ppt - PowerPoint Presentation

929 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
929
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
33
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Cerebellum - the part of the brain below the back of the cerebrum. It regulates balance, posture, movement, and muscle coordination.
    Corpus Callosum - a large bundle of nerve fibers that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres. In the lateral section, it looks a bit like a "C" on its side.
    Frontal Lobe of the Cerebrum - the top, front regions of each of the cerebral hemispheres. They are used for reasoning, emotions, judgment, and voluntary movement.
    Medulla Oblongata - the lowest section of the brainstem (at the top end of the spinal cord); it controls automatic functions including heartbeat, breathing, etc.
    Occipital Lobe of the Cerebrum - the region at the back of each cerebral hemisphere that contains the centers of vision and reading ability (located at the back of the head).
    Parietal Lobe of the Cerebrum - the middle lobe of each cerebral hemisphere between the frontal and occipital lobes; it contains important sensory centers (located at the upper rear of the head).
    Pituitary Gland - a gland attached to the base of the brain (located between the Pons and the Corpus Callosum) that secretes hormones.
    Pons - the part of the brainstem that joins the hemispheres of the cerebellum and connects the cerebrum with the cerebellum. It is located just above the Medulla Oblongata.
    Spinal Cord - a thick bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the brain to the hip area, running through the spine (vertebrae).
    Temporal Lobe of the Cerebrum - the region at the lower side of each cerebral hemisphere; contains centers of hearing and memory (located at the sides of the head).
  • ppt - PowerPoint Presentation

    1. 1. Foundations of Cognitive Psychology  History of Cognitive Psychology • Ancient Questions (The Greeks) • (Western) Philosophical Context • Psychological Context • What is Cognitive Psychology? • What is Psychology? • What is Cognitive Psychology? • What are its Methods? • Science of the Mind (Cognitive Psych.) vs. Science of the Brain (Neuroscience) • Basic Overview of the Brain • Why Cognitive Psychology is Necessary • Connectionism
    2. 2. Foundations of Cognitive Psychology  History of Cognitive Psychology • Ancient Questions (The Greeks) • (Western) Philosophical Context • Psychological Context • What is Cognitive Psychology? • What is Psychology? • What is Cognitive Psychology? • What are its Methods? • Science of the Mind (Cognitive Psych.) vs. Science of the Brain (Neuroscience) • Basic Overview of the Brain • Why Cognitive Psychology is Necessary • Connectionism
    3. 3. Ancient Questions (The Greeks) Platonic dialogue the Meno  First extended discussion of nature of knowledge o Where does knowledge come from? o What does it consist of? o How is it represented in the mind?  Extended dialogue btwn Socrates & young slave  Socrates ‘demonstrates’ that boy possesses within him all the knowledge necessary to compute various geometrical relationships  abstract math = knowledge par excellence  Understanding of all domains implanted in soul at birth  Task of instructor: to bring this innate knowledge to conscious awareness
    4. 4. (Western) Philosophical Context  Middle Ages  Aristotle was cornerstone of discussion  Discussions about knowledge were purview of theologians  Renaissance & Enlightenment Period  Descartes, Locke, Kant  Discussions now drew on findings from newly established empirical sciences  End of 19th Century  Proliferation of ‘new sciences’ and ‘philosophical specialties’  Several deal with ‘nature of the human mind’
    5. 5. Psychological Context  Still asking questions that intrigued Greeks  What does it mean to know?  Where does knowledge come from?  But now armed with:  empirical methods  better tools (i.e. computer)  Behaviorism (1920-1950s)  Mentalistic talk is gibberish  Focus on… Stimulus  Response (Associations) o Law of Exercise. Responses to a situation which are followed by rewarding state of affairs will be strengthened & become habitual o Law of Effect. Connections become strengthened with practice & weakened when practice is discontinued Cognitive Psychology develops in response to Behaviorism
    6. 6. Foundations of Cognitive Psychology  History of Cognitive Psychology • Ancient Questions (The Greeks) • (Western) Philosophical Context • Psychological Context • What is Cognitive Psychology? • What is Psychology? • What is Cognitive Psychology? • What are its Methods? • Science of the Mind (Cognitive Psych.) vs. Science of the Brain (Neuroscience) • Basic Overview of the Brain • Why Cognitive Psychology is Necessary • Connectionism
    7. 7. What is Psychology?  The Freud/Skinner misconception  Many think they are representative of the field when they are not  Less than 10% of APA membership fall under either paradigm  Represent, in some ways, the two extremes Freud (Psychoanalysis)  Heavy on theory  Light on behavioral data Majority of Psychologists: Study of both ‘psyche’ and ‘behavior’ Skinner (Behaviorism)  Light on theory  Heavy on behavioral data
    8. 8. What is Psychology?  Data basis for evaluating theories is behavior  From the observation of behavioral patterns, theories containing hypothetical concepts* are constructed. *don’t always refer to conscious mental events  They are then changed based on further behavioral observation. This process is not remarkable – same process as in other sciences.
    9. 9. What is Psychology?  A data-based scientific discipline  Then what is a “science”?  NOT defined by subject matter  NOT defined by use of particular methods/tools  NOT defined by specific concrete procedures  IS a way of thinking about & observing world  Defining Features of A Science 1. Use of systematic empiricism 2. Production of public knowledge 3. Examination of solvable problems
    10. 10. What is Psychology?  Use of systematic empiricism  Empiricism: practice of relying on observation  Systematic: Observations are structured so that the results of the observation reveal something about the underlying nature of the world (typically theory driven)  Production of public knowledge  Findings are submitted to scientific community for criticism & empirical testing (peer-review)  Notion of ‘replication’  Leads to cumulative growth of knowledge (researchers build on what is already known)  Examination of solvable problems  The type of questions addressed are ones that are potentially answerable given currently available empirical techniques
    11. 11. What is Psychology? Q. Does psychology ‘thingify’ people?  Science has encroached on many (most) areas that once were the province of philosophy, religion, literature, art…  BUT… scientific study of topics once relegated to other fields does not necessarily mean denigration of humanity (e.g. Health Care)  Important to parse out those questions that can be answered via science & those that simply cannot.
    12. 12. What is Cognitive Psychology? Five Key Features: 1. Posits a level of analysis wholly separate from the biological or neurological 2. Faith that central to any understanding of the human mind is the computer 3. Deliberate decision to de-emphasize certain factors that may be important but complicate things (emotion, history/culture, role of context) 4. Faith in interdisciplinary studies (philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, anthropology, neuroscience) 5. Claim that a key ingredient in contemporary cognitive psych. is the agenda of issues which have long exercised epistemologists in the Western philosophical tradition
    13. 13. We stopped here & will continue with the rest tomorrow.
    14. 14. What are its Methods?  Information processing analyses  Computer simulation  Response latencies (subtractive technique)  Eye fixations (attention)  Verbal reports: think aloud & retrospective  Sorting (categories)  Discourse analysis  Ethnographic methodologies  Design experiments  Coding of verbal protocols
    15. 15. Foundations of Cognitive Psychology  History of Cognitive Psychology • Ancient Questions (The Greeks) • (Western) Philosophical Context • Psychological Context • What is Cognitive Psychology? • What is Psychology? • What is Cognitive Psychology? • What are its Methods? • Science of the Mind (Cognitive Psych.) vs. Science of the Brain (Neuroscience) • Basic Overview of the Brain • Why Cognitive Psychology is Necessary • Connectionism
    16. 16. Overview of the Brain - Graphic
    17. 17. Why Cognitive Psychology is Necessary  "brain-based education" is wildly popular, however… It builds a bridge too far. Findings about the brain How individual learn (complex tasks) Best practices in education neuroscienc cog. psych. education
    18. 18. Why Cog.Psych. is Necessary Example of a Bridge Too Far: Claims about the educational significance of brain laterality (right brain vs. left brain)   Neuroscientific Findings:  Categorical & coordinate spatial reasoning are performed by distinct subsystems in the brain. o Subsystem in brain's left hemisphere performs  categorical spatial reasoning. o Subsystem in brain's right hemisphere processes coordinate spatial relationships.  Thus, research points to differences in the information-processing abilities & biases of the brain hemispheres.
    19. 19. Why Cog.Psych. Is Necessary Example of a Bridge Too Far (con’t.): Claims about the educational significance of brain laterality (right brain vs. left brain)  Gloss of Findings:  The left hemisphere is logical, analytical, rational, serial processor (e.g., speech, reading, & writing)  The right hemisphere is intuitive, creative visual, spatial, parallel processor (e.g., recognition of faces, places) THEREFORE…  Schools are left-hemisphere dominant when they should engage both hemispheres.  To involve the right hemisphere in learning, teachers should encourage spatial reasoning, for example.
    20. 20. Why Cog.Psych. Is Necessary Example of a Bridge Too Far (con’t.): Claims about the educational significance of brain laterality (right brain vs. left brain)  Problems:  It is subsystems not total hemispheres that are specialized in important ways.  Complex tasks (of the type we do in school) involve multiple types of processing, often spanning both hemispheres  Thus, the tasks of educational interest are often not confined to one hemisphere or the other
    21. 21. Why Cognitive Psychology is Necessary The take-home point:  We do not know enough about brain functioning to link that understanding directly, in any meaningful way, to educational practice.  And what we do know about the brain is too fine grained to be of much use. However ...  there are two shorter bridges already in place that indirectly link brain function with educational practice: o 50 year old bridge between education & cognitive psychology o 20 year old bridge between cognitive psychology & neuroscience.
    22. 22. Activity 1) Recall a personal learning event 2) Describe your model of cognition

    ×