Brain Behavior Slides Lec 3

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Brain Behavior Slides Lec 3

  1. 1. Brain-Behavior RelationshipsBrain-Behavior Relationships
  2. 2. Gross Structures of the BrainGross Structures of the Brain  HINDBRAIN  Medulla  Reticular Formation  Pons and Cerebellum – MIDBRAIN – FOREBRAIN  Diencephalon (Thalamus, Hypothalamus)  Cerebrum (Basal Ganglia, Limbic System, Cerebral Cortex)
  3. 3. Cerebral HemispheresCerebral Hemispheres  Basal Ganglia – 3 main functions – In current usage, the phrase 'basal ganglia' means: the caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus.  Limbic System – 4 structures  Cerebral Cortex
  4. 4. Cortical ConnectionsCortical Connections 1. Between hemispheres (e.g., corpus callosum) 2. Within a hemisphere, between one lobe and another (association tracks; e.g., arcuate fasciculus) 3. Cortex-Subcortical (e.g., internal capsule)
  5. 5. Review of NeuroanatomyReview of Neuroanatomy (cont.)(cont.)  Skull and Meninges  Vascular System  Ventricular System and CSF
  6. 6. Principles of CorticalPrinciples of Cortical OrganizationOrganization 1. Cortical Zones 2. Cortical Lobes Occipital, Frontal, Parietal, Temporal 3. Functional Systems 4. Lateralization of Function
  7. 7. Cortical LobesCortical Lobes Frontal Temporal Parietal Occipital Sensory/ Motor Voluntary Motor; Speech Auditory, Olfactory Visual Somato- sensory Vision
  8. 8. Cortical LobesCortical Lobes Occipital: Mediate sight; visual perception; visual knowledge Parietal: tactile sensations; position sense; spatial relations – Left: sequential. Logical spatial – Right: holistic spatial information
  9. 9. Cortical Lobes (cont.)Cortical Lobes (cont.) Temporal: auditory and olfactory abilities; integrating visual perceptions with other sensory info; new learning; emotion; motivation Frontal: motor functions, including speech; executive functions; integration of emotional and motivational states
  10. 10. Lateralization of FunctionLateralization of Function Left Hemisphere Speech and Language Linear Processing Well-routinized codes Details Contralateral attention Positive Emotions Right Hemisphere Prosody, Humor, Non-literal Configural Processing (faces) More adept at novel Global Percepts Global attention Negative Emotions
  11. 11. FunctionsFunctions  Attention and arousal (see text)  Memory (know 4 different regions involved 1. Hippocampus + surrounding areas 2. Basal forebrain (cells that produce Acetylcholine) 3. Frontal Cortex 4. Basal Ganglia (procedural memory)  Language
  12. 12. MemoryMemory  Amnesia – Immediate vs. Long-term – Remote memory vs. Antereograde memory – Implicit vs. Explicit Memory  Frontal Lobes: role in retrieval and organization – The frontal lobes are the most advanced part of your brain. The frontal lobes are that part of your brain responsible for creativity, logic, intuition, new problem solving, synthesis of ideas, imagination, concepts of time, and planning.
  13. 13. Memory RehabilitationMemory Rehabilitation Storage Encoding Attention Retrieval
  14. 14. LanguageLanguage Aphasia – Expressive Aphasia – Receptive Aphasia Distinguish Psychological Issues
  15. 15. 5 Frontal-Subcortical Circuits5 Frontal-Subcortical Circuits Motor Occulomotor Dorsolateral Orbitofrontal-Ventral PFC Anterior Cingulate
  16. 16. PREFRONTAL CORTEX SYSTEM The most evolved brain system Functions atention span perseverance planning judgmen impulse control organization self-monitoring and supervision problem solving critical thinking forward thinking learning from experience and mistakes ability to feel and express emotions influences the limbic system empathy
  17. 17. Major Functional Divisions ofMajor Functional Divisions of Frontal LobeFrontal Lobe
  18. 18. Dorsolateral SyndromeDorsolateral Syndrome “Executive function” deficits Poor organizational strategies Poor memory strategies Working Memory Impaired set-shifting Attentional control (distractible)
  19. 19. Orbitofrontal-Ventral PFCOrbitofrontal-Ventral PFC SyndromeSyndrome Phineas Gage Stimulus-Reward Associations Decision-Making Appropriate Social Behavior
  20. 20. Anterior Cingulate SyndromeAnterior Cingulate Syndrome Akinetic Mutism – Apathetic, no spontaneous speak, answer in monosyllables – Display no emotion
  21. 21. Points to RememberPoints to Remember Behavioral deficits determined by site, size, laterality, nature of lesion, etc.  Individual variation.  Difficulty to develop real-world tasks to assess FL functioning.
  22. 22. Diseases that commonlyDiseases that commonly affect Frontal functioningaffect Frontal functioning Affective Disorders – Depression Traumatic Brain Injury Schizophrenia Some Dementing Illnesses
  23. 23. Traumatic DisordersTraumatic Disorders Mechanisms of Injury – Primary – Secondary Initial Assessment of Severity – Glascow Coma Scale – Length of Consciousness – Length of PTA
  24. 24. TBI (cont.)TBI (cont.) Treatment Cognitive and Emotional Effects Rehabilitation
  25. 25. Principles of Nerve CellPrinciples of Nerve Cell CommunicationCommunication Neuron Membrane – Electrostatic pressure – Diffusion Communication within a neuron – Movement of electrical charge Communication between neurons – Electrical signal to chemical signal
  26. 26. Biochemical Activity of theBiochemical Activity of the BrainBrain Membrane of Neuron Synapse 2 Types of Receptors – Ionotropic (fast but short-lived) – Metabotropic (slow, but prolonged effect) Either may be excitatory or inhibitory
  27. 27. NeurotransmittersNeurotransmitters 1. Excitatory (glutamate) 2. Inhibitory (GABA) 3. Neuromodulators (dopamine)
  28. 28. Classes of PsychoactiveClasses of Psychoactive MedicationsMedications Neuroleptics (Haldol) Antidepresants (Prozac) Tranquilizers (diazepam or Valium) Stimulants (amphetamine) Time Course and Side Effects

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