Anorexia and Bulimia


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Anorexia and Bulimia

  1. 1. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Molly Shapiro Mary Wall Cory Rodriguez
  2. 2. Definition • Anorexia Nervosa: commonly referred to as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low body weight, distorted body image, and obsessive fear of gaining weight. • Bulimia: is an illness in which a person binges on food or has regular episodes of significant overeating and feels a loss of control. Commonly binges, then vomits.
  3. 3. Symptoms and Indications of Bulimia • Abuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas to prevent weight gain • Binge eating • Frequent weighing • Self-induced vomiting • Overachieving behavior • Eating binges may occur as often as several times a day for many months.
  4. 4. Symptoms and Indications of Anorexia • Behaviors include: • Cutting food into small pieces • Exercising compulsively • Going to the bathroom right after meals • Quickly eating large amounts of food • Restricting the amount of food eaten • Using laxatives, enemas, or diuretics inappropriately in an effort to lose weight • Symptoms include: • Blotchy or yellow skin • Confused or slow thinking • Cavities due to self-induced vomiting • Depression • Dry mouth • Extreme sensitivity to cold (wearing several layers of clothing to stay warm) • Fine hair • No menstruation • Poor memory or poor judgment • Wasting away of muscle and loss of body fat
  5. 5. Causes of Anorexia • Being a perfectionist • Being female • Experiencing childhood anxiety • Feeling increased concern or attention to weight and shape • Having eating and gastrointestinal problems during early childhood • Having a family history of addictions or eating disorders • Having parents who are concerned about weight and weight loss • Having a negative self-image
  6. 6. Causes of Bulimia • Genetic • Psychological • Trauma • Family • Society • Cultural factors • Bulimia is likely due to more than one factor.
  7. 7. Anorexia Therapies • Cognitive therapy: Explores the critical and unhealthy thoughts underlying anorexia. The focus is on increasing self- awareness, challenging distorted beliefs, and improving self- esteem and sense of control. Cognitive therapy also involves education about anorexia. – it is not the best, but it is most often used. Treatment often lasts from six weeks to six months. • Behavior therapy: Promotes healthy eating behaviors through the use of rewards, reinforcements, self-monitoring, and goal setting. Teaches the patient to recognize anorexia triggers and deal with them using relaxation techniques and coping strategies. – Very effective
  8. 8. Anorexia Therapies Cont. • Family therapy: Examines the family dynamics that may contribute to anorexia or interfere with recovery. Often includes some therapy sessions without the anorexic patient—a particularly important element when the person with anorexia denies having an eating disorder. – Most effective, and does not take a very long time. • Group therapy: Allows people with anorexia to talk with each other in a supervised setting. Helps to reduce the isolation many anorexics may feel. Group members support each other through recovery and share their experiences and advice. – Also very effective; not costly • Antidepressants are often given to reduce suicidal thoughts, if any. Antipsychotics are used for weight gain; chlorpromazine, sometimes in combination with insulin to further stimulate hunger, produced more rapid weight gain and earlier hospital discharge; unwanted side effects included the onset of binge eating and seizures and can lead to the development of tardive dyskinesia, or facial spasms. – Least effective, but it is the most costly
  9. 9. Bulimia Therapies • Interpersonal psychotherapy helps people with bulimia solve relationship issues and interpersonal problems that are contributing to their eating disorder. Interpersonal psychotherapy also treats the depression and low self-esteem that goes along with bulimia • Group therapy for bulimia involves education about the eating disorder and strategies for overcoming it. It can also help bulimics feel less alone in their suffering. ~Cognitive • cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on Breaking the binge-and-purge cycle and Changing unhealthy thoughts and patterns • Antidepressants are often used in the treatment of bulimia. When combined with therapy, antidepressant medications can help reduce binge eating. They can also improve preoccupation with weight and body image, as well as the depression that often accompanies bulimia. – Biomedical perspective
  10. 10. Cultural and Gender Considerations • Promotion of thinness in western culture— ”the ideal female form” • The media emphasizes the ideal weight/form. • Most women in wealthy, white families are more susceptible to anorexia. • Many more women than men have bulimia, and the disorder is most common in adolescent girls.
  11. 11. Quiz! • Which eating disorder binges then vomits? • What culture emphasizes the “ideal female form”? • Which kind of therapy is most effective for Anorexia? • Name one behavioral symptom of Anorexia. • Is Bulimia more common among men or women?
  12. 12. Answers • Bulimia • Western • Family • Slide 4 • Women.