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Stress and Physical Activity
Abundant scientific evidence
Problems
 Experimental studies use endurance exercise only
 Neuro-endocrine acute and chronic response to
exercise varie...
How to deal with the problems
 Scientific research must be the foundation of
health decisions (“evidence-based medicine”)...
 Deal with the basic facts:
◦ 2. What we know about the neuro-endocrinology of
stress and what we can measure
◦ 3. What w...
Conditioning classes: strength resistance, agility, power, cardio-
vascular endurance, etc
Strength sports:
-Strength
-Power
-Proprioception
Dance: agility, coordination, cardio-respiratory conditioning,
strength
Track and field: speed, power, cardio-vascular endurance,
agility, coordination
Volleyball, basketball, soccer and other ball team sports: speed,
agility, coordination, social skills, power
Fights: strength, power, agility, coordination, space perception,
reaction time, etc
What is stress
 “a real or interpreted threat to the physiological
or psychological integrity (i.e., homeostasis) of
an i...
 Stress is not unique to animals or even eucaryotes.
Any living creature is vulnerable and reacts to stress
 Stress is n...
Types of distress: acute
 Acute distress: accidents; death of a
loved one; acute illness; violent attacks
and assault; in...
Types of distress: chronic
 Chronic distress:
◦ Job related: underrecognition; long term unemployment;
job dissatisfactio...
Allostasis and Adaptation
 Allostasis and allostatic load
 allostasis is stability through change -
mechanisms attempt t...
General adaptation syndrome
 General adaptation syndrome (GAS) is
the predictable way the body responses to
stress as des...
GAS curve
Some of the processes causing
disease
Stress related disorders
 Cardio vascular disease, high blood pressure
 Immune system disorders: auto-imune
disorders; f...
 Skin disorders: psoriasis, alergies
 Asthma
 Diabetes
 Eating disorders: under acute stress,
anorexia; under chronic ...
Exercise: what is training
Hormones and resistance exercise
Exercise stress as adaptation to
any stress
 the level of chronic exposure to exercise is
one of the most potent factors ...
Exercise stress as adaptation to
any stress
 This greater hormonal responsiveness
after exercise training appears to be d...
Exercise stress as adaptation to
any stress
 evidence supports an abatement of the
neuroendocrine response to other life
...
Exercise stress as adaptation to
any stress
 The suggestion that exercise may have a
carry-over effect on the acute stres...
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
Stress and Physical Activity
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Stress and Physical Activity

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Stress and Physical Activity was the first in the Ingear Fitness seminar series. It covers basic definitions of stress and how physical activity my help the body cope with the negative physiological responses to stress.

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Stress and Physical Activity

  1. 1. Stress and Physical Activity
  2. 2. Abundant scientific evidence
  3. 3. Problems  Experimental studies use endurance exercise only  Neuro-endocrine acute and chronic response to exercise varies according to type of exercise (strength X endurance)  Stress involves an extremely complex chain of neuro- endocrine events and studies may only measure a few  Emphasis on cardio-vascular response, adrenal response or inflammation varies according to the current focus of the medical research community
  4. 4. How to deal with the problems  Scientific research must be the foundation of health decisions (“evidence-based medicine”), but science offers provisional truth and limited scope  It is up to front line practitioners – physicians, coaches and other health science related professionals – to bridge this gap  Deal with the basic facts: ◦ 1. exercise has a positive effect on the response to psycho-social stress
  5. 5.  Deal with the basic facts: ◦ 2. What we know about the neuro-endocrinology of stress and what we can measure ◦ 3. What we know about neuro-endocrinology of exercise, exercise physiology and conditioning research  A balance between working within a framework and experimenting: ◦ 1. Some exercise must be done (adopted framework) ◦ 2. Try what works best for each person
  6. 6. Conditioning classes: strength resistance, agility, power, cardio- vascular endurance, etc
  7. 7. Strength sports: -Strength -Power -Proprioception
  8. 8. Dance: agility, coordination, cardio-respiratory conditioning, strength
  9. 9. Track and field: speed, power, cardio-vascular endurance, agility, coordination
  10. 10. Volleyball, basketball, soccer and other ball team sports: speed, agility, coordination, social skills, power
  11. 11. Fights: strength, power, agility, coordination, space perception, reaction time, etc
  12. 12. What is stress  “a real or interpreted threat to the physiological or psychological integrity (i.e., homeostasis) of an individual that results in physiological and/or behavioral responses” (McEwen 2005)  Any stimulus that provokes a shift from the optimal functioning of the main systems that ensure the organism’s survival and reproduction in a state of least disturbance, also known as homeostasis (me)
  13. 13.  Stress is not unique to animals or even eucaryotes. Any living creature is vulnerable and reacts to stress  Stress is not “good” or “bad”: it is an element of the relation between the organism and the environment  Stress can be acute or chronic  All living organisms live in a permanent state of being disturbed and reacting to such environmental disturbances => the stress reaction system is central to the survival of any organism
  14. 14. Types of distress: acute  Acute distress: accidents; death of a loved one; acute illness; violent attacks and assault; intoxication; infection; loss of job; divorce; climatic catastrophes; extreme heat; extreme cold; terrorist attack; dehydration
  15. 15. Types of distress: chronic  Chronic distress: ◦ Job related: underrecognition; long term unemployment; job dissatisfaction; excessive responsibility; ◦ Relationship related: abuse; chronic failure to communicate, mistrust ◦ Environmental: long term exposure to toxic substances; excessive heat; excessive humidity; ◦ Food inadequacy: long term malnutrition/desnutrition; long term use of food that causes intolerance ◦ Religious and ethnic conflict; other types of endemic social conflict
  16. 16. Allostasis and Adaptation  Allostasis and allostatic load  allostasis is stability through change - mechanisms attempt to change the controlled variable by predicting what level will be needed  allostatic load refers to the price the body pays for being forced to constantly adapt to adverse stressful (psychophysiological) events
  17. 17. General adaptation syndrome  General adaptation syndrome (GAS) is the predictable way the body responses to stress as described by Hans Selye (1907- 1982). First published in 1936  The first physical conditioning models were based on adaptation research  Later research and theories proposed that stress could be negative or positive and manipulated to generate desired results
  18. 18. GAS curve
  19. 19. Some of the processes causing disease
  20. 20. Stress related disorders  Cardio vascular disease, high blood pressure  Immune system disorders: auto-imune disorders; frequent infections; micro-infection syndromes (fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome?); Crohn’s disease  Inflammatory disorders: Crohn’s disease, other digestive inflammatory disorders  Vulnerability to muscoloskelletal injury and disorders  Digestive disorders: gastritis, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome and other digestive inflammatory disorders
  21. 21.  Skin disorders: psoriasis, alergies  Asthma  Diabetes  Eating disorders: under acute stress, anorexia; under chronic stress, obesity;  Psychiatric disorders: PTSD, adjustment disorders, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, panic attacks  Sexual disorders  Gum diseases  Brittle nails and hair loss
  22. 22. Exercise: what is training
  23. 23. Hormones and resistance exercise
  24. 24. Exercise stress as adaptation to any stress  the level of chronic exposure to exercise is one of the most potent factors influencing the neuroendocrine stress response to an acute exercise session  as a person becomes more regular and chronic in their exercise pattern, the neuroendocrine stress response to exercise becomes attenuated
  25. 25. Exercise stress as adaptation to any stress  This greater hormonal responsiveness after exercise training appears to be due to both the fact that the absolute workload necessary to elicit a maximal response is much greater and to there being a glandular adaptation resulting in an enhanced hormonal secretory capacity
  26. 26. Exercise stress as adaptation to any stress  evidence supports an abatement of the neuroendocrine response to other life stressors by exposure to exercise training.  Traustadottir and colleagues examined two groups of adult women who were subjected to a standardized psychosocial stressor.  the cortisol response to the stressor was substantially lower in the physically more active women compared with those who were more sedentary
  27. 27. Exercise stress as adaptation to any stress  The suggestion that exercise may have a carry-over effect on the acute stress response to other stressors suggests physical exercise could, perhaps, be part of an intervention strategy to deal with some chronic stress-related health problems in the young and old alike.

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