Psyc 2301 Chapter 14 and 15 Notes (2010 - Learning Web


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Psyc 2301 Chapter 14 and 15 Notes (2010 - Learning Web

  1. 1. Chapter 14- Psychological Disorders Anxiety Disorders- Anxiety is a familiar emotion to all of us- the feeling of tension, apprehension, and worry that often hits during personal crisis and everyday conflicts. In Anxiety Disorders, the anxiety is maladaptive (inhibit a person’s ability to adjust to particular situations.) disrupting activities, moods, and thought processes. Three features distinguish normal anxiety from pathological anxiety. Pathological anxiety is ; irrational, uncontrollable, and disruptive. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Global, persistent, chronic and ongoing anxiety is the main feature of GAD. Normal anxiety quickly dissipates when a threatening situation is resolved. In GAD, when one source of worry is removed, another quickly take it’s place. The anxiety can be attached to any object or person or none at all. GAD is often referred as “free-floating anxiety”. Panic Disorder In panic disorder, the anxiety is sudden, intense and short-lived. A Panic Attack is a sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity. The most common symptoms of a panic attack are a pounding heart, rapid breathing, breathlessness, and a choking situation. When panic attacks occur frequently and unexpectedly, the person is said to suffer from panic disorder. Phobias A phobia is a strong irrational fear of something, usually a specific object or situation. Having a phobia does not mean a person has a psychological disorder. People with a Specific Phobia have an irrational fear of a specific object or situation that interferes with the ability to function in everyday life. People with Social Phobia or Social Anxiety Disorder have an extreme or irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged or scrutinized in social situations. Social Phobia is far more debilitating than everyday shyness. People with social phobia are intensively fearful of being watched and judged by others. Even in everyday activities, such as eating with friends in a restaurant, can cause unbearable anxiety. Phobias can partly be explained by; classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning.
  2. 2. Agoraphobia This is a type of phobia that deserves special attention. Agoraphobia is an extreme and irrational fear of experiencing a panic attack in a public situation and being unable to escape or get help. Agoraphobia means “fear of the marketplace”. Although agoraphobia and panic disorder are characterized by panic attacks, not everyone with panic disorder develops agoraphobia. Many people with agoraphobia will become prisoners in their own homes, unable to go out the door. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a long-lasting anxiety disorder that develops in response to an extreme physical or psychological trauma. Extreme traumas are events that produce intense feelings of horror and helplessness, such as a serious physical injury or threat of injury to yourself or to loved ones. PTSD was originally associated with direct experiences of military combat. However, it now know n that PTSD can develop in survivors of other sorts of extreme traumas, such as natural disasters, physical or sexual assault, random shooting sprees, or terrorist attacks. Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder (OCD) OCD is characterized by symptoms of anxiety which are triggered by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain actions. A deficiency in the neurotransmitter serotonin seems to be associated with OCD. Obsessions are repeated, intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts or mental images that cause a person great worry and distress. One common obsession is an irrational fear of dirt, germs, and other forms of contamination. Another common theme is the pathological doubt about having accomplished a simple task, such as shutting off appliances or locking a door. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors that a person feels driven to perform, Typically, compulsions are ritual behaviors that must be carried out in a certain process or sequence. Compulsions may be overt physical behaviors, such as repeated hand washing, checking doors and windows. Other compulsions may be covert mental behaviors, such as counting or reciting certain phrases to yourself. If a person tries to resist performing the ritual, unbearable tension, anxiety and distress. Many people with OCD have the irrational belief that failure to perform the ritual action will lead to catastrophic or disastrous outcome.
  3. 3. Mood Disorders Mood Disorders is a category of mental disorders in which significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emotions cause impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning; also called affective (affect is another word for “emotion or mood”) disorders. The DSM-IV-TR defines mood disorder as a serious, persistent disturbance in a person’s emotions that cause psychological discomfort which impairs the ability to function or both. Major Depression Major Depressionis characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency, worthlessness, and hopelessness causing impaired emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. It is often triggered by traumatic and stressed events. In Major Depression, there is a loss of pleasure in almost all activities, feelings of emptiness, excessive guilt, preoccupation with death or suicidal thoughts, difficulty sleeping, dimished ability to think, concentrate or make decisions, and diminished appetite and significant weight loss. Dysthymic Disorder In contrast to major depression, which significantly impairs a person’s ability to function, some people experience a less severe form of depression called dysthymic disorder. Dysthymic Disorder is chronic, low-grade depression. It is characterized by many symptoms of depression, but the symptoms are less intense. Although the person functions adequately, they have a chronic case of “the blues” that can continue for years. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) SAD is repeated episodes of depression in the changing seasons of the onset of autumn to winter. In the most common form of SAD, episodes of depression recur in the fall and winter months when there is the least amount of sunlight. Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder involves periods of depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement (Mania). A person with Bipolar Disorder experience extreme mood swings During manic episodes, the person’s thoughts often rapidly shift from topic to topic. This is often referred to as a “flight of ideas”. For most people with Bipolar Disorders, a manic episode immediately precedes or follows a bout with major depression. However, according to the DSM-IV-TR , a small percentage of people experience only manic episodes. Cyclothymic Disorder Cyclothymic Disorder is characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings, which last two years or more that are not severe enough to qualify as bipolar disorder.
  4. 4. Personality Disorders Personality Disorders are inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations, and deviate from the expectations of the individuals culture. Personality traits are consistent over time and across situations, but they are not etched in stone. A psychologically well-adjusted person possesses a fair degree of flexibility and adaptiveness. Based on our experiences with others, we are able to modify are behaviors and how we display our personality traits. In contrast, someone with personality disorder has personality traits that are inflexible and maladaptive across a broad range of situations. Paranoid Personality Disorder Paranoid Personality Disorder is characterized by pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of the motives of other without sufficient basis. About 3% of the general population display this disorder, which occurs more frequently in men. These individuals are constantly on guard because they think that other people are out to exploit, harm, or dupe them. Antisocial Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others. These people are often referred to as “psychopaths or sociopaths”. These people have the ability to lie, steal, cheat, and otherwise manipulate and harm other people. Evidence of this personality trait can be seen in childhood or early adolescence. In many cases, the child has repeated run-ins with the law or school authorities. Behaviors that draw the attention of authorities can include; cruelty to animals, attacking or harming adults or other children, theft, setting fires, and destroying property. This pattern of behavior is typically diagnosed as conduct disorder. Borderline Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder is characterized by instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and marked impulsivity. This is the most commonly diagnosed personality disorder, of 10 million Americans diagnosed with personality disorder, about 75% are women. The person has extreme mood swings and angry outbursts are common. They often have feelings of emptiness and are afraid of abandonment. There sense of self is just as unstable and just as chaotic as their external world, partly because their identity is so fragile. Some researchers believe that a disruption in attachment relationships in early childhood is an important cause. Other Personality Disorders Schizoid, Schizotypal, Histrionic, Narcissistic, Avoidant, Dependent and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders.
  5. 5. Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorders are a category of psychological disorders in which extreme and frequent disruptions of awareness, memory, and personal identity impair and function. Dissociative experience is one in which a person’s awareness, memory, and personal identity become separated or divided. While that may sound weird, dissociative experiences are not inherently pathological. Mild dissociative experiences are quite common and completely normal. In Dissociative Disorders, the dissociative experiences are more extreme and frequent and severely disruptive in everyday functioning. Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Amnesia refers to the partial or total inability to recall important information that is not due to medical conditions, such as illness, injury or drugs. Usually the person develops amnesia for personal events and information, rather than for knowledge or skills. In most cases, dissociative amnesia is a response to stress, such as combat, marital problems, or physical abuse. Dissociative Fugue Dissociative Fugue is a closely related disorder to dissociative amnesia. In dissociative fugue, the person outwardly appears completely normal. However, the person has extensive amnesia and is confused about his identity. While in the fugue state, they suddenly and inexplicably travels from their home, wandering to other cities or even countries. In some cases, people in a fugue state adopt a completely new identity. It is thought to be associated with traumatic events or stressful periods. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) among all dissociative disorders is more fascinating- or controversial than any other, formerly known as multiple personality disorder. It involves extensive memory disruptions for personal information with the presence of two or more distinct identities or “personalities” within a single person. Typically, each personality has its own name and is experienced as if it has its own history and self- image. These alternate personalities are often called alters or alter egos, each of which may have different ages and genders. In order to explain dissociative identity disorder, research has shown that a very high percentage of DID patients report having suffered extreme physical or sexual abuse in childhood- over 90% in most surveys.
  6. 6. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR is a disorder characterized by impaired functioning by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia can be described in terms of two broad categories: positive and negative symptoms. Schizophrenia is an extremely complex disorder also called psychosis, which is a characterized by a loss of contact with reality. There are enormous individual variability in the onset, symptoms, duration, and recovery from schizophrenia. According to the dopamine hypothesis, schizophrenia is related to excessive activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. There is also strong evidence that shows there is genetic involvement . Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia Delusions are false beliefs that persists in spite of contradictory evidence. Delusions of Reference occur when a person convinced that other people are constantly talking about them and everything that is related to them in some way. They believe the person on the radio is speaking to them. Delusions of Grandeur are when a person believes they are extremely powerful, wealthy, or important. They believe they are the president of the United States or Jesus. Delusions of Persecution are when a person believes other people are plotting against them to harm them or someone important to them. A person may believe that “terrorist forces” are going to attack them in their own home. Hallucinations are false or distorted perceptions that seem vividly real. The content of hallucinations is often tied to the person’s delusional beliefs. Hallucinations include; visual, smell or taste, touch or tactile and the most common type of hallucination which is auditory. Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia include; social withdrawal, loss of motivation, very limited speech, slowed movements, poor hygiene, poor problem-solving abilities and a distorted sense of time. Some people may exhibit a flat affect, showing practically no emotional response at all, even though they may report feeling emotional. Four Types of Schizophrenia Paranoid Schizophrenia is the most common type of schizophrenia with symptoms of delusions and hallucinations. Disorganized Schizophrenia is the most serious type marked by extreme social withdrawal, hallucinations, delusions and inapproiate behavior. Catatonic Schizophrenia is characterized by bizarre postures or grimacing or echoing words spoken by another person. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia is when the symptoms do not conform to one type of schizophrenia.
  7. 7. Chapter 15- Therapies Psychoanalytic Therapy Psychoanalytic Therapy or Psychoanalysis is a form of therapy developed by Sigmund Freud. Psychotherapy can be described as the use of psychological techniques to increase understanding and treat emotional, behavioral and interpersonal problems. All forms of psychotherapy share the assumption that psychological factors play a significant role in problematic emotions, behaviors and thoughts. Psychoanalysis is a form of therapy based on dream interpretation, transference and resistance. Transference refers to a patient responding to the therapist as though the therapist was a significant person in their life. Resistance refers to patients unconscious attempts to block repressed memories and conflicts. Humanistic Therapy – Client- centered therapy The humanistic perspective has exerted a strong influence on psychotherapy. The most influential of the humanistic psychotherapies is client-centered therapy, also called person- centered therapy developed by Carl Rogers. Carl Rogers believed to promote self-awareness, psychological growth and self-directed change the three qualities important of a therapist are e; genuineness, unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding. Behavior Therapy Behavior therapy, also called Behavior Modification is to modify a specific problem behavior, not to change the entire personality. Behavior therapy use techniques of learning and conditioning to change behavior. Mary Cover Jones was the first behavior therapist who developed was the first behavior therapist who developed counterconditioning- the learning of a new response that is incompatible with a previously learned response. Cognitive Therapy Cognitive therapies is based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to maladaptive patterns of thinking, treatment techniques focus on recognizing and altering these unhealthy thinking patterns. Albert Ellis developed rational-emotional therapy (RET) which promotes psychologically healthier thought process by disputing irrational beliefs and replacing them with more rational interpretations of events. “ABC” Model- (A) Activating Event (B) Beliefs and (C) Consequences Cognitive –Behavioral Therapy Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) integrates cognitive and behavioral techniques and based on the assumption that thoughts, moods, and behaviors are interrelated.