Concept of Culture


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Concept of Culture

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  2. 2. The students should be able toexplain the meaning , forms andcharacteristics of culture andcultural interaction, as well as tounderstand the importance oflearning cross culture awarenessin the hospitality and tourismindustry. 3
  3. 3. Concept and definitions of culturePurpose and benefits of learning cross-culturalCharacteristics of cultureSub cultureCultural differencesDimensions of cultureInter-cultural interaction model 4
  4. 4. When the US firm Gerber started selling baby food in Africa they used the same packaging as in the US, i.e. with a picture of a baby on the label. Sales flopped and they soon realized that in Africa companies typically place pictures of contents on their labels.Pepsodent tried to sell its toothpaste in South East Asia by emphasizing that it "whitens your teeth." They found out that the local natives chew betel nuts to blacken their teeth which they find attractive.The film "Hollywood Buddha" showed a complete lack of cultural sensitivity by causing outrage and protest on the streets of Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Burma when the designer of the films poster decided to show the lead actor sitting on the Buddhas head, an act of clear degradation against something holy. 5
  5. 5. The concept of Big Brother was somehow taken to the Middle East. The show was pulled of the air after its first few episodes due to public protests and pressure from religious bodies stating the shows mixed sex format was against Islamic principles.A golf ball manufacturing company packaged golf balls in packs of four for convenient purchase in Japan. Unfortunately, the number 4 is equivalent to the number 13 due it sounding like the word "death". The company had to repackage the product. 6
  6. 6. Culture comes in many shapes andsizes. It includes areas such as politics,history, faith, mentality, behavior andlifestyle. The examples abovedemonstrate how a lack of culturalsensitivity led to failure. 7
  7. 7.  The are many definitions of the word “Culture” Derives from the Latin “Colere” – Cultivate, to settle, e.g. agriculture, horticulture Culture is developed within the individual as well as the outside environment It is continually changing and dynamic Culture is reflected in communication patterns Culture is way of acting, a way of behaving Culture is a collective phenomenon People who grow up in similar environment tend to share common attitudes and behave in similar ways Culture is not inherited, it is learned 8
  8. 8. CULTUREThe web of ways of living, behaviors,beliefs, values, customs, aestheticstandards, social institutions and stylesof communication which a group ofpeople have developed to maintain itssurvival in a particular physical andhuman environment. Its pervasivebinding force belongs to a group ofpeople who identify themselves as “Us”.Culture is a non-evaluative term,neither good nor bad 9
  9. 9. Culture is a complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Edward Taylor, 1958)Culture is a complex whole that consists of all the ways wethink and do and everything we have as members of society (Robert Bierstadt, 1974) 10
  10. 10. Culture is what all human beings learn to do, to use, to produce, to know, and to believe as they growto maturity and live out their lives in the social groups to which they belong Culture is the knowledge, language, values, customs material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society 11
  11. 11. CULTURE (according to Geert Hofstede)The collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one category of people from another 12
  12. 12. Culture is not only the way we do things. It is also our attitudes, thoughts, expectations, goals and values. It is the rules of our society – the norms that tell us what is and what is not acceptable in the societyCulture can also be viewed from an anthropological perspective, that is, in its most traditional interpretation, such as Aboriginal Culture 13
  13. 13. Material Culture – formed by the physical objects that people create Cars, clothing, books, buildings, computers Archeologists refer to these items as artifactsNon-material Culture – abstract human creations (can’t touch it)Language, family patterns, work practices, political and economic systems 14
  14. 14. Better service to international guestsImproved relations in the workplaceIncreased return in businessImproved the industry and the organization reputationsBetter service to local community 15
  15. 15. Specific to Inherited & Individual PERSONALITY LearnedSpecific to Learned Group or CULTURE CategoryUniversal Inherited HUMAN NATURE 16
  16. 16. VisibleComponents Dress Habits Tradition Appearance Behaviors LanguageHiddenComponents Assumptions Time Orientation Personality Styles Values Expectations Rules/Roles Thought processes Space Orientation 17
  17. 17. Functional: each culture has a function to perform; its purpose is to provide guidelines for behavior of a group of peopleSocial Phenomenon: human beings create culture; culture results from human interaction and is unique to human societyPrescriptive: culture prescribes (sets down or imposes) rules of social behaviorLearned: culture is not inherited; it is learned from other members of the society 18
  18. 18. Arbitrary: cultural practices and behaviors are subject to judgment. Certain behaviors are acceptable in one culture and not acceptable in other cultureValue Laden: culture provides values and tells people what is right and wrongFacilitates Communication: culture facilitates verbal and nonverbal communicationAdaptive/ Dynamic: culture is constantly changing to adjust to new situation and environment; it changes as society changes and develops 19
  19. 19. Long Term: culture is developed thousands of years ago and it was accumulated by human beings in the course of time and is the sum of acquired experience and knowledgeSatisfy Needs: culture helps to satisfy the needs of the members of a society by offering direction and guidance (Source: Reisinger, 2003, p.14) 20
  20. 20. Dominant culture consists of several subculturesSubcultures can be based on race, ethnicity, geographic region or economic or social class Race: a genetic or biological similarity among people (Asians, Caucasians, etc.) Ethnicity: a wide variety of groups of people who share a language, history and religion and identify themselves with a common nation or cultural system Geographical region: geographic differences within countries or similarities between countries Economic and social class: differences in the socio-economic standing of people 21
  21. 21. Each subculture community exhibits characteristic patterns of behavior that distinguish it from others within a parent cultureEach subculture provides its members with a different set of values and expectations as a result of regional differences 22
  22. 22. Sub cultures indicate the form of private social interaction SUB CULTURE SUB CULTURE DOMINANT CULTURE Dominant culture directs the form of public social interaction 23
  23. 23. Cultural Differences Cultural Differences in Communication Cultural DifferencesCultural Differences in in Rules of Social Social Categories Behavior Cultural Differences in Service 24
  24. 24. Different patterns of verbal communication Language Phonology (differences in sound) Semantic (differences in meaning of words) Syntactics (differences in the sequence of the words and their relationships to one another) Pragmatics (differences in effects of language on perceptions) Paralanguage Intonation, laughing, crying, questioning 25
  25. 25. Different patterns of non-verbal communication Body movement (kinetics) Space and Touch: Use of personal space (intimate, personal, social, public) Sense of Time Other non-verbal codes: clothing, building, furnishing, jewelry, cosmetics, skin and hair color, body shape 26
  26. 26. Role, Status, Class, Hierarchy, Attitudes towards human nature, Activity, Relationships between individuals. 27
  27. 27. Describing reasons and opinionsExpressing dissatisfaction and criticismJoking, asking personal questions, complimenting and complaining, expressing dislike, showing warmth, addressing people, apologizing, expressing negative opinions and gift giving 28
  28. 28. Cultural differences on the interaction process between a service provider and a visitor Example: Chinese Hosts & American Tourists Chinese escorting their guests everywhere, providing them with a tight itinerary and not leaving an opportunity to experience the Chinese life style privately. The Chinese hosts believe they have provided their guests with courtesy. American tourists may view such hospitality as an intrusion and lack of trust. 29
  29. 29. There are many dimensions of which cultures differSome of the dimensions (scope) are: According to Hall, cultures can be differentiated on the basis of orientation towards: Human nature: agreements Activity orientation Human relationships: amount of space, possessions, friendship, communication Relation to time: past/ future Space orientation: public/ private 30
  30. 30. Hofstede (1980, 1984, 1991) Power distance (PD): interpersonal relationship develop in hierarchical society Uncertainty Avoidance (UA): the degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations Individualism-Collectivism (IC): the degree to which individual goals and needs take primary over group goals and needs Masculinity-Femininity (MF): the degree to which people value work and achievement VS quality of life and harmonious human relations 31
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  32. 32. Differing shapes of the individual represent the influence of different cultures on an individualWhen an individual from Culture A leaves its culture and reaches Culture B, his or her behavior changes because of the influence of a culturally different society. 33
  33. 33. 1. In your own words, briefly define the term CULTURE2. Write 3 hidden and 3 visible components of culture3. List 3 important benefits of a multicultural work force?4. What is subculture?5. Explain cultural differences in communication and service and give examples 34