Microsoft PowerPoint - L3 Neuroanatomy 3061 07b_notes


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Microsoft PowerPoint - L3 Neuroanatomy 3061 07b_notes

  1. 1. Psy 3061: Biological Psychology Neuroanatomy Mark Thomas, Ph.D. Department of Psychology Department of Neuroscience Anatomy of the Nervous System Outline Divisions Orientation Spinal Cord Brain Protection The Real Thing
  2. 2. Divisions of the Nervous System Brain Organization Sensory information Appropriate behavior PNS PNS CNS Afferent Efferent
  3. 3. Divisions of the Nervous System Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic • Region of spinal cord • Pre- and postganglionic length • Effects on target organ • Prepares organism for different circumstances Autonomic
  4. 4. CNS vs PNS Brain vs Spinal cord (both are CNS) Somatic vs autonomic (both are PNS) Afferent vs efferent (info flow re CNS) Sympathetic vs parasympathetic (both are autonomic PNS) Terminology differs in PNS vs CNS: ganglion - nuclei; nerves - tracts/pathways Divisions of the Nervous System Direction & Orientation Anterior (towards front) v. posterior (towards back) (Similar: rostral v. caudal) Dorsal (towards surface of back or top of head) v. ventral Medial (toward midline) v. lateral
  5. 5. Planes of Section Horizontal section = divides specimen into dorsal and ventral segments Transverse (or coronal) section = divides specimen into rostral and caudal segments Sagittal section = divides specimen into left and right portions
  6. 6. CoronalCoronal SagittalSagittal HorizontalHorizontal The Human Brain Copyright ©1994 by U of WA Digital Anatomist Program
  7. 7. The Human Brain Copyright ©1994 by U of WA Digital Anatomist Program The Human Brain Copyright ©1994 by U of WA Digital Anatomist Program
  8. 8. The Human Spinal Cord Copyright ©1994 by U of WA Digital Anatomist Program Spinal Cord 31 pairs of spinal nerves 4 regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral Dorsal horn (sensory functions) & ventral horn (motor functions) Function: Receives & processes sensory info and controls movement of limbs and trunk
  9. 9. Brainstem Midbrain Pons Medulla
  10. 10. Medulla Medulla Includes major ascending and descending nerve tracts and a network of small nuclei (reticular formation) Functions: Vital functions Sleep, attention Movement, muscle tone Raphe nuclei Major source of serotonin
  11. 11. Pons Continuation of reticular formation Peduncles connect cerebellum to brainstem Midbrain Tectum superior colliculi (vision) inferior colliculi (audition) Tegmentum red nucleus, substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmental area (VTA) Complex motor behavior, motivational behavior
  12. 12. Midbrain Cerebellum Postural control Feedback for movements in progress; fine-tuning Learning motor skills
  13. 13. Thalamus Sensory relay nuclei Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN; vision) Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MGN; auditory) Arousal Large number of nuclei Synchrony Hypothalamus Regulates autonomic, endocrine & visceral functions Control over responses to environment: Fight Flight Feeding Reproduction
  14. 14. Telencephalon Largest division of human brain Cortex (outer layer) Subcortical structures: Striatum: regulates motor performance, motivated behavior Limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala): memory, emotion Striatum
  15. 15. Limbic System Cortex Cortex has gyri and sulci/ fissures Corpus callosum : ‘commissure’ Landmark fissures: Longitudinal two hemispheres Central pre- from postcentral gyrus Lateral parietal from temporal cortex
  16. 16. Cortex Cortex: complex cognitive, integrative functions. Important gyri: precentral & postcentral 4 lobes: Frontal = planning, working memory, selecting options Parietal = processing somatosensory info Temporal = processing auditory info, language comprehension, memory, emotion Occipital = processing visual info
  17. 17. Cortex Meninges 3 types of meninges offer protection: Dura mater (outer) = tough membrane. Protects CNS. Arachnoid mater (middle) = weblike, secures dura to pia, and creates subarachnoid space (with CSF and large blood vessels) Pia mater (on inside)= delicate. Tight adhesion to cortical surface.
  18. 18. Meninges Frank Willard: Ventricles Ventricles: 4 large cavities; contain CSF Two lateral ventricles: in telencephalon. C-shaped. 3rd ventricle: in diencephalon. Vertically oriented. Tapers into aqueduct. 4th ventricle: on roof of pons and medulla. Diamond shaped.
  19. 19. Ventricles Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Protective role Manufactured by ‘choroid plexus’: capillary network lining ventricles. Circulates through ventricles and subarachnoid space. Absorbed into large channels (‘sinuses’) in dura mater, then back into blood stream Hydrocephalus caused by excess CSF: headaches, vomiting, gait instability, urinary incontinence, dementia and coma
  20. 20. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Brain relies on vascular system for nourishment and oxygen BBB protects brain via ‘selective permeability’ allows water, small lipid soluble solutes and gases (O2, Co2) to pass Impermeable to large plasma proteins and large organic molecules
  21. 21. Human Brain & Evolution Key Points It has increased in size during the course of evolution Most of this increase in size has occurred in the cerebrum Increase in the size of the cerebrum has been accompanied by increased convolutions of the cortex