Adaptive Development


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Adaptive Development

  1. 1. Adaptive Development Chapter 15 Kathleen Sullivan
  2. 2. Self-help is a central component of Adaptive Development • Adaptive Development is age-appropriate self- care and other behaviors used to adapt successfully to different circumstances. • An infant responds to different people in various ways. He may relax and smile, or become wary and cry at a stranger. He is adapting his behavior to distinct situations.
  3. 3. Children Learning to use adaptive equipment
  4. 4. Prevalence • Aids, autism, FAS, FAE, and vulnerable child syndrome each affects adaptive development. • Cognitive behavior modification can be helpful in teaching adaptive behavior. • All children, not only those assessed with disabilities or delays should receive early intervention, pre-school special education and related services in adapted development if approved by parents. IDEA calls for assessment in development of IFSP’s and delivery services.
  5. 5. Domains • No one disability is linked directly to this domain. Children with delays or conditions affecting other domains may also have needs for adaptive development. • Some families disregard or excuse adaptive behavior delays, feeling that the child has more important areas in other domains. • ECSE staff must impress upon the families the importance adaptive behavior plays in their child's success in all areas of development. The more proficient the child becomes in caring for his personal needs, the less likely he will be placed in a Special Education class.
  6. 6. Developmental Delays • Some states us standard deviation tests to measure a child's developmental delays. • These measures vary from state to state and are not very accurate. • The most appropriate measures are those that look at behavior relating to specific situations. • No condition is unique to adaptive behavior. • Conditions that affect other domains also affect adaptive development.
  7. 7. Faces of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS is a complex of developmental effects caused by maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy. The three symptoms are facial abnormalities, permanent growth retardation, and neurological conditions.
  8. 8. Vulnerable Children Syndrome • VCS includes children esposed prenatally to controlled substances. • Research has shown that the child's postnatal life may also contribute to the problem. • Adult addicts do not provide adequate nutrients, safe, clean environments, nor do the provide intellectual or sensory stimulation. • As these children age they test within normal IQ ranges, although they have difficulty concentrating, interacting with other children and adapting to new environments.
  9. 9. Only a small minority of children exposed to HIV mothers develop AIDS. If the mother takes the medication AZT while pregnant, she dramatically cuts the risk of transmitting the disease to the fetus. An AIDS babies symptoms include respiratory infections, failure to thrive, chronic diarrhea, and delays in linear growth.
  10. 10. Children with AIDS • Children with AIDS most often develop symptoms during their second year. • These children have motor or speech delays or regressions, as well as delays or regressions in social smiling. • Social stigma adds to the problem. • Twenty to Forty percent of these children require foster care or other arrangements because the mother is too ill to care for them. • Since the life expectancy for these children is lengthening, ECSE needs to prepare to handle HIV children.
  11. 11. Epilepsy • Epilepsy is often caused by a traumatic brain injury, (TBI) and produces irregular electric discharges in the brain. • Repeated seizures, if not treated, usually lead to mental retardation. • Epilepsy is a variety of disorders. • About 85% of these cases can be controlled with medication.
  12. 12. Autism • Autism is a condition affecting communication, imagination, and socialization. Children avoid and reject social interaction. • Autism statistics are vague or unreliable • Autism has three dimensions; impairment in communication, imagination, and socialization. • Echolalia (meaningless repetition) is common in autistic children. • The most common features of autism are aversion of the eyes, and lack of response to other people.
  13. 13. Causes of Autism • The causes of autism are unknown. • Some theories relate it to Fragile X syndrome, perinatal brain damage, and genetic predisposition. • Autistic children do not understand the concept of pretense and do not pretend when they are playing. • A frequent class of symptoms is a rigid repetition of certain activities.
  14. 14. Congress and the laws. • In 1990 Congress added autism as a distinct category qualifying for assistance under Part B. This addition recognized that autism is different from social or emotional conditions. • The symptoms do not disappear nor do people outgrow autism. • Psychotherapy and other traditional means of dealing with emotional disturbance seldom work with autistic children.
  15. 15. Assessment • Adaptive development in early childhood evaluates the child's age and situation- appropriate behavior. • Cultural variables must be considered in evaluating the child. • Young children with severe physical disabilities may need help gaining access to parts of the community, so that they can learn to get around independently. • Delays and deviations are assessed for parallel play and disinterest in self dressing.
  16. 16. IDEA • IDEA looks to ECSE programs to assess each child in this domain as in others. • Children who’s primary needs lie in another domain should also be assessed for adaptive behavior. • Intervention means that all children can learn adaptive behaviors.
  17. 17. Intervention • Effective intervention begins with IFAP’s and IEP’s. One technique of instruction in adaptive behavior is both lengthy and frequent. • When children are learning self-care, self- dressing, and self-eating behaviors they tend to give their full attention to the task. • Children may be taught sequence, color, number and food groups. • Research reveals that behavior that is reinforced increases in frequency.
  18. 18. Modeling • Modeling is a technique used to teach many children
  19. 19. Behavior Modification • A technique important in adaptive development is behavior modification. • Behavior modification may be helpful in the ability to size up a situation, select appropriate behaviors to match the situation, and flexibility to implement the plan with modifications as the situation demands. • A variation of behavior modification is called cognitibe behavior modification. • The advantage of this modification is that it can be used to alter the child's behavior and his thinking behind the behavior.
  20. 20. Cognitive Behavior Modification • This cognitive behavior modification can help impulsive children, aggressive children, and other children with emotional or behavior disorders. • This approach focuses as much on faulty thinking skills as it does on behavior. It includes training children to self monitor, problem solve, and relaxation.
  21. 21. Modeling • Modeling is a technique used to teach many children adaptive behaviors. • One benefit of integrating children with and without disabilities is the availability of disabled children to be exposed to children without disabilities. • It’s only by being with, observing and modeling non disabled children, that a disabled child can learn and model the behavior habitually.
  22. 22. Developmentally appropriate adaptive behavior • The child needs to do what’s expected of him in a certain situation. • The child needs to be able to think through and analyze a situation. • The next step is to identify alternative behaviors, or options and determine which are acceptable in the situation. • The child then formulates and carries out a plan of action. • While doing so she notices the reactions of others and modifies her behavior accordingly.
  23. 23. Autism • Mainstreaming autistic children is essential to helping the child develop friendships. • Facilitated communication is a technique that relies on personal assistance. • The results of facilitated communication are varied. • The research evidence has little to offer parents other than their children need love, want it, and respond positively to it.
  24. 24. Working Families • Give children with autism love. • Offer a calm structured environment, be firm and reassuring. Autistic children need structure. • Teach children how to read other peoples body language, how to make people be more friendly. • Teach metacognotive skills. (understanding one’s own and others thoughts). • Teach by over teaching, Call attention to cues kids may have overlooked. • Use sign language, forcing children to watch you.
  25. 25. Children must master self-control • Children are driven to master self-control skills. Don’t do for the child. Let him keep trying yo do things on his own as much as possible. • As a child moves towards independence family and professionals are advised to think through how minimal their support might be.
  26. 26. Cognitive Behavior Modification • This modification combines direct instruction with well-established techniques of promoting desired behaviors. • Children must assess each situation, weigh alternative behaviors, determine which is appropriate, implement that approach and react to how it is received by others.
  27. 27. ECSE Workers • ECSE Workers should emphasize the acquisition during pre-school years of adaptive behavior necessary for success in K- 12 programs. • These childrenw abilities to care for themselves and to respond appropriatley to new situations is crucial to their success.
  28. 28. Summary • Adaptive development allows ECSE programs to serve young children who are neither mentally or emotionally disturbed, but have yet to acquire adaptive behavior, necessary for formal schooling.