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Ergonomics,Anthropometry, Thermal Comfort, Visual Comfor& Acoustical Comfort


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Thermal Comfort
Visual Comfort
Acoustical Comfort

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Ergonomics,Anthropometry, Thermal Comfort, Visual Comfor& Acoustical Comfort

  2. 2. ERGONOMICS - A science that deals with designing and arranging things so that people can use easily and safely.
  3. 3. - Pertains to the laws or theories of energy expenditure. - It involves the study of the efficiency of persons in their working environment, which is most conducive to the efficient performance of teaching-learning tasks.
  4. 4. - The educational facilities involves such factors as anthropometry, thermal comfort, visual comfort, acoustical comfort, color, and safety.
  6. 6. -A science of measuring the human body, its parts and functional capabilities. ANTHROPOMETRY
  7. 7. -An important principle in the ergonomics of the educational facilities is that it shall be designed and scaled to fit the sizes of their users on the basis of their part-body measurements.
  8. 8. TYPESOFPART-BODYMEASUREMENTS 1. Static Measurements 2. Dynamic Measurements
  9. 9. 1. Static Measurements These are measurements based purely on the dimensions of body parts, namely: (1) Lower leg (from heel to the popliteus) (2) Upper leg (from popliteus to back of buttock) (3) Hip-width
  10. 10. (4) Shoulder-width (5) Height of elbow (standing and seated) (6) Thickness of thigh (seated) (7) Eye-height (seated and standing)
  11. 11. 2. Dynamic Measurements These are measurements based on what can be performed, namely: (1) Forward reach of the arms (2) Upper reach of the arms (3) Lower reach of the arms (4) Height of hand
  12. 12. Methods in Taking Part-Body Measurements a. Measuring actually each of the whole range of part-body dimensions. b. Measuring only the standing height and then deducing the part-body measurements from it by using a system of proportion which relates part-body measurements to standing height.
  13. 13. Procedure in Taking Part-Body Measurements a. Select a sample of children b. For method 1 (Static Measurements), use a sample for each part-body measurement. For method 2 (Dynamic Measurements), use a sample or standing height from which the part- body measurements are to be deduced.
  14. 14. c. Determine the number of children to be measured by category, each category being usually an age-group. d. Take the part-body measurements or compute according to the method used. e. Classify and tabulate the data then the average by age-group and/or sex-group.
  16. 16. THERMAL COMFORT - To be thermally comfortable, the internal climate in the school shall be cool, pleasant, and satisfying. - Thermal comfort in the school is obtained either by artificial means (electric fan, air conditioner, etc.) or by natural ventilation.
  17. 17. Thermal comfort by natural ventilation maybe obtained in the following ways: 1. Proper orientation of school buildings to minimize solar heat loads, that is, building ends shall face approximately the east-west direction and its long sides along the north-south direction to avoid direct sunlight.
  18. 18. 2. Designing school buildings with wide overhanging eaves to provide shade and promote air motion inside the buildings. 3. Keeping buildings as narrow as possible so that breezes can blow through the rooms easily from one side of the building to the other. 4. Providing adequate fenestration to allow the maximum amount of wind to blow through the building.
  19. 19. 5. Planting trees with a large foliage mass along the sides of the building to promote air motion inside the building. Distance of the trees from the building shall be specified, not too close to affect air circulation, nor later on to destroy the building foundation by their roots.
  20. 20. VISUALCOMFORT 1. Quantity of Light 2. How to Achieve Visual Comfort in School by Natural Daylight
  21. 21. Visual comfort in school is indicated when pupils/students and teachers can carry on classroom work without unnecessarily straining their eyes or experiencing visual discomfort. Good lighting, whether by natural daylight or artificial light, is characterized by the quantity and quality of illumination.
  22. 22. 1. Quantity of Light a. For a standard classroom in general, a minimum illumination level of 10 foot candles is considered normally sufficient. Research has shown no significant increase in visual acuity with the increase of foot candles above the 10-footcandle standard. b. For most tasks common to schoolrooms, intensities of from 20 to 40 foot candles are considered practical and satisfactory.
  23. 23. c. For finer classroom tasks which need brighter light, the following illumination levels on the surface of the tasks are recommended: Reading printed materials 30 foot candles Reading pencil writing 70 foot candles Reading good duplicated materials 30 foot candles Reading poor duplicated materials 100 foot candles Lip reading, sewing 150 foot candles
  24. 24. d. In terms of watt, four (4) 40-watt/six (6) 40-watt, or eight (8) 40-watt fluorescent lamps are sufficient standard requirement to achieve visual acuity. Generally, however, the quantity of light in a classroom depends on the following conditions: (1) natural illumination (design and size of windows)
  25. 25. (3) types of building (one storey or two-storey) (4) climatic conditions (5) ceiling height (2) condition of the classroom (as to the paint and size)
  26. 26. 2. How to Achieve Visual Comfort in School by Natural Daylight: a. Following proper orientation of school buildings to provide adequate indirect daylight for the classrooms; b. Using bilateral fenestration (or providing windows on both sides of each classroom) to secure daylight from both left and right sides of the classroom;
  27. 27. c. Making classroom windows wide, low-silled, and high-topped to insure maximum daylight illumination; d. Using proper combination and intensity of colors in classrooms and on facilities to provide proper brightness- contrast; e. Providing proper shading to avoid glare inside the classrooms; and
  28. 28. f. Size of classroom (as to distance of blackboard up to the low row seat). Natural day lighting shall be preferred as recommended by the Philippine Green Building Council (PhilGBC). Artificial day lighting is only a back-up for cloudy or overcast sky conditions. Visual comfort by natural daylight may be achieved by specifying minimum and maximum height ratio to floor area depth.
  29. 29. ACOUSTICALCOMFORT 1. Sources of Sounds 2. Ways of Achieving Acoustic Comfort 3. Desirable Aural Environment
  30. 30. A good environment for acoustical comfort in school requires that noise be controlled to proper levels so that every child in a class can hear clearly what is being spoken by the teacher above all other sounds inside and outside a classroom. ACOUSTICAL COMFORT
  31. 31. 1. Sources of Sounds The sounds that a pupil hears simultaneously inside a classroom usually come from four (4) sources: a. The voice of his own teacher; b. Background sounds in his own classroom, such as chairs scrapping, sounds of movement from nearby children, etc.;
  32. 32. c. Intrusive sounds from adjoining classrooms, such as voices of other teachers and pupils/students, sounds of activities of children, etc.; and d. External sounds from outside the building, such as vehicles, airplanes, birds chirping, dogs barking, etc.
  33. 33. 2. Ways of Achieving Acoustic Comfort Acoustic comfort in school may be achieved by: a. Locating the school in a quiet neighborhood; b. Locating the school building at a reasonable distance from the street;
  34. 34. c. Proper zoning of the school site to separate noisy areas from those where silence is required; and d. Grouping buildings according to function so that academic buildings, where silence is required, are located at a reasonable distance from shop, home economics, and other buildings where noisy activities take place normally.
  35. 35. 3. Desirable Aural Environment Inside the classroom, the desirable aural environment maybe provided as follows: a. Arranging the seats in such a way that no pupil is more than seven meters away from the teacher standing in front of the room; and b. Where classrooms both face a common partition/back to back on either side, partition shall be up to the ceiling, if possible, double walled to avoid the noise from disturbing any of the classrooms.