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# Robbery 2010 11

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### Robbery 2010 11

1. 1. How much was stolen in Britain’s biggest robberies?<br />Graff Diamond Robbery<br />Securitas Robbery<br />Brinks Mat Robbery<br />£40m<br />* None of the jewellery has been recovered so far.<br />£53m<br />* Only 19.7 recovered to date...<br />£26m<br />* Thought they would get £3m & most never recovered.<br />
2. 2. Offences Against Property:<br />Robbery<br />Miss Hart <br />G153 2010-11<br />
3. 3. What is Robbery?<br />Theft + Violence = Robbery<br />There are 10 words hidden in the wordsearch, which together make up the elements of a theft, essential for a robbery. <br />Find them!<br />
4. 4. Theft<br />Violence<br />Robbery<br />A ‘completed’ theft<br />All elements of s.2-6 Theft Act 1968<br />Force or the threat of force in order to steal<br />s.8 Theft Act 1968<br />Immediately before or at the time of the theft<br />
5. 5. Student Task<br />Look at these scenarios:<br />Which do you think are robberies?<br />D pushes V in the back and as he falls, D2 takes V’s wallet<br />D tells V, who is blind, that he has a knife and will stab him unless V hands over his wallet. D has no knife.<br />D hits V, and money falls out of V’s pocket. D picks it up and keeps it.<br />D takes V’s pet poodle hostage and threatens to kill it unless V hands over her diamond necklace.<br />D takes V and his family hostage four days before he steals money from V’s bank<br />D steals a pack of beer from an Off Licence, and on the way out pushes the owner<br />
6. 6. Actus Reus (1)Completed Theft<br />If one of the elements of theft is missing, then there is no theft. <br />Corcoran v Anderton<br />R v Raphael 2008<br />Why would there have been no appropriation in theft?<br />Compare it to the case of R v Atakpu 1994<br /><ul><li>NB: how can this be reconciled with the case of R v Mitchell 2008 from the same court?</li></ul>Which element is in question here?<br />How can it be distinguished from the case of R v Easom, and the notion of conditional intent?<br />
7. 7. Actus Reus (2)Force or threat of Force<br />Includes verbal threats and gestures<br />D does not need to be scared!<br />It is a question of , so left to the jury.<br />Student Thinking:<br />Does the threat have to be ‘real’?<br />R v Bentham 2005<br />On ‘any person’<br />Sometimes is it more effective to threaten someone else.<br />sthgeoa<br />
8. 8. How much force & against who?<br />R v Clouden 1987<br />Force applied to property is sufficient.<br />Criminal Law Revision Committee <br />If this really is the law, the number of robberies will double. Why?<br />R v Dawson & James 1976<br />Force does not necessarily mean violence, it takes its ordinary meaning and is up to the jury to decide. <br />AO2: Evaluate this decision. Is it to broad, or a just interpretation of the law?<br />Question: What about threatening a dog? Would that be sufficient? <br />No – the act requires a person<br />
9. 9. Actus Reus (3)Immediately before or at the time of, in order to steal<br />Problem One:<br />Two defendants, one steals, one applies the force.<br />Problem Two:<br />Force applied after the theft, to escape<br />Problem Three:<br />D hits V & money falls out of V’s pocket, and D picks it up, deciding to keep it<br />R v Robinson 1977<br />Bonus: D believed that he had the right in law to take it – how might this affect his liability for the theft?<br />R v Lockley 1995<br />R v Hale 1978<br />“To say that the conduct is over and done as soon as he laid hands on the property... is contrary to common sense and to the natural meaning of the words... the act of appropriation does not suddenly cease. It is a continuous act and it is a matter for the jury to decide whether or not the act of appropriation has finished....”<br />
10. 10. Evaluation<br />
11. 11. Statement B:Brian is liable for robbery when he snatches at Carol’s bag.<br />Statement A: Brian is liable for robbery when he forces Adrian to hand him £10<br />Adrian’s wife owes Brian £10. Brian sees Adrian in the street and threatens to beat him up unless he gives him £10. Adrian hands over the money. Brian enters a shopping mall. He tries to snatch a bag from a shopper, Carol, but she resists and it falls to the ground. Brian runs off. He goes into a supermarket and takes a bottle of whisky from the shelf and puts it in his pocket. Dan, another shopper, sees him but Brian pushes Dan away and leaves without paying. He is getting into his car outside when a security guard, Elvis, approaches him. Brian drives his car at Elvis who jumps out of the way and Brian drives off. <br />Evaluate the accuracy of each of the four statements A, B, C, and D individually, as they apply to the facts in the above scenario.<br />Statement C:<br />Brian is liable for <br />robbery in the <br />supermarket.<br />Statement D:Brian is guilty of robbery when he drives his car at Elvis. <br />