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chapter 2


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chapter 2

  1. 1. 1 Biopsychology the study of the biological basis of behavior
  2. 2. 2 Some definitions some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists  Nervous System - the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system  consists of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
  3. 3. 3 Nervous system Central Nervous system - CNS ; brain and spinal chord(SC) Peripheral Nervous system - PNS - Other parts of nervous system; nerves, support cells
  4. 4. 4 PNS Somatic System - SNS; Links SC to Body and sense organs / Voluntary muscles Autonomic System - ANS; Links SC to internal organs and glands / involuntary muscles
  5. 5. 5 ANS Sympathetic System - arouses the body; emergency stress response; fight or flight Parasympathetic System - Quiets the body; helps restore the body to rest.
  6. 6. 1. The peripheral nervous system consists of: A. associati... B. the spina... C. the retic... D. sensorya... 25% 25%25%25% 1. A. association areas. 2. B. the spinal cord. 3. C. the reticular formation. 4. D. sensory and motor neurons.
  7. 7. 2. As Allison reaches for a box in her garage, out jumps a big spider. Her heart immediately begins to race as she withdraws her hand, but soon she realizes that the spider is harmless, and she begins to calm down. Which part of her nervous system is responsible for bringing her back to a normal state of arousal? A. sym pathet... B. som aticn... C. parasym pa... D. skeletal... 25% 25%25%25% 1. A. sympathetic nervous system 2. B. somatic nervous system 3. C. parasympathetic nervous system 4. D. skeletal nervous system
  8. 8. 8 Neuron Structure Cytoplasm Nucleus ~ Metabolism; Contains genetic material Membrane ~ semipermiable lipid w proteins – Channel Proteins - allow passage of materials – Signal proteins - signal something is ready to enter Golgi Apparatus ~ packages things for cell; e.g.. Neurotransmitters Mitochondria ~ makes energy for cell
  9. 9. 9 Neuron Structure Soma - Main body of cell Dendrites - receive information from the environment and other cells Axon - Fiber that carries information away from the soma
  10. 10. 10 Neuron Structure Myelin sheath - fatty insulation around axon that speeds transmission of information Axon terminals - Branching fibers at the end of axons that contain Neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters - Chemicals that send messages between Neurons
  11. 11. What is the longest part of a multipolar motor neuron? A. Som a B. Dendrites C. AxonD. M yelin Sheathe 25% 25%25%25% 1. A. Soma 2. B. Dendrites 3. C. Axon 4. D. Myelin Sheathe
  12. 12. 12 Neural transmission A neuron acts as both a battery and a wire sending an electrical impulse down the axon from the soma to the terminals This is possible due to complex proteins in the membrane
  13. 13. 13 Nerve impulse Resting Potential - The electrical charge of a neuron at rest Ions - an electrically charged molecule; e.g.. Sodium (Na+) , Chloride (Cl-) Threshold - the point at which a nerve impulse if fired
  14. 14. 14 Nerve impulse Ion Channels - Channels through the axon membrane through which ions travel Action potential - the nerve impulse
  15. 15. 15 Cell body end of axon Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals Action potential All or nothing event. If threshold is reached the channels open , if not it does not happen
  16. 16. 16 Action potential
  17. 17. 3. Jack accidentally touches a hot stove. Such a strong stimulus: A. increases... B. Increases... C. Createsa... D. Hasno bo... 25% 25%25%25% 1. A. increases the intensity of a neuron’s action potential. 2. B. Increases the frequency of action potentials. 3. C. Creates a half strength action potential. 4. D. Has no bodily effect
  18. 18. 18 Interneural communication Synapse - The microscopic space between two neurons Neurotransmitters - (NT) chemical released by a neuron, alters activity in another neuron  Receptor sites - area on surface of cell that is sensitive to neurotransmitters
  19. 19. Neurotransmitter molecule Receiving cell membrane Receptor site on receiving neuron Agonist mimics neurotransmitter Antagonist blocks neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter/Receptor Lock and key
  20. 20. 20 Reuptake  Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake. This process applies brakes on neurotransmitter action.
  21. 21. 21 How Neurotransmitters Influence Us? Serotonin pathways are involved with mood regulation. From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, © 1989 University of California Press
  22. 22. 22 Dopamine Pathways Dopamine pathways are involved with diseases like schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, © 1989 University of California Press
  23. 23. 23 Neurotransmitters  Acetylcholine [ah-seat-el-KO-leen]  a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle contraction  Endorphins [en-DOR-fins]  “morphine within”  natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters  linked to pain control and to pleasure
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25 Reflex Arc Sensory Neuron - carries sensory info to CNS Connector Neuron - links two others Motor Neuron - caries motor commands from CNS
  26. 26. 26 Reflex Arc Acetylcholine - NT released to activate muscles effector cells - cells in muscles and glands capable of making a response
  27. 27. 27 Phineas Gage Download and watch phineas gage.wmv
  28. 28. 28 Anatomy of the Brain Subcortex-structures below the cerebral cortex Hindbrain-brainstem, subconscious activities; HR, breath Medulla- vital life functions, cranial nerves start here Cerebellum- posture and co-ordination
  29. 29. 29 Anatomy of the Brain Reticular formation- attention, alertness Reticular activating system- bombards the cortex to keep it active and alert Midbrain-area that links the forebrain and hindbrain; RAS, substantia nigra (DA)
  30. 30. 30 Anatomy of the Brain Forebrain- Highest brain areas; thalamus hypothalamus, cortex, corpus collosum Thalamus- “relay center” all sensory info (ex smell) to cortex Hypothalamus- regulates motivation and emotions
  31. 31. 31 Anatomy of the Brain Limbic system- system in forebrain, liked with emotional response Hippocampus- Memory Amygdala- anger, aggression
  32. 32. 4. After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. It is most probable that she has suffered damage to her: A. am ygdala. B. angularg... C. cerebellu... D. corpusca... 25% 25%25%25% 1. A. amygdala. 2. B. angular gyrus. 3. C. cerebellum. 4. D. corpus callosum.
  33. 33. 5. A new superhero emerges on the scene. This superhero is able to stay awake and vigilant for extended amounts of time. He helps the intelligence community by being able to stay in surveillance for extended amounts of time without losing concentration and can always be paying attention to what is happening. A study of this superhero’s brain might show that the ____________ is more advanced and developed than a non-superhero’s. A. frontall... B. am ygdala C. reticular... D. occipital... 25% 25%25%25% 1. A. frontal lobe 2. B. amygdala 3. C. reticular formation 4. D. occipital lobe
  34. 34. 6. If Dr. Barnes wanted to cause a cat to take on an attack posture, which of the cat’s brain structures should he electrically stimulate? A. am ygdala B. hypothala... C. hippocam p... D. cerebellu... 25% 25%25%25% 1. A. amygdala 2. B. hypothalamus 3. C. hippocampus 4. D. cerebellum
  35. 35. 35 Cerebral Cortex Frontal lobe - move, smell, higher mental functions Parietal lobe - spatial perceptual skills, sensation Temporal lobe - auditory , emotional experience Occipital lobe - Vision
  36. 36. 36 The Cerebral Cortex  Motor Cortex  area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements  Sensory Cortex  area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. 39 Two hemispheres Cerebral hemispheres - right and left halves of the cerebrum Corpus callosum - bundle of fibers that connect the two hemispheres
  40. 40. 7. You are a neurologist in a large hospital. The wife of a construction worker visits you and describes that her husband has experienced a serious injury to his frontal lobe. She is perplexed by his behavior. Which of the following would you tell her is “normal behavior” for a person with frontal lobe damage? A. notm uch ... B. poorjudg... C. irritabil... D. ALLofth... 25% 25%25%25%1. A. not much decline in memory or intelligence 2. B. poor judgment 3. C. irritability and other personality changes 4. D. ALL of these are commonly seen in frontal lobe damage
  41. 41. 8. Which of the following activities is NOT primarily a function of the left hemisphere? A. listening... B. reading y... C. readingj... D. listening... 25% 25%25%25% 1. A. listening to a piano concerto 2. B. reading your psychology book 3. C. reading junk mail 4. D. listening to a poetry reading
  42. 42. 9. A split-brain patient’s right hemisphere is presented with a key. How is he most likely to respond? A. saythe w ... B. select a ... C. select a... D. he w illn... 25% 25%25%25% 1. A. say the word “key” 2. B. select a key from a group of objects presented to his left hand 3. C. select a key from a group of objects presented to his right hand 4. D. he will not be able to say “key” or to pick out a key from a group of objects with either hand
  43. 43. The Endocrine System Endocrine System is the body’s “slow” chemical communication system. Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands.
  44. 44. Hormones Hormones are chemicals, synthesized by the endocrine glands, are secreted in the bloodstream. Hormones affect the brain many other tissues of the body. For example, epinephrine (adrenaline) increases heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar and feelings of excitement during emergency situations.
  45. 45. 46 Researching The Brain  Lesion  tissue destruction  a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
  46. 46. 47 Clinical Observation Clinical observations have shed light on a number of brain disorders. Alterations in brain morphology due to neurological and psychiatric diseases are now being catalogued. TomLanders/BostonGlobe
  47. 47. 48 Electroencephalogram (EEG)  an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface  these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
  48. 48. 49  CT (computed tomography) Scan  a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body; also called CAT scan  PET (positron emission tomography) Scan  a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task  MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)  a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain Researching The Brain
  49. 49. 50 PET Scan
  50. 50. 51 MRI Scan
  51. 51. 52  Functional MRI scan shows the visual cortex activated as the subject looks at faces
  52. 52. 10. Which technique is most useful for seeing which regions of the brain are most active while a person reads a poem? A. EEG B. fM RI C. EKG D. CAT 25% 25%25%25% 1. A. EEG 2. B. fMRI 3. C. EKG 4. D. CAT