Teaching and Learning- Addressing the Gaps Centre for Academic Practice 1991 - 2010 Sandy Gilkes ,  FUN, FSEDA, NTF C f AP
Topics <ul><li>CfAP Vision and Modus Operandii </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers for creating a skills centre </li></ul><ul><li>He...
The C f AP Vision The key operating principle is that any student should be able to receive expert tuition and advice on a...
Continuing Myths about C f AP <ul><li>The Centre for Academic Practice:- </li></ul><ul><li>is a remedial centre </li></ul>...
C f AP Workshops E - learning Modules Peer  Mentoring Tutorials Open Learning
Open Learning C f AP <ul><li>Paper-based    learning packs </li></ul><ul><li>Over 250 titles </li></ul><ul><li>All skill l...
Workshops C f AP Examples Dissertation preparation Presentations Essay writing/reports Calculus  Statistics Conversions Tr...
Peer Mentoring  C f AP `````` <ul><li>Training of 2 nd  & 3 rd     years & PG students </li></ul><ul><li>Meet with academi...
C f AP <ul><li>Study skills </li></ul><ul><li>Maths for    Professional    Development </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Progs </...
C f AP E - learning <ul><li>NTF Project </li></ul><ul><li>Web site </li></ul><ul><li>Web workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Stude...
Tutorials C f AP <ul><li>Essays/Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Literature reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Critical analytical    writ...
<ul><li>Personalised </li></ul><ul><li>Non-judgemental </li></ul><ul><li>Tutors not involved in assessment process </li></...
Requested topics – 2008/9 C f AP was used by : 37%  BME students 27% International students 36%  Mature students 27%  stud...
Typical Outcomes <ul><li>Comparison of Grades after group tuition  </li></ul><ul><li>D+  C+ </li></ul><ul><li>F+  B+ </li>...
Student comments from CfAP logs C f AP Rocks
Drivers <ul><li>Widening Access to HE Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No ‘new’ money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insuffici...
Lecturers’ Viewpoints We can see what’s wrong but we don’t know what to do about it I know they haven’t got the skills the...
Strategies <ul><li>To develop institutional skills audits (with Director of Taught Programmes) </li></ul><ul><li>To identi...
Strategies – next phase <ul><li>To work ‘converted’ academic teams </li></ul><ul><li>To target year one students </li></ul...
<ul><li>Underpinning Values for Design  </li></ul>
…… .. “ all students should leave higher education having confidence in their proven ability to manage their own learning ...
Structured Learning How Develop Skills Intellectual skills Deep knowledge Perspectives Application Professionalism Key Ski...
Underpinning principles and values <ul><li>A belief that good teaching matters </li></ul><ul><li>An active interest in how...
Key Factors for Student Development Key Working Theories Autonomy Potential Experience Needs Education Development Honey &...
Approaches to Supporting Students <ul><li>Remedial </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Problem orient...
The Affective Domain in Teaching <ul><li>CfAP tutorials focus on the cognitive domain in that they support the student’s c...
Teachers are Designers <ul><li>Teachers design experiences that take account of  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both domains,  </li...
Learning <ul><li>Tell me and I will forget </li></ul><ul><li>Show me and I may remember </li></ul><ul><li>Involve me and I...
Overcoming Barriers to Learning <ul><ul><li>and how probabilities will turn into certainties if students take charge of th...
Hindering Factors <ul><li>Temporary funding (1991 – 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking funding each year </li></ul></ul><...
Students’ viewpoints <ul><li>Stigma attached to accessing help (including student services, counselling etc) </li></ul><ul...
Helpful Factors <ul><li>History of working with academic teams (including teaching) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic staff devel...
<ul><li>All support strategies should be developmental  (non- deficit)  in their design </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback and fee...
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UC&R East Midlands event slides 8th June 2010 'Teaching and learning - addressing the gaps' - Sandy Gilkes

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Slides from UC&R East Midlands section event 'Skills for Success! Study Skills in Higher Education' 8th June 2010 - 'Teaching and learning - addressing the gaps' - Sandy Gilkes

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UC&R East Midlands event slides 8th June 2010 'Teaching and learning - addressing the gaps' - Sandy Gilkes

  1. 1. Teaching and Learning- Addressing the Gaps Centre for Academic Practice 1991 - 2010 Sandy Gilkes , FUN, FSEDA, NTF C f AP
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>CfAP Vision and Modus Operandii </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers for creating a skills centre </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful and hindering factors </li></ul><ul><li>Initial strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul>
  3. 3. The C f AP Vision The key operating principle is that any student should be able to receive expert tuition and advice on any graduate/key skill at any level and at a time of their own choosing. To support academic teams in coping with the great diversity of students, by providing opportunities for individuals and groups to accelerate their development of an heuristic* range of skills that facilitates access to the HE curriculum * Key, core, cognitive, graduate and employability skills
  4. 4. Continuing Myths about C f AP <ul><li>The Centre for Academic Practice:- </li></ul><ul><li>is a remedial centre </li></ul><ul><li>helps weaker students </li></ul><ul><li>is for mature students </li></ul><ul><li>‘ checks’ work/proof reads </li></ul><ul><li>provides dyslexia support </li></ul>
  5. 5. C f AP Workshops E - learning Modules Peer Mentoring Tutorials Open Learning
  6. 6. Open Learning C f AP <ul><li>Paper-based learning packs </li></ul><ul><li>Over 250 titles </li></ul><ul><li>All skill levels </li></ul><ul><li>Rough guides </li></ul>
  7. 7. Workshops C f AP Examples Dissertation preparation Presentations Essay writing/reports Calculus Statistics Conversions Transitions to Level 6 Accelerated degrees Masters/PhD SPSS for dissertations and Masters/PhD <ul><li>Workshop ‘specials’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated by tutor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated by students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drop-in workshops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support for the maths elements in all courses </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Peer Mentoring C f AP `````` <ul><li>Training of 2 nd & 3 rd years & PG students </li></ul><ul><li>Meet with academic staff </li></ul><ul><li>Group & individual </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback loop </li></ul>Student Mentoring
  9. 9. C f AP <ul><li>Study skills </li></ul><ul><li>Maths for Professional Development </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Progs </li></ul>Modules
  10. 10. C f AP E - learning <ul><li>NTF Project </li></ul><ul><li>Web site </li></ul><ul><li>Web workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Student peer </li></ul><ul><li>e-support </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tutorials C f AP <ul><li>Essays/Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Literature reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Critical analytical writing </li></ul><ul><li>Dissertations </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Personalised </li></ul><ul><li>Non-judgemental </li></ul><ul><li>Tutors not involved in assessment process </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential </li></ul>
  13. 13. Requested topics – 2008/9 C f AP was used by : 37% BME students 27% International students 36% Mature students 27% students with disclosed disability In total 6,000+ students accessed CfAP via tutorials and workshops. Avenue Campus Park Campus
  14. 14. Typical Outcomes <ul><li>Comparison of Grades after group tuition </li></ul><ul><li>D+ C+ </li></ul><ul><li>F+ B+ </li></ul><ul><li>D+ C </li></ul><ul><li>D- C+ </li></ul><ul><li>D+ A- </li></ul><ul><li>F+ B </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of Grades after individual tuition </li></ul><ul><li>D+ B+ </li></ul><ul><li>F C- </li></ul><ul><li>F A- </li></ul>20 hours max 4.5 hours
  15. 15. Student comments from CfAP logs C f AP Rocks
  16. 16. Drivers <ul><li>Widening Access to HE Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No ‘new’ money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient ‘lead-in’ time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid increase in student numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in diversity if ‘skills profiles’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in personal tutorial time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Authentic’ access questionable </li></ul><ul><li>Social injustice </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lecturers’ Viewpoints We can see what’s wrong but we don’t know what to do about it I know they haven’t got the skills they need but I haven’t got time to deal with it – I have to deliver the content If they attend my lectures they will acquire the skills they need – students have always muddled through I wasn’t recruited to teach skills - I am a specialist It’s not my problem – it’s the students’ problems. It’s the fault of the admissions process
  18. 18. Strategies <ul><li>To develop institutional skills audits (with Director of Taught Programmes) </li></ul><ul><li>To identify essential skills for student development </li></ul><ul><li>To submit proposal for a Learning Development Centre to the Faculty Executive (including Pro-Vice Chancellor) </li></ul><ul><li>........ Good ideas cost money! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful external bid for one year’s funding for pilot project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruited Project Officer to research developments elsewhere </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Strategies – next phase <ul><li>To work ‘converted’ academic teams </li></ul><ul><li>To target year one students </li></ul><ul><li>To research and provide open learning resources </li></ul><ul><li>To develop and deliver generic workshops </li></ul><ul><li>To build up a small team of academics to provide generic support in mathematics and writing </li></ul><ul><li>To develop a conducive learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>To devise monitoring and evaluation processes </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Underpinning Values for Design </li></ul>
  21. 21. …… .. “ all students should leave higher education having confidence in their proven ability to manage their own learning and development in life and work, and to take appropriate and effective action in association with others in a world of change” HEC submission to the Dearing Review (1997)
  22. 22. Structured Learning How Develop Skills Intellectual skills Deep knowledge Perspectives Application Professionalism Key Skills Confidence Lectures Seminars Tutorials Group work Research Presentations Work placement <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numeracy </li></ul></ul>Assessments
  23. 23. Underpinning principles and values <ul><li>A belief that good teaching matters </li></ul><ul><li>An active interest in how students learn </li></ul><ul><li>A recognition that students’ learning needs, learning styles and prior knowledge vary </li></ul><ul><li>The wish to develop the students’ capability to take responsibility for their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>A recognition that student experience is best shaped by fruitful collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>A commitment to fair treatment </li></ul><ul><li>A readiness to reflect on intentions,actions and the consequences of actions and words. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Key Factors for Student Development Key Working Theories Autonomy Potential Experience Needs Education Development Honey & Mumford Stephenson Stephenson Kolb Maslow Pestalozzi Bloom Diversity
  25. 25. Approaches to Supporting Students <ul><li>Remedial </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Problem oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Authority giving advice </li></ul><ul><li>Advisor prime responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Student seen as lazy/at fault </li></ul><ul><li>Student requires close supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Advisor takes initiative status based relationship </li></ul>Crookston(1972) <ul><li>Developmental </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on potential </li></ul><ul><li>Growth oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Shared problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Shared responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Student seen as learning oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of self direction </li></ul><ul><li>Shared initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual trust and respect </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Affective Domain in Teaching <ul><li>CfAP tutorials focus on the cognitive domain in that they support the student’s cognitive development in order to meet his/her stated needs. Approaches may be through the affective domain </li></ul><ul><li>CfAP facilitators’ approach through the affective domain allows tutors to focus on the cognitive domain – a pragmatic approach for dealing with high demand </li></ul><ul><li>The integration of both domains is developmental and it is a joint responsibility between academic, support staff and students </li></ul>
  27. 27. Teachers are Designers <ul><li>Teachers design experiences that take account of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both domains, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the impact of students’ prior experiences, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their expectations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the levels of cognitive abilities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intended outcomes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the timing of the intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the integration with the big picture </li></ul></ul>TELLING LEARNING Understanding Reinforcing Consolidating Designing experiences Mutual Responsibility
  28. 28. Learning <ul><li>Tell me and I will forget </li></ul><ul><li>Show me and I may remember </li></ul><ul><li>Involve me and I will understand </li></ul>Confucius 450 B.C.
  29. 29. Overcoming Barriers to Learning <ul><ul><li>and how probabilities will turn into certainties if students take charge of their own learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>designing opportunities for success in the short term </li></ul>Boosting levels of confidence by:- <ul><li>developing learning strategies for the longer term </li></ul><ul><li>providing personalised learning support </li></ul><ul><li>empowerment through developing key and cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrating how possibilities can be turned into probabilities </li></ul>
  30. 30. Hindering Factors <ul><li>Temporary funding (1991 – 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking funding each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed term contracts for staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrowing staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High turnover year on year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staff perceptions – e.g Early Learning Centre! </li></ul><ul><li>Student perceptions – e.g Remedial Centre </li></ul>
  31. 31. Students’ viewpoints <ul><li>Stigma attached to accessing help (including student services, counselling etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow perception of their needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. I’ve got my A levels – I don’t need “it” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve come to do engineering/art/etc not an English course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only my lecturers know how to teach me to write reports/essays </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Helpful Factors <ul><li>History of working with academic teams (including teaching) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic staff developer </li></ul><ul><li>Personal autonomy/external funding </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation from the Dean and Heads of Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of constraints regarding target numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Core group of enthusiastic students who collaborated in evaluations and improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Commendations from early QAAs </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming part of the establishment (2000) </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>All support strategies should be developmental (non- deficit) in their design </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback and feed forward should obey these principles </li></ul><ul><li>Remedial approaches (deficit) serve only to reinforce low self esteem (stigma attached) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Remediation’ perpetuates dependence on authority figures </li></ul><ul><li>[Universities] ..often find it difficult to get students to take up services that would help them to “ stay the course” and succeed………. because students and academic staff may regard the services being there to fill a “deficit” in a student’s ability…. </li></ul>National Audit Office Report (July 2007)

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