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  1. 1. Treatment of Psychological Disorders
  2. 2. Overview How can treatments be evaluated? How do drug treatments work? What are the different types of psychological treatments?
  3. 3. Evaluating Effectiveness  Measurable outcomes  Relapse rate  Side effects  Spontaneous recovery  Placebo effects  Eclectic approach to treatment
  4. 4. How do Drug Treatments Work? Evidence of abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems for particular disorders Drug treatments affect these neurotransmitter systems
  5. 5. Example: Antipsychotics  Phenothiazines are widely used (e.g., Thorazine)  Reduce psychotic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, disordered thinking  Blocks action of dopamine  Side effects include tardive dyskinesia  Lack of compliance with medication instructions
  6. 6. Example: Antidepressants  Tricyclics are commonly prescribed (e.g., Elavil)  Improve mood, activity, sleep patterns  Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors  Effects slightly better than placebo effects  Take several weeks to work  May be fatal when consumed with alcohol
  7. 7. Example: Anxiolytics  Benzodiazapenes are widely used (e.g., Valium)  Reduce anxiety levels  Stimulate GABA receptors  Tolerance may develop  Side effects include drowsiness, difficulty thinking
  8. 8. Psychological Treatments Psychodynamic Therapy Humanistic Therapy Behavior Therapy Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
  9. 9. Psychodynamic Therapy  Explore unconscious thoughts and emotions  Develop insight  Focus on relationships with others  Can be time-consuming and expensive  Limited evidence of effectiveness
  10. 10. Humanistic Therapy  Focus on personal growth, future  Client is responsible  Emphasis on acceptance, support  Unconditional positive regard (Rogers)  Limited evidence of effectiveness
  11. 11. Behavior Therapy  Emphasis on learned behavior patterns  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Focus on changing behaviors  Continuous monitoring of behaviors  Most effective therapy for anxiety disorders
  12. 12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy  Focus on maladaptive thoughts and behaviors  Identify irrational thoughts, cognitive distortions  Change thoughts and behaviors by using principles of learning  Effective in treating depression and anxiety disorders

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