CH 2_3 final.ppt - Psychology 3801 Behavioral Neuroscience ...


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CH 2_3 final.ppt - Psychology 3801 Behavioral Neuroscience ...

  1. 1. Psychology 3801 Behavioral Neuroscience Jacqueline Blundell, PhD
  2. 2. 2.3 Chapter 2 Fundamental Genetics
  3. 3. Basic Genetics Phenotype – an organisms observable traits Genotype – the traits that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genetic material
  4. 4. Basic Genetics Genes - basic unit of heredity in a living organism Genes are located on chromosomes Threadlike structures in the nucleus of each cell Chromosomes occur in matched pairs Each species has a characteristic number of pairs of chromosomes in each body cell Humans? The two genes (alleles) that control each trait are situated at the same locus, one on each chromosome of a particular pair.
  5. 5. Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon
  6. 6. Basic Genetics: Cell Division Meiosis (Fig. 2.17) – the process of cell division that produces gametes (egg cells or sperm cells) Chromosomes divide, and one chromosome of each pair goes to each of the 2 gametes that results from division Each gamete has only half the usual number of chromosomes Egg meets sperm – full number (zygote) Mitosis – all other cell division Just prior to mitosis, the number of chromosomes double so that when the division occurs, both daughter cells have full number of chromosomes
  7. 7. Basic Genetics Each chromosome is a double-stranded molecule of DNA Made up of 4 nucleotide bases Adenine Thymine guanine cytosine Adenine-Thymine Guanine-Cytosine The 2 strands that compose each chromosome are exact complements of each other
  8. 8. Basic Genetics Replication (Figure 2.20) 2 strands of DNA unwind Exposed nucleotide bases on each of the 2 strands attract loose complementary bases from the fluid of the nucleus 2 double-stranded DNA molecules, identical to original Duplication errors??? disease Mutations – accidental alterations in individual genes
  9. 9. Basic Genetics Sex Chromosomes and Sex-linked Traits Sex chromosomes may not be matched pairs 2 types of sex chromosomes – carry different genes X Y Female mammals have 2 X chromosomes Male mammals have X and Y chromosomes Sex-linked traits – traits that are influenced by genes on the sex chromosomes Mostly controlled by X chromosome Y chromosome – small, few genes If trait is dominant – occurs more in females or males??? If trait is recessive – occurs more in females or males???
  10. 10. Basic Genetics The Genetic Code and Gene Expression Several different kinds of genes Structural genes – contain information for the synthesis of a protein Proteins – long chains of AA’s Control cellular activity All cells of the body contain exactly the same structural genes Operator genes – control structural genes (gene expression) Function to determine whether each of its structural genes initiates the synthesis of a protein and at what rate Switches On – and turned up, down or off Off – turned on DNA-binding proteins * Major mechanism by which experience can interact with genes to influence development
  11. 11. The Systems, Structures, and Cells that Make Up Your Nervous System Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System
  12. 12. General Layout of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain (in the skull) Spinal Cord (in the spine) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Located outside of the skull and spine Serves to bring information into the CNS and carry signals out of the CNS
  13. 13. Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon
  14. 14. Protecting the CNS Meninges, Ventricles, and CSF CNS - encased in bone and covered by three meninges Dura mater - tough outer membrane Arachnoid membrane - weblike Pia mater - adheres to CNS surface Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Fluid serves as a cushion
  15. 15. Protecting the Brain Physical protection Skull Meninges Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Chemical protection The blood-brain barrier – tightly-packed cells of blood vessel walls prevent entry of many molecules
  16. 16. Cells of the Nervous System Neurons Multipolar Unipolar Bipolar Interneurons Glial cells Various types Provide a wide variety of supportive functions
  17. 17. Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon
  18. 18. Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon
  19. 19. Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon
  20. 20. Glial Cells Myelin producers Oligodendrocytes (CNS) Schwann cells (PNS) Astrocytes – largest glia, many functions Microglia – involved in response to injury or disease
  21. 21. Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon
  22. 22. Terminology Note CNS PNS Myelin- providing glia Oligodendrocytes Schwann Cells Clusters of cell bodies Nuclei (singular nucleus) Ganglia (singular ganglion) Bundles of axons Tracts Nerves
  23. 23. Neuroanatomical Techniques Golgi stain (1870s) Visualization of individual neurons
  24. 24. Neuroanatomical Techniques Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon Nissl stain (1880s) Selectively stains cell bodies
  25. 25. Neuroanatomical Techniques Electron Microscopy Provides details of neuronal structure Coat slices of neural tissue with an electron-absorbing substance that is taken up by different parts of neurons to different degrees, then pass a beam of electrons through the tissue onto a photographic film
  26. 26. Neuroanatomical Tracing Techniques Anterograde (forward) tracing where axons project to Retrograde (backward) tracing where axons are projecting from Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon
  27. 27. Directions in the Vertebrate NS
  28. 28. Directions in the Vertebrate NS
  29. 29. Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon
  30. 30. The Spinal Cord Gray matter – inner component – primarily cell bodies White matter – outer – mainly myelinated axons Dorsal – afferent, sensory Ventral – efferent, motor
  31. 31. The Five Major Divisions of the Brain Figure 3.30
  32. 32. Major Structures of the Brain Myelencephalon = medulla Composed largely of tracts Origin of the reticular formation Arousal Metencephalon Many tracts Pons – ventral surface Arousal, respiration, etc
  33. 33. Major Structures of the Brain Mesencephalon Tectum (dorsal surface) Inferior colliculi – audition Superior colliculi - vision Tegmentum (ventral) 3 ‘colorful’ structures Periaqueductal gray o analgesia Substantia nigra o sensorimotor Red nucleus o sensorimotor
  34. 34. Major Structures of the Brain Diencephalon Thalamus – sensory relay nuclei LGN Hypothalamus  Regulation of motivated behaviors  Controls hormone release by the pituitary
  35. 35. Telencephalon Cerebral cortex Limbic system Basal ganglia Major Structures of the Brain
  36. 36. Copyright © 2009 Allyn & Bacon
  37. 37. 4 Lobes •Occipital lobes • vision •Parietal lobes • Attention • Sensation •Temporal lobes • Hearing and language • Complex visual patterns • Memory •Frontal lobes • Motor function • Complex cognitive function
  38. 38. Telencephalon – Subcortical structures Limbic system – regulation of motivated behaviors Mammillary bodies, hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, cingulate, septum
  39. 39. Telencephalon – Subcortical structures Basal ganglia motor system – voluntary movements Amygdala, striatum (caudate nucleus + putamen), globus pallidus
  40. 40. Copyright © 2009 Allyn & Bacon Summary of major brain structures