brain has something to do with ourThat the brain has something to do with our behaviourbehaviour  A stronger form of this statement that mostA stronger form of this statement that most physiological psychologists would agree with is to sayphysiological psychologists would agree with is to say that the mindthat the mind isis the workings of the brain (This isthe workings of the brain (This is identity theory, a form of monism).identity theory, a form of monism). That different parts of the brain do differentThat different parts of the brain do different thingsthings  Often, this is as far as our analysis has taken us.Often, this is as far as our analysis has taken us.
  26. 26. Response specificity in the visualResponse specificity in the visual systemsystem Gaze direction cells in neocortexGaze direction cells in neocortex Cells in the brain of a monkey respond to the direction in which another monkey is looking
  27. 27. ApplicationApplication research can be applied to humanresearch can be applied to human problemsproblems  There are many great examples (recovery ofThere are many great examples (recovery of function, addiction, early diagnosis offunction, addiction, early diagnosis of diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease).diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease).
  28. 28. Transplants and implants, recoveryTransplants and implants, recovery There is some evidence that procedures like this can help with Parkinson’s disease and perhaps other afflictions
  29. 29. Birdsong and brain growthBirdsong and brain growth Fernando Nottebohm Cross section of zebra finch brain showing song production (blue) and song learning (red) pathways.
  30. 30. The three main experimentalThe three main experimental approachesapproaches somatic interventionsomatic intervention behavioural interventionbehavioural intervention correlationcorrelation
  31. 31. Somatic interventionSomatic intervention we mess with the brain to affect behaviourwe mess with the brain to affect behaviour  introduce a chemicalintroduce a chemical  make a lesionmake a lesion  stimulate a pathwaystimulate a pathway
  32. 32. Behavioural interventionBehavioural intervention we mess with behaviour to affect the brainwe mess with behaviour to affect the brain  enriched environmentsenriched environments  imaging, EEGimaging, EEG
  33. 33. CorrelationCorrelation we mess with mathematics to look at thewe mess with mathematics to look at the relationship between two variablesrelationship between two variables  these methods rely on individual differencesthese methods rely on individual differences are bigger brains better?are bigger brains better? Is schizophrenia correlated with any interestingIs schizophrenia correlated with any interesting structural variation in brains?structural variation in brains?
  34. 34. Three main approaches toThree main approaches to studying the physiology ofstudying the physiology of behaviourbehaviour
  35. 35. SummarySummary Physiological psychology is at the interface ofPhysiological psychology is at the interface of psychology and neurosciencepsychology and neuroscience Physiological psychology is multifaceted, andPhysiological psychology is multifaceted, and includes evolutionary, developmental, appliedincludes evolutionary, developmental, applied and mechanistic elementsand mechanistic elements The three main experimental approaches involveThe three main experimental approaches involve somatic or behavioural intervention, orsomatic or behavioural intervention, or correlation.correlation. We’re really just getting started – there’s muchWe’re really just getting started – there’s much to be done.to be done.
  36. 36. For next time….For next time…. You should read through Chapter 1 (I’llYou should read through Chapter 1 (I’ll bring some questions for you!).bring some questions for you!). Start reading Chapter 2 (neuroanatomy).Start reading Chapter 2 (neuroanatomy). You will want to read this chapter severalYou will want to read this chapter several times before the midterm. There’s muchtimes before the midterm. There’s much to learn here.to learn here.

×