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  1. 1. CEC Conference October 2010
  2. 2.  Identifying GT, ED, GaTED, and related 2E students  Case studies  Working with gifted students with emotional disturbance
  3. 3.  Gifted/talented children. Those students who are identified as possessing demonstrated or potential abilities that give evidence of high performing capabilities in ◦ Intellectual ◦ Creative ◦ Specific academic ◦ Leadership areas ◦ Performing or visual arts  and who require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop such capabilities (33-2001), Idaho Code.  20Talented%20Rules%20and%20Regulations.pdf
  4. 4. 05. Assessment.  Placement decisions shall not be determined by a single criterion (for instance, test scores, other measurement, teacher recommendation, or nomination). The district's identification process shall use multiple indicators of giftedness with information obtained through the following methods and sources:  a. Procedures for obtaining information about students shall include formal assessment methods, such as group and individual tests of achievement, general ability, specific aptitudes and creativity.  b. Procedures for obtaining information about students shall also include informal assessment methods, such as checklists, rating scales, pupil product evaluations, observations, nominations, biographical data, questionnaires, interviews and grades.  c. Information about students shall be obtained from multiple sources, such as teachers, counselors, peers, parents, community members, subject area experts, and the students themselves.
  5. 5.  Twice exceptional students typically demonstrate outstanding performance in either the verbal IQ or performance IQ on the WISC.  The Full Scale IQ is not a true indication of their ability if significant discrepancies exist within the four composite scores.  See GAI from Wechsler technical reports.  Student FSIQ – 118; PSI 98; VCI 147; GAI 142.
  6. 6.  Do not train children to learning by force and harshness, but direct them to it by what amuses their minds, so that you may be better able to discover with accuracy the peculiar bent of the genius of each.– Plato
  7. 7.  Twice-exceptional students usually have higher scores on Vocabulary, Similarities, Information, and Comprehension  Lower scores on Digit Span, Coding, and Letter- Number Sequencing.  The Gifted Development Center (Denver, Colorado) has found that some children responded unpredictably to Letter-Number Sequencing.  The Arithmetic subtest has a higher correlation with general intelligence (g-loading or g-factor) and is more engaging for most gifted children  Arithmetic subtest may be substituted for the Letter-Number Sequencing subtest unless a child shows evidence of mathephobia.
  8. 8.  Processing Speed does not necessarily equal intelligence, as gifted children are often reflective.  It is not exactly known whether any basic cognitive processes are being accurately assessed by measures of reaction time (Sattler, 2001).  Reflective children who are intelligent problem solvers are consequently penalized on subtests that reward speed.
  9. 9.  It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.-- Aristotle
  10. 10.  Students who are identified as gifted and talented in one or more areas of exceptionality and also identified with one or more specific diagnosable conditions [which may not be diagnosed], such as learning disabilities, mental health problems, neurological disorders, physical handicaps, or the asynchronicity that occurs due to the discrepancy between mental age and chronological age that may or may not impede their progress in life.
  11. 11.  Definition: A student with emotional disturbance has a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time, and to a marked degree, that adversely affects his or her educational performance:  1. an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors;  2. an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and  teachers;  3. inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;  4. a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or  5. a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school  problems.  The term does not include students who are socially maladjusted unless it is determined they have an emotional disturbance. The term emotional disturbance does include students who are diagnosed with schizophrenia.
  12. 12. 3. The student has been observed exhibiting one or more of the five behavioral or emotional characteristics listed in the definition of emotional disturbance. 4. The characteristic(s) has been observed: a. for a long period of time (at least 6 months); and b. by more than one knowledgeable observer; and c. in more than one setting; and d. at a level of frequency, duration, and/or intensity that is significantly different from other students’ behavior in the same or similar circumstances. 5. The student’s condition adversely affects educational performance in the area of academics, peer and teacher interaction, participation in class activities, and/or classroom conduct. 6. The student needs special education.
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  14. 14.  Logical explanations for inappropriate behavior  Good mathematical reasoning, poor recall of math facts  Strong questioning attitude  May appear disrespectful when questioning the teacher about facts and/or information  May have very focused area of interest (passion areas) that are outside of school curricula  Blames others for their problems
  15. 15.  May perform well with challenging tasks, while disliking rote, fact, and skill level learning  Disguises low self-esteem through immature behaviors: disruptive, anger, crying, withdrawal  Lacks self-efficacy in area of abilities  Manipulates – sets up situations to own advantage, often as a coping mechanism  Extremely divergent in thought, may appear to daydream while generating ideas  Uses humor to divert attention away from school failures
  16. 16.  Enjoys kinesthetic exploration of environment (takes physical risks) often without regard for consequences  May be isolated, not fitting in with either other GT students or students with disabilities  Highly sensitive to criticism – may not understand constructive criticism  Excerpted from Equity in Gifted Education: A State Initiative  Download the entire chart from:  f
  17. 17.  s-people-Mental-illness  So what?  Patterns?  Cautions?
  18. 18. Misdiagnosis Masking
  19. 19.  ADHD  What are the characteristics?
  20. 20.  gifted-history-james-t-webb-founder-of-seng-and-great- potential-press  James Webb interview  "The psychiatrists in particular seem to be the reluctant group to come to terms with this -- they seem to focus more on pathology," Webb explains. "Psychologists are a somewhat less hard sell, but it's still an issue. I've seen three and four and five year olds being misdiagnosed as bipolar disorder, hospitalized, put on medication that was not tested on children. And the issues were clearly not anything like bipolar. It was the fact that gifted children are intense. They do overreact to situations. Unless you understand that it's easy to fall into a trap of saying, 'Oh, this is a child who's disturbed mentally and emotionally'."
  21. 21.  Parents react to these societal pressures by criticizing their gifted children and using what he calls "killer statements":  Can't you just do it because I said so?  Just play with the other children, you are no different than anyone else.  I can't believe you forgot, I mean, after all you're in the GATE program.
  22. 22.  perfectionism may be misinterpreted as obsessive compulsive behaviors  high energy may be misinterpreted as ADHD  Kazimierz noted multiple abnormal behaviors associated with highly gifted individuals.
  23. 23.  Diagnostic Criteria for ADHD Reprinted with permission from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Ed. (DSM- IVtr). Copyright 2000. American Psychiatric Association.  1) Six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:
  24. 24. Inattention  a) Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities  b) Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities  c) Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly  d) Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)  e) Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities  f) Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework)  g) Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (eg, toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools)  h) Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli  i) Is often forgetful in daily activities
  25. 25.  2) Six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity- impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: Hyperactivity  a) Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat  b) Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected  c) Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)  d) Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly  e) Is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"  f) Often talks excessively Impulsivity  g) Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed  h) Often has difficulty awaiting turn  i) Often interrupts or intrudes on others (eg, butts into conversations or games)
  26. 26.  B. Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before 7 years of age.  C. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in 2 or more settings (eg, at school [or work] or at home).  D. There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.  E. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (eg, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, or personality disorder).  alone- trailer/cf453af4ace6efe50d04cf453af4ace6efe50d04- 170174513194?q=home%20alone%20you%20tube
  27. 27.  Poorly sustained attention in almost all situations  Diminished persistence on tasks not having immediate consequences  Impulsivity, poor delay of gratification  Impaired adherence to commands to regulate or inhibit behavior in social contexts  More active, restless than normal children  Difficulty adhering to rules and regulations
  28. 28.  Poor attention, boredom, daydreaming in specific situations  Low tolerance for persistence on tasks that seem irrelevant  Judgment lags behind development of intellect  Intensity may lead to power struggles with authorities  High activity level; may need less sleep  Questions rules, customs and traditions
  29. 29.  NRC study – 30% overlap in GT & ADHD  Gifted or ADHD examples?  ED or Gifted examples?
  30. 30.  4th grade  IQ testing inconclusive – non-compliant  Biting, kicking, running, throwing, screaming, threatening  Extensive vocabulary  Manipulator  Enjoys science  High quality academic work.
  31. 31.  Kindergarten  Washes paint brushed in aquarium  Non-compliant  Threatens students and teacher  Throws backpack, books, chair  Witnessed, possibly victim, of abuse  IQ scattered – 108 to 132 on subscales.
  32. 32.  9th grade  157 IQ  Loves chemistry, especially explosives  ‘Reads’ peoples’ personalities and motives: classmates, teachers, counselors.  Distrusts everyone  Want to win Nobel Prize for new explosive.
  33. 33.  See handouts – Carol Bainbridge
  34. 34.  Written by Ben Aflack and Matt Damen for Harvard Cinema class – flunked the assignment, but received Oscars  Will & Shawn (shrink) both physically abused as kids  Trailer  Attitude – Why not work for the NSA?  Interventions: gZintWDc&feature=related
  35. 35.  2/trailer  GT traits  ED traits  Family history  Night terrors  PTSD.
  36. 36.  QrSc_Jw3g Bumblebee  8xg&feature=related Trailer
  37. 37.  Gifted characteristics?  ED characteristics?  Placement  Interventions.
  38. 38.  Australian concert pianist born in 1947  Schizoaffective disorder/ Anxiety neurosis  Shine
  39. 39.  When tasks consist of non-meaningful information, it can be perceived as uninteresting and boring to gifted children.  Due to the attraction to complex challenging tasks and the tendency to eschew those that require rote memorization and endless repetition, the range of activities that gifted children perceive as effortful is broader.
  40. 40.  The Idaho Special Education Manual is the policy that districts implement for compliance with IDEA 2004. Included are: ◦ the eligibility criteria for each disability category ◦ the explanation of adverse affect ◦ the explanation of the need for specially designed instruction.  For access to the Idaho Special Education Manual visit the following website: n/manual.asp
  41. 41.  ues/emoDisturb.asp  Get to know your students educational history, eligibility reports, functional behavioral assessment reports, behavioral IEPs and student Behavior Intervention Plans.  Note proposed instructional interventions, educational strengths and weaknesses.  Note any “triggers”  Note past interventions that were or were not successful.  It is the teacher’s legal obligation to implement any IEP plans.
  42. 42.  Keep away from people who try to belittle your ambitions. Small people always do that, but the really great make you feel that you, too, can become great.-- Mark Twain
  43. 43. Develop classroom rules  Structure for self-discipline  Create only a few, specific rules  State them in the positive  Observable and measurable  Post the rules in a prominent place in the classroom  Tie your rules to both positive and negative consequences  Consistently implement your rules.
  44. 44.  Watch out for triggers Instructional schedules, transitions between activities or classes, and physical environment all contribute to the factors that produce stress for ED students.  Seat the ED student next to a positive role model toward the front of the classroom in one of the aisle seats (preferably at the 10 or two o’clock position)
  45. 45.  Create classroom routines to ensure minimal unstructured free time,  Provide ED students with copies of the classroom schedule.  Prepare the student in advance for any schedule changes  Provide cues for transitions between activities. (Music, timer)  Assign independent activities only after evidence of mastery  Break down the assignments if need be  Allow for structured breaks.
  46. 46. Be positive Use positive reinforcement to motivate the ED student.  Classroom management strategies that focus on negative forms of attention such as reprimanding and excessive prompting can help maintain inappropriate behaviors.  Use reinforcers that are intrinsically motivating for the student.  It’s not about you – professional detachment
  47. 47.  Take a deep breath, count to ten, and tackle each task one step at a time.-- Linda Shalaway  Learning is not a spectator sport.– Anonymous
  48. 48. Lean on your team  Use a team approach ◦ Academic ◦ Emotional ◦ behavioral support  Plan staff meetings ◦ Program planning ◦ Behavioral consultation ◦ Open communication.  Develop a teacher and student support plan for the times the student exhibits inappropriate classroom behaviors that escalate.  Maintain a positive attitude to set the stage for success.
  49. 49.  My heart is singing for joy this morning. A miracle has happened! The light of understanding has shone upon my little pupil's mild, and behold, all things are changed.-- Anne Sullivan
  50. 50.  d/twice-exceptional/
  51. 51.  What are some identifying characteristics of ◦ GT? ◦ ED? ◦ GaTED? ◦ 2E students?  What observations did you make from the case studies?  What is one strategy you will try in working with gifted students with emotional disturbance?