Eastern hemisphere every 15 +1Western hemisphere every 15 -1
The Elements of Geography
THE ELEMENTS OFGEOGRAPHYLOCATION A fundamental aspect of geography that directlyaffects tourism is the need for measuring and indicatingexact locations on the earth.
LINES OF LATITUDE Lines that are drawn around the globe parallel to the Equator.
LINES OF LONGITUDE Lines that are drawn around the globe through the poles.
PRIME MERIDIANSMeridians measure longitude. One meridian was chosen as thebase point of reference, or the prime meridian. The prime meridianwas established as the longitude of the Royal Observatory atGreenwich near London by the British.Longitude is a measure of a point eastward or westward withrespect to the prime meridian of Greenwich. Since the earth iscircular, it has 360 of longitude
LOCATIONAny location may be stated in degrees, minutes and secondseast or west longitude and north and south latitudeThe world can be divided into hemispheresThe northern – southern hemisphere divides the world at theequator
TIMEThe meridian marking the change of date at 180 degrees iscalled the international date lineThe surface of the earth is divided into twenty- four timezonesThe time of the initial or zero, zone begins at the primemeridian at Greenwich
GREENWICHMEAN TIMEGreenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a termoriginally referring to mean solar timeat the Royal Observatory inGreenwich, London. It is now oftenused to refer to Coordinated UniversalTime (UTC) when this is viewed as atime zone
DAY LIGHT SAVINGTIMEDaylight saving time - is the convention of advancing clocksso that afternoons have more daylight and mornings haveless. Typically clocks are adjusted forward one hour near thestart of spring and are adjusted backward in autumn.Adding daylight to afternoons benefits retailing, sports, andother activities that exploit sunlight after working hours, butcauses problems for farming, entertainment and otheroccupations tied to the sun
DST IN THEPHILIPPINESDST was primarily intended to help deal with the countrysenergy crisis by minimizing the number of hours duringwhich electric lighting was needed, reducing the strain on thenational power grid.
Daylight Saving Time Around the World DST observed DST formerly observed DST never observed
Most areas of North America and Europe observe daylightsaving time (DST), while most areas of Africa, Asia (exceptRussia), and Antarctica do not. South America is mixed, withmost countries in the warmer north of the continent near theequator not observing DST, while some southern countriesand southern parts of Brazil do. Oceania is also mixed, withNew Zealand and parts of southern Australia observing DSTwhile most other areas do not.
EXERCISES: Country /City Standard Time When GMT is Local Time1. Ireland (Dublin ) dst GMT 0 02452. South Africa GMT +2 1740(Johannesburg )3. Afghanistan (Kabul) GMT +0430 11304. Thailand ( Bangkok) GMT + 7 09525. Australia (Sydney) GMT +10 1216dst6. Chile (Santiago) dst GMT -4 03287. Costa Rica (San GMT -6 1946Jose)8. USA (Los Angeles) GMT – 8 0530dst9. French Polynesia GMT -0930 1550(Marquesas Islands )10. USA (Hawaii – GMT – 10 2008